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Journal Article

Strain Field Measurement in the Vicinity of Ductile Rupture from Digital Image Correlation

A methodology that enables two-dimensional strain field measurement in the vicinity of ductile rupture is described. Fully martensitic steel coupons were strained to fracture using a miniature tensile stage with custom data and image acquisition systems. Rupture initiated near the center of each coupon and progressed slowly toward the gage section edges. A state-of-the-art digital image correlation technique was used to compute the true strain field before rupture initiation and ahead of the resulting propagating macroscopic crack before final fracture occurred. True strains of the order of 95% were measured ahead of the crack at later stages of deformation.
Journal Article

Process Robustness of Laser Braze-Welded Al/Cu Connectors

Laser welding of dissimilar metals such as Aluminum and Copper, which is required for Li-ion battery joining, is challenging due to the inevitable formation of the brittle and high electrical-resistant intermetallic compounds. Recent research has shown that by using a novel technology, called laser braze-welding, the Al-Cu intermetallics can be minimized to achieve superior mechanical and electrical joint performance. This paper investigates the robustness of the laser braze-welding process. Three product and process categories, i.e. choice of materials, joint configurations, and process conditions, are studied. It is found that in-process effects such as sample cleanness and shielding gas fluctuations have a minor influence on the process robustness. Furthermore, many pre-process effects, e.g. design changes such as multiple layers or anodized base material can be successfully welded by process adaption.
Journal Article

Mapping of Global Road Systems Based on Statistical Discriminant Analysis

Automotive manufacturers are facing continuously changing Global environment. Traditionally, these manufacturers relied on structural and general durability tests to validate vehicles. For these tests to remain representative of customer usage in a Global environment, the overall surface conditions of the Global road systems must be studied. Understanding and classifying these road systems conditions is an important step in dealing with vehicle durability in the Global environment. In this paper, an approach to mapping the world road systems into Established Roads (ER) and Developing Roads (DR), utilizing Statistical Discriminant Analysis (SDA), is presented. The classification of Global regions as DR and ER road systems can be effectively used to recommend appropriate development and validation tests for each road system. A few examples are presented to demonstrate how the ER vs.
Journal Article

Locating Wire Short Fault for In-Vehicle Controller Area Network with Resistance Estimation Approach

Wire shorts on an in-vehicle controller area network (CAN) impact the communication between electrical control units (ECUs), and negatively affects the vehicle control. The fault, especially the intermittent fault, is difficult to locate. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model for in-vehicle CAN bus is developed under the wire short fault scenario. The bus resistance is estimated and a resistance-distance mapping approach is proposed to locate the fault. The proposed approach is implemented in an Arduino-based embedded system and validated on a vehicle frame. The experimental results are promising. The approach presented in this paper may reduce trouble shooting time for CAN wire short faults and may enable early detection before the customer is inconvenienced.
Journal Article

Comparing Laser Welding Technologies with Friction Stir Welding for Production of Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks

A comparison of welding techniques was performed to determine the most effective method for producing aluminum tailor-welded blanks for high volume automotive applications. Aluminum sheet was joined with an emphasis on post weld formability, surface quality and weld speed. Comparative results from several laser based welding techniques along with friction stir welding are presented. The results of this study demonstrate a quantitative comparison of weld methodologies in preparing tailor-welded aluminum stampings for high volume production in the automotive industry. Evaluation of nearly a dozen welding variations ultimately led to down selecting a single process based on post-weld quality and performance.
Technical Paper

Combined Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measurement of Austenite Transformation with Strain in TRIP-Assisted Steels

The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing.