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Technical Paper

Unifying Value Methodology and Robust Design to Achieve Design for Six Sigma

2006-04-03
2006-01-0998
The concept of product or system function is considered as described in the Taguchi System of Quality Engineering. The importance of transfer functions is also discussed and a review of conventional value analysis techniques is given. This paper proposes a combination of the principles of robust design and value methodology to enable on-target functionality and direct cost allocation early in the product development process. The discussion on integration of value analysis principles in robust design methodology is provided considering the six sigma environment.
Technical Paper

U.S. Automotive Corrosion Trends Over the Past Decade

1995-02-01
950375
Since 1985, the Body Division of the Automotive Corrosion and Prevention Committee of SAE (ACAP) has conducted biannual surveys of automotive body corrosion in the Detroit area. The purpose of these surveys is to track industry wide corrosion protection improvements and to make this information available for public consumption. The survey consists of a closed car parking lot survey checking for perforations, blisters, and surface rust. This paper reports the results of the five surveys conducted to date.
Technical Paper

Time Determinism and Semantics Preservation in the Implementation of Distributed Functions over FlexRay

2010-04-12
2010-01-0452
Future automobiles are required to support an increasing number of complex, distributed functions such as active safety and X-by-wire. Because of safety concerns and the need to deliver correct designs in a short time, system properties should be verified in advance on function models, by simulation or model checking. To ensure that the properties still hold for the final deployed system, the implementation of the models into tasks and communication messages should preserve properties of the model, or in general, its semantics. FlexRay offers the possibility of deterministic communication and can be used to define distributed implementations that are provably equivalent to synchronous reactive models like those created from Simulink. However, the low level communication layers and the FlexRay schedule must be carefully designed to ensure the preservation of communication flows and functional outputs.
Technical Paper

The Use of in Vehicle STL Testing to Correlate Subsystem Level SEA Models

2003-05-05
2003-01-1564
For the assessment of vehicle acoustics in the early design stages of a vehicle program, the use of full vehicle SEA models is becoming the standard analysis method in the US automotive industry. One benefit is that OEM's and Tier 1 suppliers are able to cascade lower level acoustic performance targets for NVH systems and components. Detailed SEA system level models can be used to assess the performance of systems such as dash panels, floors and doors, however, the results will be questionable until test data Is available. Correlation can be accomplished with buck testing, which is a common practice in the automotive industry for assessing the STL (sound transmission loss) of vehicle level components. The opportunity to conduct buck testing can be limited by the availability of representative bodies to be cut into bucks and the availability of a transmission loss suite with a suitably large opening.
Technical Paper

The SAE Oil Labeling Assessment Program-Three-Year Cumulative Report

1990-10-01
902090
A brief overview of the history and scope of the SAE Oil Labeling Assessment Program is presented. Then, the results of analyses on 893 samples of engine oil purchased in the retail market over the first three years of the program, are discussed. All samples were labeled with the API SF or SG Service Category, separately, or in combination with an API “C” category designation. Additionally, 43 engine oil samples found to be questionably labeled, were repurchased and analyzed; these results are included.
Technical Paper

The SAE Oil Labeling Assessment Program - 1990 Sample Set

1991-10-01
912434
The results of analyses on 300 samples of engine oil purchased in the retail market in 1990 are discussed. All samples were labeled with the API SF or SG Service Category, separately, or in combination with an API C category designation. Also, 17 oils previously found to be questionably labeled, from the 1989 set, were repurchased and analyzed. These results are included.
Technical Paper

The Psychological and Accident Reconstruction “Thresholds” of Drivers' Detection of Relative Velocity

2014-04-01
2014-01-0437
Relative velocity detection thresholds of drivers are one factor that determines their ability to avoid rear-end crashes. Laboratory, simulator and driving studies show that drivers could scale relative velocity when it exceeded the threshold of about 0.003 rad/sec. Studies using accident reconstruction have suggested that the threshold may be about ten times larger. This paper discusses this divergence and suggests reasons for it and concludes that the lower value should be used as a true measure of the psychological threshold for detection of relative velocity.
Technical Paper

