Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: System Design & Objective Testing Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0575
The USDOT and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, GM, Honda, Mercedes, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested communications-based vehicle safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: Multiple On-Board Equipment Testing

2011-04-12
2011-01-0586
The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications-based safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Technical Paper

Understanding Work Task Assessment Sensitivity to the Prediction of Standing Location

2011-04-12
2011-01-0527
Digital human models (DHM) are now widely used to assess worker tasks as part of manufacturing simulation. With current DHM software, the simulation engineer or ergonomist usually makes a manual estimate of the likely worker standing location with respect to the work task. In a small number of cases, the worker standing location is determined through physical testing with one or a few workers. Motion capture technology is sometimes used to aid in quantitative analysis of the resulting posture. Previous research has demonstrated the sensitivity of work task assessment using DHM to the accuracy of the posture prediction. This paper expands on that work by demonstrating the need for a method and model to accurately predict worker standing location. The effect of standing location on work task posture and the resulting assessment is documented through three case studies using the Siemens Jack DHM software.
Journal Article

Thermal Mapping of an Automotive Rear Drive Axle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0718
In recent years, there has been a sustained effort by the automotive OEMs and suppliers to improve the vehicle driveline efficiency. This has been in response to customer demands for greater vehicle fuel economy and increasingly stringent government regulations. The automotive rear axle is one of the major sources of power loss in the driveline, and hence represents an area where power loss improvements can have a significant impact on overall vehicle fuel economy. Both the friction induced mechanical losses and the spin losses vary significantly with the operating temperature of the lubricant. Also, the preloads in the bearings can vary due to temperature fluctuations. The temperatures of the lubricant, the gear tooth contacting surfaces, and the bearing contact surfaces are critical to the overall axle performance in terms of power losses, fatigue life, and wear.
Journal Article

The Front Center Airbag

2013-04-08
2013-01-1156
General Motors and the Takata Corporation have worked together to bring to production a new, industry first technology called the Front Center Airbag which is being implemented on General Motors' 2013 Midsize Crossover Vehicles. This paper reviews field data, describes the hardware, and presents occupant test data to demonstrate in-position performance in far side impacts. The Front Center Airbag is an airbag that mounts to the inboard side of the driver front seat. It has a tubular cushion structure, and it deploys between the front seating positions in far side impacts, near side impacts and rollovers, with the cushion positioning itself adjacent the driver occupant's head and torso. This paper includes pictures of the technology along with a basic description of the design. In-position occupant performance is also described and illustrated with several examples. Single occupant and two front occupant far side impact test data are included, both with and without the airbag present.
Technical Paper

Temperature Effects on the Deformation and Fracture of a Quenched-and-Partitioned Steel

2013-04-08
2013-01-0610
Temperature effects on the deformation and fracture of a commercially produced transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment are investigated. Strain field evolution at room temperature is quantified in this 980 MPa grade Q&P steel with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) technique from quasi-static tensile tests of specimens with 0°, 45°, and 90° orientations. Baseline tensile properties along with the variation of the instantaneous hardening index with strain were computed. Variations of the bake-hardening index were explored under simulated paint bake conditions. Tensile properties were measured at selected temperatures between -100°C and 200°C and the TRIP effect was found to be temperature-dependent due to stress-induced martensitic transformation at lower temperatures versus strain-induced transformation at higher temperatures.
Technical Paper

Seal Testing in Aerated Lubricants

2011-04-12
2011-01-1209
Typical seal immersion testing in lubricants does not aerate the lubricant as typically seen during normal operation of a transmission or axle. This paper will discuss a new test apparatus that introduces air into transmission fluids and gear oils during seal immersion testing. The seal materials selected for the testing are from current vehicle applications from several different material families. The test results compare the standard properties: change in tensile strength, elongation, hardness, and volume swell. Several tests were completed to investigate and refine the new testing method for seal compatibility testing with transmission fluids and gear oils. Initial results from the first data sets indicate that lubricant aeration helps improve test repeatability. In addition to aeration, the test results explore appropriate fluid immersion temperature for repeatability and appropriate test duration.
Technical Paper

Safety Belt and Occupant Factors Influencing Thoracic & Upper Abdominal Injuries in Frontal Crashes

2011-04-12
2011-01-1129
This paper reports on a study that examines the effect of shoulder belt load limiters and pretensioners as well as crash and occupant factors that influence upper torso harm in real-world frontal crashes. Cases from the University of Michigan International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) database were analyzed. Additional information was used from other databases including the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) New Car Assessment Program (NCAP), the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS), and patient data available from the University of Michigan Trauma Center. The ICAM database is comprised of information from real-world crashes in which occupants were seriously injured and required treatment at a Level 1 Trauma Center.
Journal Article

