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Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel-to-Road Aerodynamic Drag Correlation

1988-02-01
880250
A comprehensive test program was conducted to correlate aerodynamic drag measurements from the General Motors Aerodynamics Laboratory with coastdown results. An improved method of coastdown testing was used to minimize the sources of error in determining aerodynamic drag. Several vehicles were tested, covering a large range of aerodynamic drag values, representative of current and future production vehicles. Wind tunnel and coastdown results were determined to be in good agreement, with an average drag coefficient difference of only. 008 (2%).
Technical Paper

WHERE DOES ALL THE POWER GO?

1957-01-01
570058
AS a basis for the analyses of this symposium, a hypothetical car has been used to evaluate the engine power distribution in performance. Effects of fuel,-engine accessories, and certain car accessories are evaluated. The role of the transmission in making engine power useful at normal car speeds is also discussed. Variables encountered in wind and rolling resistance determinations are reevaluated by improved test techniques. Net horsepower of the car in terms of acceleration, passing ability and grade capability are also summarized.
Technical Paper

Viscosity Effects on Engine Wear Under High-Temperature, High-Speed Conditions

1978-02-01
780982
Four multigrade engine oils, containing the same base oil plus SE additive package but VI improvers of differing shear stability, were evaluated in 80 000 km of high-speed, high-temperature vehicle service. Bearing, piston ring and valve guide wear, as well as oil consumption, oil filter plugging and engine cleanliness were all worse for the engines operated on the low-shear stability oils. The wear differences were traced to differences in high-shear-rate viscosity, while the cleanliness, filter plugging and oil consumption differences occurred because of excessive wear or polymer shear degradation. These results suggest that engine oil viscosity should be specified under high-shear-rate conditions.
Technical Paper

Vapor-Locking Tendencies of Fuels A Practical Approach

1958-01-01
580034
THIS paper describes what the authors consider to be a simplified method of determining the vapor-locking tendencies of gasolines. The study of vapor lock was undertaken after they found the Reid vapor pressure method to be inadequate. The result of their work was the development of the General Motors vapor pressure, a single number which predicts vapor-locking tendency. The authors point out the following advantages of the new method: It allows direct comparisons of vapor-lock test results of different reference fuel systems; establishes distribution curves of volatility requirements of cars for vapor-lock free operation and of vapor-locking tendencies of gasolines; is a common reference value for both petroleum and automotive engineers. Finally, it more realistically evaluates the effects of small weathering losses on vapor-locking tendency than does Rvp.
Technical Paper

Utilization of a Chassis Dynamometer for Development of Exterior Noise Control Systems

1997-05-20
972012
The development of systems and components for control of exterior noise has traditionally been done through an iterative process of on road testing. Frequently, road testing of vehicle modifications are delayed due to ambient environmental changes that prevent testing. Vehicle dynamometers used for powertrain development often had limited space preventing far field measurements. Recently, several European vehicle manufacturers constructed facilities that provided adequate space for simulation of the road test. This paper describes the first implementation of that technology in the U.S.. The facility is typical of those used world wide, but it is important to recognize some of the challenges to effective utilization of the technique to correlate this measurement to on road certification.
Technical Paper

Truck Aerodynamics

1962-01-01
620531
A requirement for larger trucks and higher operating speed is indicated. The present report presents wind tunnel data on drag of a Chevrolet truck-trailer combination. Possible means of drag reduction are examined. Although side force and yawing moment data are presented, their effect on directional stability are not, at present analyzed.
Technical Paper

The Oxidative Stability of GM's DEXRON®-VI Global Factory Fill ATF

2006-10-16
2006-01-3241
A detailed description of the oxidative stability of GM's DEXRON®-VI Factory Fill Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF) is provided, which can be integrated into a working algorithm to estimate the end of useful oxidative life of the fluid. As described previously, an algorithm to determine the end of useful life of an automatic transmission fluid exists and is composed of two simultaneous counters, one monitoring bulk oxidation and the other monitoring friction degradation [1]. When either the bulk oxidation model or the friction model reach the specified limit, a signal can be triggered to alert the driver that an ATF change is required. The data presented in this report can be used to develop the bulk oxidation model. The bulk oxidation model is built from a large series of bench oxidation tests. These data can also be used independent of a vehicle to show the relative oxidation resistance of this fluid, at various temperatures, compared to other common lubricants.
Technical Paper

The Mvma Investigation Into the Complexities of Heavy Truck Splash and Spray Problem

