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Journal Article

Vehicle-Level EMC Modeling for HEV/EV Applications

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is becoming more important in power converters and motor drives as seen in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) to achieve higher reliability of the vehicle and its components. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) of the electronic components for a vehicle are evaluated and validated at a component-level test bench; however, it is sometimes observed that the EMI level of the components can be changed in a vehicle-level test due to differences in the vehicle's configuration (cable routing, connecting location etc.). In this presentation, a vehicle-level EMC simulation methodology is introduced to estimate radiated emissions from a vehicle. The comparison between the simulation and measurement results is also presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Un-Controlled Generation Modelling and Analysis for Hybrid Vehicles

Interior permanent magnet machines are being widely used in hybrid vehicles owing to their compact size and high power density. Vehicle level application requires the motor to operate at high speed beyond the base speed of the motor. This is accomplished through flux weakening control. Nonfunctioning of inverter switches and/or gate driver circuit during flux weakening could give rise to a potential fault scenario called Un-Controlled Generation (UCG). This paper gives a detailed background of UCG and its impact on the high voltage and propulsion systems. In further sections the details related to modelling and analysis of UCG will be discussed. Finally, the paper will conclude with simulation results and comparison of the results with motor dynamometer test data.
Technical Paper

High Fuel Economy CIDI Engine for GM PNGV Program

A compact, lightweight compression-ignition engine designed for high fuel economy and low emissions was developed by ISUZU for the GM PNGV vehicle. This engine was the key component in the selected parallel hybrid vehicle powertrain for the 80 mpg fuel economy target. The base hardware was derived from a 1.7 Liter, 4-cylinder engine, and a three-cylinder version was created for the PNGV application. To achieve the required high efficiency, the engine used lightweight components thus minimizing weight and friction. To reduce exhaust emissions, electromechanical actuators were used for EGR, intake throttle, and turbocharger. Through careful application of these devices and combustion development, stringent engine out exhaust emission targets were also met.
Technical Paper

Control Validation Project at GM for Hybrid Vehicle Air Conditioning

Software development tools can be used in conjunction with test automation tools to validate controller software. Test automation tools must have an open architecture to interface with all the different software and hardware components, within a control validation project. Therefore software development tools like Matlab/Simulink will be able to exchange data via real time interface software with test automation tools. The test automation tool must be flexible to pass data back and forth from/to Microsoft standard software programs like Excel.
Technical Paper

Cold-Start and Warmup Driveability Performance of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using Oxygenated Fuels

Hybrid vehicles may respond to fuel variables in unique ways; they could even require a unique driveability test. The Coordinating Research Council (CRC) conducted a program to determine the effect of ethanol content on driveability performance under cool ambient conditions. In addition to the 27 vehicles in the main fleet, four hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) were tested using the same fuels and driveability procedure. These HEVs responded to fuel in a manner similar to conventional vehicles; however, the HEVs showed unique driving characteristics not well captured in the existing test.
Technical Paper

A System Efficiency Approach to Parallel Hybrid Control Strategies

Hybrid vehicle technology has become widely accepted due to its ability to reduce emissions and energy consumptions over conventional vehicles. Current optimization strategy for a parallel hybrid requires a lot of computational time and relies heavily on the drive cycle to accurately represent the driving conditions in the future. In this paper, a vehicle simulation model and a method to optimize parallel strategy to minimize energy consumption while having a fast solving time and being drive cycle independent is developed. The proposed methodology differs from the widely used dynamic programming approach for optimizing parallel strategy, which relies on accurately representing the actual driving behavior, by using the efficiencies of the engine, electric machines, inverters and the battery to predict the impact of current operating point on the overall powertrain system efficiency.