Response Surface Generation for Kinematics and Injury Prediction in Pedestrian Impact Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-0216
This study concerns the generation of response surfaces for kinematics and injury prediction in pedestrian impact simulations using human body model. A 1000-case DOE (Design of Experiments) study with a Latin Hypercube sampling scheme is conducted using a finite element pedestrian human body model and a simplified parametric vehicle front-end model. The Kriging method is taken as the approach to construct global approximations to system behavior based on results calculated at various points in the design space. Using the response surface models, human lower limb kinematics and injuries, including impact posture, lateral bending angle, ligament elongation and bone fractures, can be quickly assessed when either the structural dimensions or the structural behavior of the vehicle front-end design change. This will aid in vehicle front-end design to enhance protection of pedestrian lower limbs.
Journal Article

Reliability and Safety/Integrity Analysis for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Wireless Communication

2011-04-12
2011-01-1045
Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications are gaining increasing importance in automotive research and engineering domains. The novel communication scheme is targeted to improve driver safety (e.g., forward collision warnings) and comfort (e.g., routing to avoid congestion, automatic toll collection, etc.). Features exploiting these communication schemes are still in the early stages of research and development. However, growing attention to system wide infrastructure - in terms of OEM collaboration on interface standardization, protocol standardization, and government supported road/wireless infrastructure - will lead to popularity of such features in the future. This paper focuses on evaluating reliability and safety/integrity of data communicated over the wireless channels for early design verification. Analysis of a design can be done based on formal models, simulation, emulation, and testing.
Technical Paper

Random Frequency Response Analysis of Battery Systems Using ‘Virtual Shaker Table’

2011-04-12
2011-01-0665
This paper presents ‘Virtual Shaker Table’: a CAE method that enables random frequency structural response and random vibration fatigue analyses of a battery system. The Virtual Shaker Table method is a practical and systematic procedure that effectively assesses battery system vibration performance prior to final design, build and testing. A random structural frequency response analysis identifies the critical frequencies and modes at which the battery system is excited by random inputs. Fatigue life may be predicted after PSD stresses have been ascertained. This method enables frequency response analysis techniques to be applied quickly and accurately, thereby allowing assessment of multiple design alternatives. Virtual Shaker Table facilitates an elegant solution to some of the significant challenges inherent to complex battery system design and integration.
Technical Paper

Probability of a Crash During Plug-in Charging

2011-04-12
2011-01-1008
Plug-in electric vehicles are becoming increasingly popular as the U.S. and other nations look for ways to reduce the usage of petroleum fuels and reduce the carbon emission footprint. Though plug-in electric vehicles offer many advantages over conventional vehicles, they also present some unique potential hazards due to the presence of high voltage in the vehicle. Specifically, potential high voltage hazards can occur if the electric vehicle is crashed by another vehicle during its plug-in charging session. High voltage hazards include the possibility of electrical shock and thermal events as a result of electrical arcing that can cause injury or death to persons that operate or work around plug-in electric vehicles. Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ISO 26262), often abbreviated as ASIL, is used by the automotive industry for determining the ranking of safety hazards.
Technical Paper

Pressure Sensor Simulation Capability for Side Impact Sensing Calibration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0105
There is a growing interest in using pressure sensors to sense side impacts, where the pressure change inside the door cavity is monitored and used to discriminate trigger and non-trigger incidents. In this paper, a pressure sensor simulation capability for side impact sensing calibration is presented. The ability to use simulations for side impact sensing calibration early in the vehicle program development process could reduce vehicle development cost and time. It could also help in evaluating sensor locations by studying the effects of targeted impact points and contents in the door cavity. There are two modeling methods available in LS-DYNA for predicting pressure change inside a cavity, namely airbag method and fluid structure interaction method. A suite of side impact calibration events of a study vehicle were simulated using these two methods. The simulated door cavity pressure time histories were then extracted to calibrate the side sensing system of the study vehicle.
Journal Article

Modeling/Analysis of Pedestrian Back-Over Crashes from NHTSA's SCI Database

2011-04-12
2011-01-0588
An analysis of the first 35 back-over crashes reported by NHTSA's Special Crash Investigations unit was undertaken with two objectives: (1) to test a hypothesized classification of backing crashes into types, and (2) to characterize scenario-specific conditions that may drive countermeasure development requirements and/or objective test development requirements. Backing crash cases were sorted by type, and then analyzed in terms of key features. Subsequent modeling of these SCI cases was done using an adaptation of the Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Methodology (DREAM) and Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Methodology (CREAM) (similar to previous applications, for instance, by Ljung and Sandin to lane departure crashes [10]), which is felt to provide a useful tool for crash avoidance technology development.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Occupant Pocketing Kinematics During Whiplash Assessments

