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Technical Paper

The Development of Advanced 2-Way SCR/DPF Systems to Meet Future Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

Diesel engines have the potential to significantly increase vehicle fuel economy and decrease CO₂ emissions; however, efficient removal of NOx and particulate matter from the engine exhaust is required to meet stringent emission standards. A conventional diesel aftertreatment system consists of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a urea-based Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) catalyst and a diesel particulate filter (DPF), and is widely used to meet the most recent NOx (nitrogen oxides comprising NO and NO₂) and particulate matter (PM) emission standards for medium- and heavy-duty sport utility and truck vehicles. The increasingly stringent emission targets have recently pushed this system layout towards an increase in size of the components and consequently higher system cost. An emerging technology developed recently involves placing the SCR catalyst onto the conventional wall-flow filter.
Technical Paper

Electrically Heated Catalysts for Cold-Start Emissions in Diesel Aftertreatment

With a tighter regulatory environment, reduction of hydrocarbon (HC) and NOx emissions during cold-start has emerged as a major challenge for diesel engines. In the complex diesel aftertreatment system, more than 90% of engine-out NOx is removed in the underfloor SCR. However, the combination of low temperature exhaust and heat sink over DOC delays the SCR light-off during the cold start. In fact, the first 350 seconds during the cold light-duty FTP75 cycle contribute more than 50% of the total NOx tailpipe emission due to the low SCR temperature. For a fast SCR light-off, electrically heated catalyst (EHC) technology has been suggested to be an effective solution as a rapid warm-up strategy. In this work, the EHC, placed in front of DOC, utilizes both electrical power and hydrocarbon fuel. The smart energy management during the cold-start was crucial to optimize the EHC integrated aftertreatment system.