1985-01-01
856097
Splash and spray conditions created by tractor-trailer combinations operating on the Federal highway system have been studied and tested for many years with mixed results. Past events are reviewed briefly in this paper. In additional testing during 1983, using new state-of- the-art splash/spray suppressant devices, some encouragement was provided that these devices could work. The 1984 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) test program was designed to develop practicable and reliable test procedures to measure effectiveness of splash and spray reduction methods applied to tractor-trailer combination vehicles. Over 40 different combinations of splash/spray suppression devices on five different tractors and three van trailer types were tested. The spray-cloud densities for some 400 test runs were measured by laser transmissometers and also recorded by still photography, motion pictures, and videotape. On-site observers made subjective ratings of spray density.
Technical Paper

The Electronically Controlled 6.5L Diesel Engine

1993-11-01
932983
For model year 1994, General Motors has completed the roll out of the 6.5L Diesel Engine, with the introduction of the light duty certified naturally aspirated and turbocharged engines. At the heart of the expanded use of the 6.5L is a new electronic powertrain control system. The objectives for this system were to produce an engine that has less variation, is easier to assemble, low cost and capable of meeting both heavy and light duty future emissions requirements. Control features include Fuel Quantity and Timing, EGR, Wastegate, Glow Plugs, Transmission, Cruise Control and Diagnostics.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Trip Length and Oil Type (Synthetic Versus Mineral Oil) on Engine Damage and Engine-Oil Degradation in a Driving Test of a Vehicle with a 5.7L V-8 Engine

1993-10-01
932838
Extending engine-oil-change intervals is of interest from the standpoint of reducing used oil disposal and reducing time and expense of maintenance. However, the oil must be changed before serious oil degradation and engine damage occur. Three variables which influence oil degradation were chosen for investigation: base oil composition (synthetic oil versus mineral oil), trip length (short trips versus long trips), and driving schedule (degrading an oil during a given type of service, then changing to another type of service without an intervening oil change). Analysis of oil samples taken throughout the testing program indicated that type of service (freeway compared to short trip) influenced oil degradation to a greater extent than oil type. That is, API SG-quality synthetic oil in short-trip service degraded faster than borderline SG-quality mineral oil in long-trip service.
Technical Paper

The Bulge of Tubes and a Failure Criterion for Tube Hydroforming

2001-03-05
2001-01-1132
The bulge test in hydroforming is a simple fundamental experiment used to obtain basic knowledge in tube expansion. The results can be used to assist design and manufacturing of hydroformed automotive parts. It also can be used to develop a failure criterion for tubes in hydroforming. For these purposes, a section of a long unsupported tube with fixed ends was simulated numerically to obtain the mechanical states of the tube subjected to internal pressure. Steel and aluminum tubes are used. For the bulge tests, the internal pressure reaches a maximum and then decreases in value without failure while the stress, strain and volume of the tube keep increasing. A failure criterion for the bursting of a tube is proposed based on the stress-strain curve of the material.
Technical Paper

The Application of Direct Body Excitation Toward Developing a Full Vehicle Objective Squeak and Rattle Metric

2001-04-30
2001-01-1554
In order to engineer Squeak & Rattle (S&R) free vehicles it is essential to develop an objective measurement method to compare and correlate with customer satisfaction and subjective S&R assessments. Three methods for exciting S&Rs -type surfaces. Excitation methods evaluated were road tests over S&R surfaces, road simulators, and direct body excitation (DBE). The principle of DBE involves using electromagnetic shakers to induce controlled, road-measured vibration into the body, bypassing the tire patch and suspension. DBE is a promising technology for making objective measurements because it is extremely quiet (test equipment noise does not mask S&Rs), while meeting other project goals. While DBE is limited in exposing S&Rs caused by body twist and suspension noises, advantages include higher frequency energy owing to electro-dynamic shakers, continuous random excitation, lower capital cost, mobility, and safety.
Technical Paper

The Aerodynamic Optimization of a Successful IMSA GT Race Car

1996-12-01
962518
This paper describes the methodology used to achieve optimum aerodynamic performance of the 1992 through 1995 Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme IMSA GT race car and will demonstrate the continuous improvements successfully used to respond to rule changes and competition. The concerted effort by the sanctioning body to limit the aerodynamic performance of IMSA GT race cars for the 1995 season required a rigorous wind tunnel test program backed by track validation to maintain the necessary aerodynamic balance, cooling flows, engine induction flow, and overall competitive parity. The specific modifications that were evaluated to accommodate these rules changes will be detailed in this paper. Special test methodologies developed to better understand specific aerodynamics questions such as the effects of vehicle attitude, internal cooling flows, underbody treatments, and engine air inlet performance will also be discussed.
Technical Paper

Synthesis of Chassis Parameters for Ride and Handling on the 1997 Chevrolet Corvette