2011-04-12
2011-01-0270
This study documents a method developed for dynamically measuring occupant pocketing during various low-speed rear impact, or “whiplash” sled tests. This dynamic pocketing measurement can then be related to the various test parameters used to establish the performance rating or compliance results. Consumer metric and regulatory tests discussed within this paper as potential applications of this technique include, but are not limited to, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) Low Speed Rear Impact (LSRI) rating, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 202a, and European New Car Assessment Program (EURO-NCAP) whiplash rating. Example metrics are also described which may be used to assist in establishing the design position of the head restraint and optimize the balance between low-speed rear impact performance and customer comfort.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Stamping Tooling Durability for Dual Phase Steels

2011-04-12
2011-01-1060
Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) have become an essential part of the lightweighting strategy for automotive body structures. The ability to fully realize the benefits of AHSS depends upon the ability to aggressively form, trim, and pierce these steels into challenging parts. Tooling wear has been a roadblock to stamping these materials. Traditional die materials and designs have shown significant problems with accelerated wear, galling and die pickup, and premature wear and breakage of pierce punches. [1] This paper identifies and discusses the tribological factors that contribute to the successful stamping of AHSS. This includes minimizing tool wear and galling/die pick-up; identifying the most effective pierce clearance (wear vs. burr height) when piercing AHSS; and determining optimal die material and coating performance for tooling stamping AHSS.
Technical Paper

Intersection Management using Vehicular Networks

2012-04-16
2012-01-0292
Driving through intersections can be potentially dangerous because nearly 23 percent of the total automotive related fatalities and almost 1 million injury-causing crashes occur at or within intersections every year [1]. The impact of traffic intersections on trip delays also leads to waste of human and natural resources. Our goal is to increase the safety and throughput of traffic intersections using co-operative driving. In earlier work [2], we have proposed a family of vehicular network protocols, which use Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) and Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE) technologies to manage a vehicle's movement at intersections Specifically, we have provided a collision detection algorithm at intersections (CDAI) to avoid potential crashes at or near intersections and improve safety. We have shown that vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications can be used to significantly decrease the trip delays introduced by traffic lights and stop signs.
Technical Paper

Improving the Accuracy of Hybrid III-50th Percentile Male FE Model

2011-04-12
2011-01-0018
Accurate prediction of the responses from the anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in vehicle crash tests is critical to achieving better vehicle occupant performances. In recent years, automakers have used finite element (FE) models of the ATDs in computer simulations to obtain early assessments of occupant safety, and to aid in the development of occupant restraint systems. However, vehicle crash test results have variation, sometimes significant. This presents a challenge to assessing the accuracy of the ATD FE models, let alone improving them. To resolve this issue, it is important to understand the test variation and carefully select the target data for model improvement. This paper presents the work carried out by General Motors and Humanetics Innovative Solutions (formerly FTSS) in a joint project, aimed at improving the FE model of the Hybrid III-50 ATD (HIII-50) v5.1.
Technical Paper

Identification of Transportation Battery Systems for Recycling

2012-04-16
2012-01-0351
Electrification of the transportation industry is increasing rapidly with batteries currently the technology of choice. At the end of life, the battery chemistry used to electrify the vehicle may not be easily identifiable. A simple, common identifier is required to allow consumers, service and waste management personnel to direct unknown battery types to appropriate recyclers or secondary use markets. Recyclers also benefit from this identifier as it allows them to sort, screen for potential contamination to existing process streams, and identify the manufacturer so they may contact them to find detailed information about the battery to ensure proper and safe recycling. The SAE Battery Recycling Committee has recommended that batteries be identified by battery system, miscellaneous hazards and date of manufacture be identified as part of chemistry identification code. For the lithium-ion chemistry it is further recommended that cathode and anode be specified.
Journal Article

Idealized Vehicle Crash Test Pulses for Advanced Batteries

2013-04-08
2013-01-0764
This paper reports a study undertaken by the Crash Safety Working Group (CSWG) of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) to determine generic acceleration pulses for testing and evaluating advanced batteries subjected to inertial loading for application in electric passenger vehicles. These pulses were based on characterizing vehicle acceleration time histories from standard laboratory vehicle crash tests. Crash tested passenger vehicles in the United States vehicle fleet of the model years 2005-2009 were used in this study. Crash test data, in terms of acceleration time histories, were collected from various crash modes conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) during their New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) evaluations, and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS).
X