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Technical Paper

Target Detection Distances and Driver Performance with Swiveling HID Headlamps

2004-05-10
2004-01-2258
Twent-two participants of varying ages detected roadside targets in two consecutive dynamic evaluations of a horizontally swiveling headlamp vehicle and a vehicle with the same headlamps that did not swivel. Participants detected targets as they drove unlighted low-speed public roads. Scenarios encountered were intersection turns, and curves with approximate radii of 70-90m, 120-140m, 170-190m, and 215-220m. Results from the first study found improved detection distances from the swiveling headlamps in left curves, but unexpectedly decreased detection distances in larger radius right hand curves. The swiveling algorithm was altered for the second study, and the headlamps used did not have the same beam pattern as in the first study. Results from the second study again found improved detection distances from the swiveling headlamps while in the larger radius right hand curves fixed and swivel were not statistically different.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Identification of the Neck Muscle Activities During Head and Neck Flexion Whiplash

2002-03-04
2002-01-0017
A previously developed finite element human head/cervical spine model was further enhanced to include the major muscles in the neck. The head/cervical spine model consists of the skull, C1-C7, disks, facets, and all the ligaments in this region. The vertebral bodies are simulated by deformable bodies and the soft tissues in the cervical spine are modeled by nonlinear anisotropic viscoelastic material. The motion segments in the cervical spine model were validated against three-dimensional cadaver test data reported in the literature. To simulate the passive and active muscle properties, the classical Hill muscle model was implemented in the LS-DYNA code and model parameters were based on measurements of cadaver neck musculature. The head/neck model was used to simulate a human volunteer flexion whiplash test reported in the literature. Simulation results showed that the neck muscle contraction and relaxation activities had a significant effect on the head/neck motion.
Journal Article

Scuffing Test Rig for Piston Wrist Pin and Pin Bore

2015-04-14
2015-01-0680
In practice, the piston wrist pin is either fixed to the connecting rod or floats between the connecting rod and the piston. The tribological behavior of fixed wrist pins have been studied by several researchers, however there have been few studies done on the floating wrist pin. A new bench rig has been designed and constructed to investigate the tribological behavior between floating pins and pin bore bearings. The experiments were run using both fixed pins and floating pins under the same working conditions. It was found that for fixed pins there was severe damage on the pin bore in a very short time (5 minutes) and material transfer occurs between the wrist pin and pin bore; however, for the floating pin, even after a long testing time (60 minutes) there was minimal surface damage on either the pin bore or wrist pin.
Technical Paper

Radio Usage: Observations from the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study

2007-04-16
2007-01-0441
This paper discusses radio usage habits observed during analysis of 700 hours of video sampled from the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study database. Analysts used large-scale printouts of each vehicle's radio faceplate and recorded interactions based on video analysis of hand movement and location (without the assistance of audio recordings). The duration and specific manipulations or adjustments were recorded for each interaction. The results summarize the length and type of interactions, most often-used controls, and total percentage of time drivers interacted with the radio.
Technical Paper

Development of Block Cycle Test Load for Structural Durability Validation of MacPherson Strut

2019-01-09
2019-26-0315
The MacPherson strut is a simple and common across all automotive’s front suspension of passenger cars. It is an independent suspension type, including a single suspension arm (spring and damper), an anti-roll bar and a lower arm. The MacPherson strut must have sufficient stiffness to support cornering force and fore/aft loads. Fatigue test of MacPherson strut suspension can be done in multiple ways. Most common method is laboratory testing/rig test. The objective of laboratory testing is to validate the MacPherson strut physically for all possible real-time events. Replicating all real-time events in lab environment is a challenging task. For many years this limitation was addressed through experience, however it has often led to either over or inferior design. The expected life span of automotive components like MacPherson strut varies considerably but it can be measurable in years/miles.
Technical Paper

Changes in user experiences of electric vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2489
Research Objective The objective of the paper is to research what are the changes in experiences being brought about due to the advent of Electric Vehicles (EVs). EVs are silent, have less complex propulsion system, and have free space under the hood, amongst other things. Each change brings about both good and bad experiences across the spectrum of users. Some of the bad experiences can be safety incidents leading to death as well. Researching the areas that are harmful to end users, including pedestrians, will be our focus area. Methodology Our methodology will look at the changes at the vehicle architecture level which are inherent to the EV design. Research how are the experiences so far due to these changes. Are these just inconveniences or safety hazards? EVs have excellent NVH characteristics. A farmer may love a silent tractor, but a racing enthusiast may not like a relatively silent sports car.
Technical Paper

A Response Surface Based Tool for Evaluating Vehicle Performance in the Pedestrian Leg Impact Test

2008-04-14
2008-01-1244
An interactive tool for predicting the performance of vehicle designs in the pedestrian leg impact test has been developed. This tool allows users to modify the design of a vehicle front structure through the use of a graphical interface, and then evaluates the performance of the design with a response surface. This performance is displayed in the graphical interface, providing the user with nearly instantaneous feedback to his design changes. An example is shown that demonstrates how the tool can be used to help guide the user towards vehicle designs that are likely to improve performance. As part of the development of this tool, a simplified, parametric finite element model of the front structure of the vehicle was created. This vehicle model included eleven parameters that could be adjusted to change the structural dimensions and structural behavior of the model.
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