1997-02-24
970097
This paper describes the performance attributes of the all-new front and rear SLA (short-long arm) suspensions, steering system, and tires of the 1997 Corvette. The process by which these subsystem attributes flowed down from vehicle-level requirements for ride and handling performance is briefly described. Additionally, where applicable, specific subsystem attributes are rationalized back to a corresponding vehicle-level performance requirement. Suspension kinematic and compliance characteristics are described and contrasted to those of the previous generation (1984 to 1996 Model Year) Corvette. Both synthesis/analysis activities as well as mule-level vehicle development work are cited for their roles in mapping out specific subsystem attributes and related vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

Selection and Development of a Particulate Trap System for a Light Duty Diesel Engine

1992-02-01
920142
In order to meet progressively stringent regulations on particulate emission from diesel engines, GM has developed and tested a variety of trap oxidizer systems over the years. A particulate trap system for a light duty diesel engine has been selected and developed based on this experience, with particular emphasis on production feasibility. The system components have been designed and developed in collaboration with potential suppliers, to the extent possible. The technical performance of this system has been demonstrated by successful system durability testing in the test cell and vehicle experience in computer controlled automatic operation mode. Although the system shows promise, its production readiness will require more development and extensive vehicle validation under all operating conditions.
Book

SAE Ferrous Materials Standards Manual - 2004 Edition

2004-07-21
The 2004 SAE Ferrous Materials Standards Manual provides a comprehensive compilation of the SAE Technical Reports relating to specifications, testing, and defining of Ferrous Materials. These standards, Recommended Practices, and Information Reports have been developed by Carbon and Alloy Steels Committee, Metals Test Procedures Committee, Automotive Iron and Steel Castings Committee, Sheet and Strip Steel Committee, Elevated Temperature Properties of Ferrous Metals Committee who comprise the Metals Technical Executive Committee (MTEC). MTEC also governs the other Standards, Recommended Practices, and Information Reports that have been developed by prior division that are now inactive. As an informational guide and background for the values and procedures in the SAE Technical Report, HS-30 also includes Examples of Related SAE Technical Papers.
Technical Paper

Running Loss Test Procedure Development

1992-02-01
920322
A running loss test procedure has been developed which integrates a point-source collection method to measure fuel evaporative running loss from vehicles during their operation on the chassis dynamometer. The point-source method is part of a complete running loss test procedure which employs the combination of site-specific collection devices on the vehicle, and a sampling pump with sampling lines. Fugitive fuel vapor is drawn into these collectors which have been matched to characteristics of the vehicle and the test cell. The composite vapor sample is routed to a collection bag through an adaptation of the ordinary constant volume dilution system typically used for vehicle exhaust gas sampling. Analysis of the contents of such bags provides an accurate measure of the mass and species of running loss collected during each of three LA-4* driving cycles. Other running loss sampling methods were considered by the Auto-Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP or Program).
Technical Paper

Rollover and Drop Tests - The Influence of Roof Strength on Injury Mechanics Using Belted Dummies

1990-10-01
902314
This report presents the test methods and results of a study involving lap/shoulder belted dummies in dynamic dolly rollover tests and inverted vehicle drop tests. Data are presented showing dummy neck loadings resulting from head impacts to the vehicle interior as the vehicle contacts the ground. Comparison of the number and magnitude of axial neckloads are presented for rollcaged and production vehicles, as well as an analysis of the factors which influence neckloads under these conditions.
Technical Paper

Results of the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association Component and Full-Vehicle Side Impact Test Procedure Evaluation Program

1985-01-01
856087
This paper presents an extensive research program undertaken to develop improved side impact test methods. The development of a component side impact test device along with an associated test procedure are reviewed. The results of accident data analysis techniques to define anatomical areas most likely to be injured during side impact and definition of test device response corridors based on human surrogate testing conducted by the Association Peugeot/Renault and the University of Heidelberg are discussed. The relationship of response corridors and accident data analysis in earlier phases of the project resulted in definition and development of a component side impact test device to represent the human thorax. A test program to evaluate and compare component and full-vehicle test results is presented.
Technical Paper

Responses of Animals Exposed to Deployment of Various Passenger Inflatable Restraint System Concepts for a Variety of Collision Severities and Animal Positions

1982-01-01
826047
This paper summarizes the results of tests conducted with anesthetized animals that were exposed to a wide range of passenger inflatable restraint cushion forces for a variety of impact sled - simulated accident conditions. The test configurations and inflatable restraint system concepts were selected to produce a broad spectrum of injury types and severities to the major organs of the head, neck and torso of the animals. These data were needed to interpret the significance of the responses of an instrumented child dummy that was being used to evaluate child injury potential of the passenger inflatable restraint system being developed by General Motors Corporation. Injuries ranging from no injury to fatal were observed for the head, neck and abdomen regions. Thoracic injuries ranged from no injury to critical, survival uncertain.
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