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Technical Paper

Virtual Powertrain Calibration at GM Becomes a Reality

GM's R oad-to- L ab-to- M ath (RLM) initiative is a fundamental engineering strategy leading to higher quality design, reduced structural cost, and improved product development time. GM started the RLM initiative several years ago and the RLM initiative has already provided successful results. The purpose of this paper is to detail the specific RLM efforts at GM related to powertrain controls development and calibration. This paper will focus on the current state of the art but will also examine the history and the future of these related activities. This paper will present a controls development environment and methodology for providing powertrain controls developers with virtual (in the absence of ECU and vehicle hardware) calibration capabilities within their current desktop controls development environment.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Implementation of a GM RWD Six-Speed Integrated-Friction-Launch Automatic Transmission

Friction Launch transmissions use a wet multi-plate clutch to replace the torque converter in an automatic transmission. By using one of the range clutches inside the transmission, the benefits of this integrated friction launch technology (IFL), such as reduction in mass, packaging, and cost, can be enhanced. The availability of new automatic transmissions with higher number of speeds and wider ratio spreads makes IFL technology more viable than ever before. The new GM Rear-Wheel-Drive (RWD) six-speed transmission has paved the way for a full implementation of integrated friction launch technology in a GM full size Sport-Utility Vehicle (SUV). This project focuses on both hardware and control issues with the friction launch clutch. The hardware issues include designing the clutch for launch energy, cooling, and durability.
Technical Paper

Utilizing a Tracked 3-Dimensional Acoustic Probe in the Development of an Automotive Front-of-Dash

During the development of an automotive acoustic package, valuable information can be gained by visualizing the acoustic energy flow through the Front-of-Dash (FOD) when a sound source is placed in the engine compartment. Two of the commonly used methods for generating the visual map of the acoustic field include Sound Intensity measurements and array technologies. An alternative method is to use a tracked 3-dimensional acoustic probe to scan and visualize the FOD in real-time when the sound source is injecting noise into the engine compartment. The scan is used to focus the development of the FOD acoustic package on the weakest areas by identifying acoustic leaks and locations with low Transmission Loss. This paper provides a brief discussion of the capabilities of the tracked 3-D acoustic probe, and presents examples of the implementation of the probe during the development of the FOD acoustic package for two mid-sized sedans.
Technical Paper

Using the Hybrid FE-SEA Method to Predict and Diagnose Component Transmission Loss

This paper investigates the application of the Hybrid FE-SEA method to the prediction of the Transmission Loss (TL) of a front-of-dash component. SEA subsystems are used to represent the source and receiving chambers of a TL test suite and an FE structural subsystem is used to represent the dash component. The potential advantages of the Hybrid FE-SEA method for this application are that: (i) it can provide detailed narrowband predictions of the radiation efficiency and TL of a given component across a broad frequency range and (ii) the computational cost of the approach is typically several orders of magnitude less than that of traditional low frequency FE/BEM/IEM methods. The approach is also potentially well suited to existing analysis processes since information from detailed component level models can be used to update and refine targets obtained from system level SEA models (the use of a common environment for such models simplifies model management).
Technical Paper

Use of Single Point Interface Measures for Characterization of Attachments

Often components or subsystems are attached to other systems through multiple fasteners at multiple locations. Examples may include things like compressors, alternators, engine cradles, powertrain mounting systems, suspension systems, body structures or almost any other interface between components or subsystems. Often during early design stages, alternative component or subsystem configurations are being considered that can have very different interface characteristics, such as alternators with different number of mounting fasteners, or suspension systems with different number of body structure interface attachments. Given these different mounting configurations, it can be difficult to meaningfully compare the interface performance of the two components or subsystems.
Journal Article

Truck Utility & Functionality in the GM 2-Mode Hybrid

The present production General Motors 2-Mode Hybrid system for full-size SUVs and pickup trucks integrates truck utility functions with a full hybrid system. The 2-mode hybrid system incorporates two electro-mechanical power-split operating modes with four fixed-gear ratios. The combination provides fuel savings from electric assist, regenerative braking and low-speed electric vehicle operation. The combination of two power-split modes reduces the amount of mechanical power that is converted to electric power for continuously variable transmission operation, meeting the utility required for SUVs and trucks. This paper describes how fuel economy functionality was blended with full-size truck utility functions. Truck functions described include: Manual Range Select, Cruise Control, 4WD-Low and continuous high load operation.
Journal Article

Transmission Output Chain Spin Loss Study

Transmission spin loss has significant influence on the vehicle fuel economy. Transmission output chain may contribute up to 10~15% of the total spin loss. However, the chain spin loss information is not well documented. An experimental study was carried out with several transmission output chains and simulated transmission environment in a testing box. The studies build the bases for the chain spin loss modeling and depicted the influences of the speed, the sprocket sizes, the oil levels, the viscosity, the temperatures and the baffle. The kriging method was employed for the parameter sensitivity study. A closed form of empirical model was developed. Good correlation was achieved.
Technical Paper