The New SAE Transactions

1966-02-01
660124
A new form of SAE Transactions has been developed which allows for considerable flexibility in format, content, and distribution. A key volume includes abstracts of all SAE papers and a comprehensive depth index. Optional additions include printed and bound sets of all Transactions papers in full, subscriptions for all SAE papers, subscriptions for all SAE Transactions papers, and microfiche versions of each of these. No longer limited by physical size, all worthy papers can now be included in Transactions together with discussion, thereby enlarging the scope of Transactions approximately seven times.
Technical Paper

The Modified Martempering and its Effect on the Impact Toughness of a Cold Work Tool Steel

2011-10-04
2011-36-0325
The so-called Modified Martempering discussed in this work differs from the standard martempering by that the temperature of the quenching bath is below the Ms point. In spite of the fact the lower temperature increases the severity of quenching, this also usually avoids the bainite formation, and by this reason, it is possible to make a fair comparison between different processes, which result in different microstructures. The present study shows the results in terms of mechanical properties, impact resistance in special of a cold work tool steel class, after being heat treated by the isothermal modified martempering process, as well as a comparison with the conventional quenching and tempering process and the austempering as well.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Residual Stresses on the Susceptibility to Hydrogen Embrittlement in Hardened Steel Components Subjected to Rolling Contact Conditions

2002-03-19
2002-01-1412
A review of many years of published work has shown that hydrogen embrittlement can occur under rolling contact conditions. Breakdown of lubrication and contamination with water have been cited as the probable sources of atomic hydrogen. In this paper, a unique fracture morphology is identified and the mechanism of the fracture progression from initiation to final catastrophic failure is proposed. Development of beneficial residual compressive stress near the contacting surfaces is one approach used to avoid this type of failure. Several alternative methods capable of developing a more desirable stress distribution will be discussed.
Technical Paper

The HCCI Concept and Control, Performed with MultiAir Technology on Gasoline Engines

2011-09-11
2011-24-0026
The introduction of MultiAir technology [8] has had a strong impact on engine performance, fuel consumption, emissions and control. This technology, intended at first for gasoline engines and applied only on intake valves, is aiming at the reduction of engine breathing losses and, as a consequence, reduction of pollutant emissions and fuel consumption, together with an improvement of maximum intake efficiency. Further positive effects of MultiAir technology have been a significant improvement of Low End Torque, engine driveability (“fun-to-drive” index) and other operating conditions (e.g. idle control). Current development of MultiAir technology is focusing on a better management of hot EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), still acting only on the intake side, although with specifically designed valve lift profiles. This application of MultiAir technology is pushing gasoline engines towards new levels of performance improvements.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of Microelectronics in Automotive Modules

2011-10-04
2011-36-0371
It has the aim to discuss the evolution of electronics components, integrated circuits, new transistors concepts and associate its importance in the automotive modules. Today, the challenge is to have devices which consume less power, suitable for high-energy radiation environment, less parasitic capacitances, high speed, easier device isolation, high gain, easier scale-down of threshold voltage, no latch-up and higher integration density. The improvement of those characteristics mentioned and others in the electronic devices enable the automotive industry to have a more robust product and give the possibility to integrate new features in comfort, safety, infotainment and telematics modules. Finally, the intention is to discuss advanced structures, such as the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and show how it affects the electronics modules applied for the automotive area.
Technical Paper

The Benefits and Costs of Diesel Particulate Control III-The Urban Bus

1985-02-01
850148
This study applies the methodology developed for two earlier evaluations of diesel particulate controls to urban buses. Since these vehicles are used almost exclusively in urban areas where population is most dense, the analysis indicates the net benefits of control are very high.
Technical Paper

Sound Analysis Method for Warble Noise in Electric Actuators

2019-06-05
2019-01-1521
Multiple automotive applications exist for small electric motors that are activated by vehicle occupants for various functions such as window lifts and seat adjusters. For such a motor to be described as high quality, not only should the sound it produces be low in amplitude, but it also needs to be free from pulsations and variations that might occur during its (otherwise) steady-state operation. If a motor’s sound contains pulsations or variations between 2 and 8 cycles per second, the variation is described as warble. To establish performance targets for warble noise at both the vehicle and component level a way to measure and quantify the warble noise must be established. Building on existing sound quality metrics such as loudness and pitch variation, a method is established by which processed sound data is put through a secondary operation of Fourier analysis.
Technical Paper

Simulation studies concerning a Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus

2009-10-06
2009-36-0402
A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (IBZ-Simulator) has been developed at the Fuel Cell Institute of the University of Applied Sciences Esslingen to study the fuel economy potential of a Fuel Cell hybrid urban bus. In this paper, the fundamental architecture of the FC urban buses was described, as well as the control strategy to manage the power flow between the different elements of the drive train. A comparison of the hybrid with the conventional type and ICE-hybrid type is performed, and important factors relating to the vehicle efficiency (accessory loads, vehicle mass, Fuel Cell system ramping rate and battery capacity) were assessed. The using of supercapacitor (or ultracapacitors) as peak power buffer has been investigated.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Sternum Morphomics and Injury Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-1217
Crash safety researchers have an increased concern regarding the decreased thoracic deflection and the contributing injury causation factors among the elderly population. Sternum fractures are categorized as moderate severity injuries, but can have long term effects depending on the fragility and frailty of the occupant. Current research has provided detail on rib morphology, but very little information on sternum morphology, sternum fracture locations, and mechanisms of injury. The objective of this study is two-fold (1) quantify sternum morphology and (2) document sternum fracture locations using computed tomography (CT) scans and crash data. Thoracic CT scans from the University of Michigan Hospital database were used to measure thoracic depth, manubriosternal joint, sternum thickness and bone density. The sternum fracture locations and descriptions were extracted from 63 International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) crash cases, of which 22 cases had corresponding CT scans.
Technical Paper

Perforation Corrosion Performance of Autobody Steel Sheet in On-Vehicle and Accelerated Tests

2003-03-03
2003-01-1238
The Auto/Steel Partnership Corrosion Project Team has completed a perforation corrosion test program consisting of on-vehicle field exposures and various accelerated tests. Steel sheet products with eight combinations of metallic and organic coatings were tested, utilizing a simple crevice coupon design. On-vehicle exposures were conducted in St. John's and Detroit for up to seven years to establish a real-world performance standard. Identical test specimens were exposed to the various accelerated tests, and the results were compared to the real-world standard. This report documents the results of these tests, and compares the accelerated test results (including SAE J2334, GM9540P, Ford APGE, CCT-I, ASTM B117, South Florida Modified Volvo, and Kure Beach (25-meter) exposures) to the on-vehicle tests. The results are compared in terms of five criteria: extent of corrosion, rank order of material performance, degree of correlation, acceleration factor, and control of test environment.
Technical Paper

Parametric Optimization of Planetary Carrier for Durability

2019-01-09
2019-26-0049
Planetary gear set is one of the most commonly used gear systems in automotive industry as they cater to high power density requirements. A simple planetary gear set consists of a sun gear, ring gear, planets and carrier which houses planet gears. Efficiency of a transmission is dependent upon performance of gear sets involved in power transfer to a great extent. Structural rigidity of a planetary carrier is critical in a planetary gear set as its deflection may alter the load distribution of gears in mesh causing durability and noise issues. Limited studies exist based on geometrical parameters of a carrier which would help a designer in selecting the dimensions at an early stage. In this study, an end to end automated FEA process based on DOE and optimization in Isight is developed. The method incorporates a workflow allowing for an update of carrier geometry, FE model setup, analysis job submission and post-processing of results.
Technical Paper

Parametric Analyses of Tracks and Tracklayers Update-Sample of Engineering Problems and Their Solutions in Off Road Locomotion

1986-09-01
861251
The original design-performance evaluation method of tracks and tracklaying vehicles, proposed by this writer during the WW II, was further developed and enhanced with new experience gained by many researchers. The method is based on the approximation of track action by a number of appropriate wheel actions. It is mathematically simple, and practically unique encompassing detailed track and road wheel geometry, wheel spacing, loads and load distribution together with regular soil strength parameters. It conforms methodologically with evaluation of pneumatic tires and rigid wheels, previously published in a series of SAE papers. The said papers and the present one form a concise engineering outline of Terramechanics for off-road locomotion.
Technical Paper

Overview of the Driver Performance Data Book

1987-02-23
870346
This paper presents an overview of the Driver Performance Data Book under preparation by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). It includes a brief discussion of the purpose of the Data Book, the restrictions placed on the development effort, and how it is expected that it will be used by Agency personnel and others. Sample pages from the document are reproduced to illustrate the basic format, and the Table of Contents of each section is presented to identify the major topics covered and indicate the number of pages devoted to each.
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