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Technical Paper

Wheel Dust Measurement and Root Cause Assessment

2003-10-19
2003-01-3341
North American drivers particularly dislike wheel dust (brake dust on their wheels). For some vehicle lines, customer surveys indicate that wheel dust is a significant concern. For this reason, Ford and its suppliers are investigating the root causes of brake dust and developing test procedures to detect wheel dust issues up-front. Intuitively, it would appear that more brake wear would lead to more wheel dust. To test this hypothesis, a gage was needed to quantitatively measure the wheel dust. Gages such as colorimeters were evaluated to measure the brightness (L*) of the wheel, which ranged from roughly 70-80% (clean) to 10-20% (very dirty). Gage R&R's and subjective ratings by a panel of 30 people were used to validate the wheel dust gages. A city traffic vehicle test and an urban dynamometer procedure were run to compare the level of wheel dust for 10 different lining types on the same vehicle.
Technical Paper

Weld Line Factors for Thermoplastics

2017-03-28
2017-01-0481
Weld lines occur when melt flow fronts meet during the injection molding of plastic parts. It is important to investigate the weld line because the weld line area can induce potential failure of structural application. In this paper, a weld line factor (W-L factor) was adopted to describe the strength reduction to the ultimate strength due to the appearance of weld line. There were two engineering thermoplastics involved in this study, including one neat PP and one of talc filled PP plastics. The experimental design was used to investigate four main injection molding parameters (melt temperature, mold temperature, injection speed and packing pressure). Both the tensile bar samples with/without weld lines were molded at each process settings. The sample strength was obtained by the tensile tests under two levels of testing speed (5mm/min and 200mm/min) and testing temperatures (room temperature and -30°C). The results showed that different materials had various values of W-L factor.
Technical Paper

Vibration Fatigue for Chassis-Mounted, Cantilevered Components

2017-03-28
2017-01-0360
Vehicle chassis mounted cantilevered components should meet two critical design targets: 1) NVH criterion to avoid resonance with road noise and engine vibration and 2) satisfied durability performance to avoid any incident in structure failure and dysfunction. Generally, two types of testing are performed to validate chassis mounted cantilevered component in the design process: shaker table testing and vehicle proving ground testing. Shaker table testing is a powered vibration endurance test performed with load input summarized from real proving ground data and accurate enough to replicate the physical test. The proving ground test is typically performed at critical milestones with full vehicles. Most tests are simplified lab testing to save cost and effort. CAE procedures that virtually replicate these lab tests is even more helpful in the design verification stages.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: System Design & Objective Testing Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0575
The USDOT and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, GM, Honda, Mercedes, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested communications-based vehicle safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: Multiple On-Board Equipment Testing

2011-04-12
2011-01-0586
The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications-based safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Rollover Sensor Test Modeling

2007-04-16
2007-01-0686
A computational model of a mid-size sport utility vehicle was developed using MADYMO. The model includes a detailed description of the suspension system and tire characteristics that incorporated the Delft-Tyre magic formula description. The model was correlated by simulating a vehicle suspension kinematics and compliance test. The correlated model was then used to simulate a J-turn vehicle dynamics test maneuver, a roll and non-roll ditch test, corkscrew ramp and a lateral trip test, the results of which are presented in this paper. The results indicate that MADYMO is able to reasonably predict the vehicle and occupant responses in these types of applications and is potentially suited as a tool to help setup a suite of vehicle configurations and test conditions for rollover sensor testing. A suspension system sensitivity study is presented for the laterally tripped non-roll event.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Paint Radiation Properties and Affect on Vehicle Soak Temperature, Climate Control System Load, and Fuel Economy

2005-04-11
2005-01-1880
Vehicle thermal loads in sunny climates are strongly influenced by the absorption of solar thermal energy. Reduction of the absorptivity in the near infrared (IR) spectrum would decrease vehicle soak temperatures, reduce air conditioning power consumption and not affect the vehicle visible spectrum radiation properties (color). The literature [1] indicates that paint formulations with carbon-black pigment removed or reduced can be made to be reflective to near infrared frequencies. Experiments indicated that the reflectivity can be improved with existing basecoats and primers. Experiments and numerical simulations indicate that vehicle soak temperatures can be reduced by over 2 °C with existing basecoats and primers.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Integrated Non-Intrusive Monitoring of Driver Biological Signals

2011-04-12
2011-01-1095
A vehicle integrated sensing and analysis system has been designed, implemented, and demonstrated to nonintrusively monitor several biological signals of the driver. The biological driver signals measured by the system are the heart electrical signals or pseudo Lead-I electrocardiography (pLI-ECG), the galvanic skin response (GSR) or electrical conductance measured from the driver's fingers to palm, the palm skin temperature, the face skin temperature, and the respiration rate. The pLI-ECG and GSR measurements are made through direct contact of the driver hands with stainless steel electrodes integrated in the steering wheel rim. The temperature measurements are made with non-contacting infrared temperature sensors, also located on the steering wheel. The respiration rate was measured using a flexible thin film piezoelectric sensor affixed to the seatbelt.
Technical Paper

Validating Prototype Connected Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications in Real- World Settings

2018-04-03
2018-01-0025
This paper summarizes the validation of prototype vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications based on Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in the United States under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). After consideration of a number of V2I safety applications, Red Light Violation Warning (RLVW), Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure Warning (RSZW/LC) were developed, validated and demonstrated using seven different vehicles (six passenger vehicles and one Class 8 truck) leveraging DSRC-based messages from a Road Side Unit (RSU). The developed V2I safety applications were validated for more than 20 distinct scenarios and over 100 test runs using both light- and heavy-duty vehicles over a period of seven months. Subsequently, additional on-road testing of CSW on public roads and RSZW/LC in live work zones were conducted in Southeast Michigan.
Technical Paper

Utilization of CAE Tools to Assist Active Glove Box Design

2017-03-28
2017-01-0493
Traditionally, Knee Air Bag (KAB) is constructed of a woven nylon or polyester fabric. Recently, Ford developed an injection molded air bag system for the passenger side called Active Glove Box (AGB). This system integrates a plastic bladder welded between the glove box outer and inner doors. This new system is smaller and lighter, thus improving the roominess and other creature comforts inside the passenger cabin while providing equivalent restraint performance as traditional knee airbag system. This patented technology allows positioning of airbags in new locations within the vehicle, thus giving more freedom to designers. The first application of this technology was standard equipment on the 2015 Ford Mustang. Given that this technology is first in the industry, it was a challenge to design, test and evaluate the performance of the system as there is no benchmark to compare this technology. A CAE driven design methodology was chosen to overcome this challenge.
Technical Paper

Using a Sweating Manikin, Controlled by a Human Physiological Model, to Evaluate Liquid Cooling Garments

2005-07-11
2005-01-2971
An Advanced Automotive Manikin (ADAM), is used to evaluate liquid cooling garments (LCG) for advanced space suits for extravehicular applications and launch and entry suits. The manikin is controlled by a finite-element physiological model of the human thermoregulatory system. ADAM's thermal response to a baseline LCG was measured.The local effectiveness of the LCG was determined. These new thermal comfort tools permit detailed, repeatable measurements and evaluation of LCGs. Results can extend to other personal protective clothing including HAZMAT suits, nuclear/biological/ chemical protective suits, fire protection suits, etc.
Technical Paper

Using Engine as Torsional Shaker for Vehicle Sensitivity Refinement at Idle Conditions

2007-05-15
2007-01-2319
Vehicle idle quality has become an increasing quality concern for automobile manufacturers because of its impact on customer satisfaction. There are two factors that critical to vehicle idle quality, the engine excitation force and vehicle sensitivity (transfer function). To better understand the contribution to the idle quality from these two factors and carry out well-planned improvement measures, a quick and easy way to measure vehicle sensitivity at idle conditions is desired. There are several different ways to get vehicle sensitivity at idle conditions. A typical way is to use CAE. One of the biggest advantages using CAE is that it can separate vehicle sensitivities to different forcing inputs. As always, the CAE results need to be validated before being fully utilized. Another way to get vehicle sensitivity is through impact test using impact hammer or shaker. However this method doesn't include the mount preload due to engine firing torque [3, 4, & 5].
Technical Paper

Use of a Thermal Manikin to Evaluate Human Thermoregulatory Responses in Transient, Non-Uniform, Thermal Environments

2004-07-19
2004-01-2345
People who wear protective uniforms that inhibit evaporation of sweat can experience reduced productivity and even health risks when their bodies cannot cool themselves. This paper describes a new sweating manikin and a numerical model of the human thermoregulatory system that evaluates the thermal response of an individual to transient, non-uniform thermal environments. The physiological model of the human thermoregulatory system controls a thermal manikin, resulting in surface temperature distributions representative of the human body. For example, surface temperatures of the extremities are cooler than those of the torso and head. The manikin contains batteries, a water reservoir, and wireless communications and controls that enable it to operate as long as 2 hours without external connections. The manikin has 120 separately controlled heating and sweating zones that result in high resolution for surface temperature, heat flux, and sweating control.
Technical Paper

Use of Raman Spectroscopy to Identify Automotive Polymers in Recycling Operations

2000-03-06
2000-01-0739
To support its recycling efforts, Ford Motor Company is using a Raman based instrument, the RP-1, co-developed with SpectraCode Inc. to identify unknown polymeric parts. Our recycling initiative involves detailed dismantling of our vehicles into individual parts, calculating the percentage recyclability and making recommendations for the future use of recycled polymers. While Ford has voluntarily adopted the SAE J1344 marking protocol for identifying part material composition, a large number of unmarked parts still exist and require identification. This identification is being done with the help of RP-1. To facilitate this identification, we have generated an accurate reference library of Raman spectra for comparison to those of unknown materials. This paper will describe the techniques that were used to develop and refine the RP-1 reference library to identify automotive polymers, especially black/dark plastics.
Technical Paper

