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Journal Article

Tensile Deformation and Fracture of TRIP590 Steel from Digital Image Correlation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0444
Quasi-static tensile properties of TRIP590 steels from three different manufacturers were investigated using digital image correlation (DIC). The focus was on the post-uniform elongation behavior which can be very different for steels of the same grade owing to different manufacturing processes. Miniature tensile specimens, cut at 0°, 45°, and 90° relative to the rolling direction, were strained to failure in an instrumented tensile stage. True stress-true strain curves were computed from digital strain gages superimposed on digital images captured from one gage section surface during tensile deformation. Microstructural phases in undeformed and fracture specimens were identified with optical microscopy using the color tint etching process. Fracture surface analyses conducted with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to investigate microvoids and inclusions in all materials.
Technical Paper

Self-Tuning PID Design for Slip Control of Wedge Clutches

2017-03-28
2017-01-1112
The wedge clutch takes advantages of small actuation force/torque, space-saving and energy-saving. However, big challenge arises from the varying self-reinforced ratio due to the varying friction coefficient inevitably affected by temperature and wear. In order to improve the smoothness and synchronization time of the slipping process of the wedge clutch, this paper proposes a self-tuning PID controller based on Lyapunov principle. A new Lyapunov function is developed for the wedge clutch system. Simulation results show that the self-tuning PID obtains much less error than the conventional PID with fixed gains. Moreover, the self-tuning PID is more adaptable to the variation of the friction coefficient for the error is about 1/5 of the conventional PID.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Tests of Un-Notched and Notched Specimens and Life Prediction Using a Variable Critical Distance Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-0801
Fatigue is one of the most common failure mechanism in engineering structures. The statistical nature of fatigue life and the stress gradient are the two challenges among many while designing any component or structure for fatigue. Fatigue lives of the identical components exhibit the considerable variation under the same loading and operating conditions due to the difference in the material micro-structures and other uncontrolled parameters. Stress concentration at the notch causes stress gradient and therefore, applying the plane specimen results for actual engineering components with notches does not give quantitatively reliable results if the stress gradient effects are not considered. The objective of the work presented here was to carry out the fatigue tests of un-notched, U and V-notch specimens which were die cast using aluminum alloy (A380) and to obtain fatigue life using a variable critical distance method which considers the stress gradient due to the notch geometry.
Journal Article

Effect of Regenerative Braking on Foundation Brake Performance

2010-10-10
2010-01-1681
Regenerative braking is one of the key enablers of improved energy efficiency and extension of driving range in parallel and series hybrid, and electric-only vehicles. It is still used in conjunction with friction brakes, due to the enormous amount of energy dissipated in maximum effort stops (and the lack of a competitive alternate technology to accommodate this power level), and to provide braking when on-board energy storage/dissipation devices cannot store enough energy to support braking. Although vehicles equipped with regenerative braking are becoming more and more commonly available, there is little published research on what the dramatic reduction in friction brake usage means to the function of the friction brakes themselves. This paper discusses -with supporting data from analysis and physical tests - some of the considerations for friction brakes related to usage on vehicles with regenerative braking, including corrosion, off-brake wear, and friction levels.
Technical Paper

Critical Plane Analysis of Rubber Bushing Durability under Road Loads

2016-04-05
2016-01-0393
We demonstrate here an accounting of damage accrual under road loads for a filled natural rubber bushing. The accounting is useful to developers who wish to avoid the typical risks in development programs: either the risk of premature failure, or of costly overdesign. The accounting begins with characterization of the elastomer to quantify governing behaviors: stress-strain response, fatigue crack growth rate, crack precursor size, and strain crystallization. Finite Element Analysis is used to construct a nonlinear mapping between loads and strain components within each element. Multiaxial, variable amplitude strain histories are computed from road loads. Damage accrues in this reckoning via the growth of cracks. Crack growth is calculated via integration of a rate law from an initial size to a size marking end-of-life.
Technical Paper

Application of Modal Transient Dynamics to Calculate Body Fatigue Life

2001-10-16
2001-01-3087
The methodology of predicting analytical fatigue life of automotive body structures using two commercially available computer codes, NASTRAN and NCODE is described. Modal transient durability simulations are improved with use of residual vectors incorporating inertia relief basis functions. Simulations consisting of hundreds of thousand finite elements and hours of road loads are routine.
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