Traditional and Electronic Solutions to Mitigate Electrified Vehicle Driveline Noises

Hybrid powertrain vehicles inherently create discontinuous sounds during operation. The discontinuous noise created from the electrical motors during transition states are undesirable since they can create tones that do not correlate with the dynamics of the vehicle. The audible level of these motor whines and discontinuous tones can be reduced via common noise abatement techniques or reducing the amount of regeneration braking. One electronic solution which does not affect mass or fuel economy is Masking Sound Enhancement (MSE). MSE is an algorithm that uses the infotainment system to mask the naturally occurring discontinuous hybrid drive unit and driveline tones. MSE enables a variety of benefits, such as more aggressive regenerative braking strategies which yield higher levels of fuel economy and results in a more pleasing interior vehicle powertrain sound. This paper will discuss the techniques and signals used to implement MSE in a hybrid powertrain equipped vehicle.
Journal Article

Toothed Chain CVT: Opportunities and Challenges

A toothed chain continuously variable transmission concept is studied. By designing positive engagement at top overdrive ratio, we explored the potential to improve CVT mechanical efficiency. The low cost solution could improve fuel economy by 0.7% in FTP composite cycle. Preliminary multi-body dynamic simulation is also completed using VL-Motion to concept-proof the technical feasibility of disengagement and engagement. To address the noise issue resulted from abandoning the random pitch design in production chain, we proposed an alternate chain pitch sequence but more experimental data is required to validate the design.
Technical Paper

The Use of in Vehicle STL Testing to Correlate Subsystem Level SEA Models

For the assessment of vehicle acoustics in the early design stages of a vehicle program, the use of full vehicle SEA models is becoming the standard analysis method in the US automotive industry. One benefit is that OEM's and Tier 1 suppliers are able to cascade lower level acoustic performance targets for NVH systems and components. Detailed SEA system level models can be used to assess the performance of systems such as dash panels, floors and doors, however, the results will be questionable until test data Is available. Correlation can be accomplished with buck testing, which is a common practice in the automotive industry for assessing the STL (sound transmission loss) of vehicle level components. The opportunity to conduct buck testing can be limited by the availability of representative bodies to be cut into bucks and the availability of a transmission loss suite with a suitably large opening.
Journal Article

The Next Generation “Voltec” Extended Range EV Propulsion System

The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle (EV) with extended-range (ER) that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on power generated by an on-board gasoline engine after depletion of the battery charge. For 2016, GM has developed the next generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. Building on the experience of the first generation Volt, the second generation targeted improved all-electric range, improved charge sustaining fuel economy, and improved performance. All of this was to be accomplished while maintaining the EV character of the first generation Volt which customers clearly valued. This paper describes the next generation “Voltec” system and the realized improvements in efficiency and performance. The features of the propulsion system components, including energy storage, transaxle, electric motors and power electronics, on-board charging, and engine are described and compared with the previous generation.
Journal Article

The Key Role of the Closed-loop Combustion Control for Exploiting the Potential of Biodiesel in a Modern Diesel Engine for Passenger Car Applications

The present paper describes the results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori - CNR aimed at studying the capability of GM Combustion Closed-Loop Control (CLCC) in enabling seamless operation with high biodiesel blending levels in a modern diesel engine for passenger car applications. As a matter of fact, fuelling modern electronically-controlled diesel engines with high blends of biodiesel leads to a performance reduction of about 12-15% at rated power and up to 30% in the low-end torque, while increasing significantly the engine-out NOx emissions. These effects are both due to the interaction of the biodiesel properties with the control logic of the electronic control unit, which is calibrated for diesel operation. However, as the authors previously demonstrated, if engine calibration is re-tuned for biodiesel fuelling, the above mentioned drawbacks can be compensated and the biodiesel environmental inner qualities can be fully deployed.
Technical Paper

The Immersed Boundary CFD Approach for Complex Aerodynamics Flow Predictions

Standard CFD methods require a mesh that fits the boundaries of the computational domain. For a complex geometry the generation of such a grid is time-consuming and often requires modifications to the model geometry. This paper evaluates the Immersed Boundary (IB) approach which does not require a boundary-conforming mesh and thus would speed up the process of the grid generation. In the IB approach the CAD surfaces (in Stereo Lithography -STL- format) are used directly and this eliminates the surface meshing phase and also mitigates the process of the CAD cleanup. A volume mesh, consisting of regular, locally refined, hexahedrals is generated in the computational domain, including inside the body. The cells are then classified as fluid, solid and interface cells using a simple ray-tracing scheme. Interface cells, correspond to regions that are partially fluid and are intersected by the boundary surfaces.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Racetrack / High Energy Driving on Brake Caliper Performance

It is well understood that conditions encountered during racetrack driving are amongst the most severe to which vehicle braking systems can be subjected. High braking pressure is combined with enormous energy input and high temperatures for multiple braking events. Brake fade, degradation of brake pedal feel, and brake lining taper/overall wear are common results of racetrack usage. This paper focuses on how racetrack and high energy driving-type conditioning affects the performance of the brake caliper - in particular, its ability to maintain an even pressure distribution at all of its interfaces (pad to rotor, piston to pad backing plate, and housing to pad backing plate).
Journal Article

The Effect of Outer Ring Distortion on Wheel Bearing Friction Torque

Wheel bearing friction torque (“drag”) directly contributes to vehicle fuel economy and CO2 emissions. At the same time, one of the most important factors for long-term durability of wheel bearings is effective seal performance. Since these two factors are often in conflict, it is important to balance the desire for low friction with the need for optimal sealing. One factor that affects wheel bearing sealing performance is the distortion of the outer ring that occurs when the bearing is mounted to the steering knuckle with fasteners. Minimizing this distortion is not just important for sealing, however. This paper explores the relationship between the outer ring distortion and the resulting friction torque. A design of experiments (DOE) approach was used in order to study the effects of the fastening bolt torque, constant velocity joint (CVJ) fastening torque, and outer ring distortion on component-level drag.
Technical Paper

The Development and Evaluation of Robust Combustion Systems for Miller Cycle Engines

Miller Cycle engines employ a high expansion ratio to achieve high part-load efficiency, while minimizing knock sensitivity by using valve events that limit the effective compression ratio. The Miller effect may be achieved using either early or late intake valve closure. Combustion systems for these engines must be carefully designed to obtain adequate trapped charge to achieve full-load objectives as well as charge motion characteristics supporting good mixture preparation and flame propagation. This paper summarizes the results of a holistic project tasked with developing robust combustion systems for both early and late intake valve closure strategies. Based on best practices from conventional engines and preliminary Miller cycle requirements, a series of combustion systems was designed. These were analyzed using 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and those showing favorable combustion characteristics were experimentally evaluated using a modular single cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

The Design Concept of the Duramax 6600 Diesel Engine

A new Diesel engine, called the Duramax 6600 (Fig.1), has been designed by Isuzu Motors (Isuzu) for an upcoming full-size General Motors (GM) pickup truck. It incorporates the latest Diesel technology in order to improve on the inherent strengths of a Diesel engine, such as fuel economy, torque and reliability, while also producing higher output, smoother driveability, and lower noise. The Duramax 6600 is an entirely new 90° V8 direct injection (DI) intercooled engine with a water-cooled turbocharger. Its fuel injection system employs a fully electronically controlled common rail system that has high-pressure injection capabilities. Isuzu had the design responsibility of the base engine, while GM Truck Group was responsible for designing the installation and packaging within the vehicle. Engine validation relied on Isuzu's proven validation process, in addition to GM Powertrain's expertise in engine validation.
Technical Paper

System Engineering for Automated Software Update of Automotive Electronics

In traditional automotive electronic design, software update has been a component oriented, manual process rather than a systematic designed in capability suitable for automation. In recent days as software content in vehicles grow, the need to update software in vehicles more frequently is becoming a necessity. Moreover, additional attributes for software updates, for example timely delivery of security related update for vehicles, desire to add features using software update, control cost of software updates, etc., requires a system engineered design rather than a component oriented approach. As the automobile domain utilizes various means of mobility (Combustion Engine, Hybrid, Battery, etc.) and various functional domains (Infotainment, Safety, Mobility, Telematics, ADAS (Advance Driving Assist service), Autonomous, etc.), to control the overall cost of future software update for such a diverse environment, it is beneficial to introduce automation in the software update process.
Technical Paper

Supervisory Model Predictive Control of a Powertrain with a Continuously Variable Transmission

This paper describes the design of a supervisory multivariable constrained Model Predictive Control (MPC) system for driver requested axle torque tracking with real-time fuel economy optimization that is scheduled for production by General Motors starting in 2018. The control system has been conceived and co-developed by General Motors and ODYS. The control approach consists of a set of linear MPC controllers scheduled in real-time based on powertrain operating conditions. For each MPC controller, a linear model is obtained by system identification with vehicle and dynamometer data. The supervisory MPC coordinates in real time desired Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) ratio and desired engine torque to satisfy the system requirements, based on estimates of axle torque and engine fuel rate, by solving a constrained optimization problem at each sampling step. Each linear MPC controller is equipped with a Kalman filter to reconstruct the system state from available measurements.
Journal Article

Study of High Speed Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) Engine Operation in the LTC Regime

An investigation of high speed direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline (termed GDICI for Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition) in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime is presented. As an aid to plan engine experiments at full load (16 bar IMEP, 2500 rev/min), exploration of operating conditions was first performed numerically employing a multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, that features improved sub-models and the Chemkin library. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion. Operation ranges of a light-duty diesel engine operating with GDICI combustion with constraints of combustion efficiency, noise level (pressure rise rate) and emissions were identified as functions of injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation rate and the fuel split ratio of double-pulse injections.