Use of Photogrammetry in Extracting 3D Structural Deformation/Dummy Occupant Movement Time History During Vehicle Crashes

2005-04-11
2005-01-0740
The ability to extract and evaluate the time history of structural deformations or crush during vehicle crashes represents a significant challenge to automotive safety researchers. Current methods are limited by the use of electro-mechanical devices such as string pots and/or linear variable displacement transducers (LVDT). Typically, one end of the transducer must be mounted to a point on the structure that will remain un-deformed during the event; the other end is then attached to the point on the structure where the deformation is to be measured. This approach measures the change in distance between these two points and is unable to resolve any movement into its respective X, Y, or Z directions. Also, the accuracy of electro-mechanical transducers is limited by their dynamic response to crash conditions. The photogrammetry technique has been used successfully in a wide variety of applications including aerial surveying, civil engineering and documentation of traffic accidents.
Technical Paper

Use of Body Mount Stiffness and Damping In CAE Crash Modeling

2000-03-06
2000-01-0120
This paper reports a study of the dynamic characteristics of body mounts in body on frame vehicles and their effects on structural and occupant CAE results. The body mount stiffness and damping are computed from spring-damper models and component test results. The model parameters are converted to those used in the full vehicle structural model to simulate the vehicle crash performance. An effective body mount in a CAE crash model requires a set of coordinated damping and stiffness to transfer the frame pulse to the body. The ability of the pulse transfer, defined as transient transmissibility[1]1, is crucial in the early part of the crash pulse prediction using a structural model such as Radioss[2]. Traditionally, CAE users input into the model the force-deflection data of the body mount obtained from the component and/or full vehicle tests. In this practice, the body mount in the CAE model is essentially represented by a spring with the prescribed force-deflection data.
Technical Paper

Transient Dynamic Analysis of Suspension System for Component Fatigue Life Estimation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0638
For suspension systems, fatigue and strength simulations are accomplished mostly at the component level. However, the selection of loading conditions and replication of boundary conditions at the component level may be difficult. A system level simulation eliminates most of the discrepancy between component level and vehicle level environment yielding realistic results. Further advantage of system level simulation is that the boundary conditions are limited to suspension mounting points at body or frame and the loading is limited to wheel-end or tire patch loading. This provides for a robust set of boundary constraints that are known and repeatable, and loads that are simpler and of relatively higher accuracy. Here, the nonlinear transient dynamic behavior of a suspension system along with its frame and mounting was simulated using a multibody finite element analysis (FEA).
Technical Paper

Tire Mobility Measurements: Compensation for Transducer and Mounting Effects

2003-05-05
2003-01-1531
The measured drive-point conductance of a typical passenger car tire was seen to drop steadily for frequencies above 1000 Hz. This behavior is a-typical since SEA theory predicts such conductance should remain relatively flat for high frequencies. It was found that, one has to pay careful attention to errors introduced by the added mass of the measuring transducer and “local” effects due to contact stiffness of the tread rubber. Such effects are investigated and their contributions quantified. Compensation schemes are also developed and implemented. It is shown that, for a 20 grams transducer, the measured and corrected conductances are off by 12 dB. The effects of the local contact stiffness of the rubber at the attachment point are less significant.
Technical Paper

Thermal Fatigue of Automotive Components

2001-03-05
2001-01-0829
Modern approaches for thermal fatigue damage assessment in automotive components are discussed. Three prominent methods are reviewed, and issues with related material testing, numerical implementations and applications to general thermal cycles are presented. In summary, the chosen methods can produce good thermal fatigue life predictions. Common difficulties include first, prolonged experimental programs to determine the required material parameters, and second, significant computational times involved in analysis of realistic models and loading histories.
Technical Paper

Thermal Fatigue Analysis of Cast Aluminum Cylinder Heads

2002-03-04
2002-01-0657
Thermal fatigue presents a new challenge in cast aluminum engine design. Accurate thermomechanical stress analysis and reliable failure criterion are the keys to a successful life prediction. It is shown that the material stress and strain behavior of cast aluminum is strongly temperature and strain rate sensitive. A unified viscoplasticity constitutive relation is thus proposed to simultaneously describe the plasticity and creep of cast aluminum components deforming at high temperatures. A fatigue failure criterion based on a damage accumulation model is introduced. Damages due to mechanical fatigue, environmental impact and creep are accounted for. The material stress and strain model and thermal fatigue model are shown to be effective in accurately capturing features of thermal fatigue by simulating a component thermal fatigue test using 3D FEA with ABAQUS and comparing the results with measured data.
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