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Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel-to-Road Aerodynamic Drag Correlation

1988-02-01
880250
A comprehensive test program was conducted to correlate aerodynamic drag measurements from the General Motors Aerodynamics Laboratory with coastdown results. An improved method of coastdown testing was used to minimize the sources of error in determining aerodynamic drag. Several vehicles were tested, covering a large range of aerodynamic drag values, representative of current and future production vehicles. Wind tunnel and coastdown results were determined to be in good agreement, with an average drag coefficient difference of only. 008 (2%).
Technical Paper

Utilization of a Chassis Dynamometer for Development of Exterior Noise Control Systems

1997-05-20
972012
The development of systems and components for control of exterior noise has traditionally been done through an iterative process of on road testing. Frequently, road testing of vehicle modifications are delayed due to ambient environmental changes that prevent testing. Vehicle dynamometers used for powertrain development often had limited space preventing far field measurements. Recently, several European vehicle manufacturers constructed facilities that provided adequate space for simulation of the road test. This paper describes the first implementation of that technology in the U.S.. The facility is typical of those used world wide, but it is important to recognize some of the challenges to effective utilization of the technique to correlate this measurement to on road certification.
Technical Paper

Truck Aerodynamics

1962-01-01
620531
A requirement for larger trucks and higher operating speed is indicated. The present report presents wind tunnel data on drag of a Chevrolet truck-trailer combination. Possible means of drag reduction are examined. Although side force and yawing moment data are presented, their effect on directional stability are not, at present analyzed.
Technical Paper

The Northstar DOHC V-8 Engine for Cadillac

1992-02-01
920671
General Motors Powertrain Division has developed a new V-8 engine for Cadillac vehicles in the 1990s. The Northstar engine incorporates the use of aluminum for both the cylinder block and head and other lightweight materials throughout. The valve train incorporates direct acting hydraulic lifters actuating the four valves per cylinder through dual overhead camshafts. The primary focus of the project has been to produce an engine of unquestioned reliability and exceptional value which is pleasing to the customer throughout the range of loads and speeds. The engine was designed with a light weight valve train, low valve overlap and moderate lift, resulting in a very pleasing combination of smooth idle and a broad range of power. The use of analytical methods early in the design stage enabled systems to be engineered to optimize reliability, pleaseability and value by reducing frictional losses, noise, and potential leak paths, while increasing efficiency and ease of manufacture.
Technical Paper

The Mvma Investigation Into the Complexities of Heavy Truck Splash and Spray Problem

1985-01-01
856097
Splash and spray conditions created by tractor-trailer combinations operating on the Federal highway system have been studied and tested for many years with mixed results. Past events are reviewed briefly in this paper. In additional testing during 1983, using new state-of- the-art splash/spray suppressant devices, some encouragement was provided that these devices could work. The 1984 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) test program was designed to develop practicable and reliable test procedures to measure effectiveness of splash and spray reduction methods applied to tractor-trailer combination vehicles. Over 40 different combinations of splash/spray suppression devices on five different tractors and three van trailer types were tested. The spray-cloud densities for some 400 test runs were measured by laser transmissometers and also recorded by still photography, motion pictures, and videotape. On-site observers made subjective ratings of spray density.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Trip Length and Oil Type (Synthetic Versus Mineral Oil) on Engine Damage and Engine-Oil Degradation in a Driving Test of a Vehicle with a 5.7L V-8 Engine

1993-10-01
932838
Extending engine-oil-change intervals is of interest from the standpoint of reducing used oil disposal and reducing time and expense of maintenance. However, the oil must be changed before serious oil degradation and engine damage occur. Three variables which influence oil degradation were chosen for investigation: base oil composition (synthetic oil versus mineral oil), trip length (short trips versus long trips), and driving schedule (degrading an oil during a given type of service, then changing to another type of service without an intervening oil change). Analysis of oil samples taken throughout the testing program indicated that type of service (freeway compared to short trip) influenced oil degradation to a greater extent than oil type. That is, API SG-quality synthetic oil in short-trip service degraded faster than borderline SG-quality mineral oil in long-trip service.
Technical Paper

The Application of Direct Body Excitation Toward Developing a Full Vehicle Objective Squeak and Rattle Metric

2001-04-30
2001-01-1554
In order to engineer Squeak & Rattle (S&R) free vehicles it is essential to develop an objective measurement method to compare and correlate with customer satisfaction and subjective S&R assessments. Three methods for exciting S&Rs -type surfaces. Excitation methods evaluated were road tests over S&R surfaces, road simulators, and direct body excitation (DBE). The principle of DBE involves using electromagnetic shakers to induce controlled, road-measured vibration into the body, bypassing the tire patch and suspension. DBE is a promising technology for making objective measurements because it is extremely quiet (test equipment noise does not mask S&Rs), while meeting other project goals. While DBE is limited in exposing S&Rs caused by body twist and suspension noises, advantages include higher frequency energy owing to electro-dynamic shakers, continuous random excitation, lower capital cost, mobility, and safety.
Technical Paper

The Aerodynamic Optimization of a Successful IMSA GT Race Car

1996-12-01
962518
This paper describes the methodology used to achieve optimum aerodynamic performance of the 1992 through 1995 Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme IMSA GT race car and will demonstrate the continuous improvements successfully used to respond to rule changes and competition. The concerted effort by the sanctioning body to limit the aerodynamic performance of IMSA GT race cars for the 1995 season required a rigorous wind tunnel test program backed by track validation to maintain the necessary aerodynamic balance, cooling flows, engine induction flow, and overall competitive parity. The specific modifications that were evaluated to accommodate these rules changes will be detailed in this paper. Special test methodologies developed to better understand specific aerodynamics questions such as the effects of vehicle attitude, internal cooling flows, underbody treatments, and engine air inlet performance will also be discussed.
Technical Paper

Streamlining Chassis Tuning for Chevrolet and GMC Trucks and Vans

2005-04-11
2005-01-0406
This paper describes some methods for greatly reducing or possibly eliminating subjective tuning of suspension parts for ride and handling. Laptop computers can now be used in the vehicle to guide the tuning process. The same tools can be used to select solutions that reduce sensitivity to production and environmental variations. OBJECTIVE Reduce or eliminate time required for tuning of suspension parts for ride characteristics. Improve the robustness of ride performance relative to variations in ambient temperature and production tolerances. PROBLEM REQUIRING SOLUTION AND METHOD OF APPROACH Traditional development programs for new vehicles include time-consuming subjective ride evaluations. One example is shock absorber tuning. Even if sophisticated models define force-velocity curves, numerous hardware iterations are needed to find valvings that will reproduce the curves. Many evaluation rides are needed to modify the valvings to meet performance targets.
Technical Paper

Selection and Development of a Particulate Trap System for a Light Duty Diesel Engine

1992-02-01
920142
In order to meet progressively stringent regulations on particulate emission from diesel engines, GM has developed and tested a variety of trap oxidizer systems over the years. A particulate trap system for a light duty diesel engine has been selected and developed based on this experience, with particular emphasis on production feasibility. The system components have been designed and developed in collaboration with potential suppliers, to the extent possible. The technical performance of this system has been demonstrated by successful system durability testing in the test cell and vehicle experience in computer controlled automatic operation mode. Although the system shows promise, its production readiness will require more development and extensive vehicle validation under all operating conditions.
Book

SAE Ferrous Materials Standards Manual - 2004 Edition

2004-07-21
The 2004 SAE Ferrous Materials Standards Manual provides a comprehensive compilation of the SAE Technical Reports relating to specifications, testing, and defining of Ferrous Materials. These standards, Recommended Practices, and Information Reports have been developed by Carbon and Alloy Steels Committee, Metals Test Procedures Committee, Automotive Iron and Steel Castings Committee, Sheet and Strip Steel Committee, Elevated Temperature Properties of Ferrous Metals Committee who comprise the Metals Technical Executive Committee (MTEC). MTEC also governs the other Standards, Recommended Practices, and Information Reports that have been developed by prior division that are now inactive. As an informational guide and background for the values and procedures in the SAE Technical Report, HS-30 also includes Examples of Related SAE Technical Papers.
Technical Paper

Running Loss Test Procedure Development

1992-02-01
920322
A running loss test procedure has been developed which integrates a point-source collection method to measure fuel evaporative running loss from vehicles during their operation on the chassis dynamometer. The point-source method is part of a complete running loss test procedure which employs the combination of site-specific collection devices on the vehicle, and a sampling pump with sampling lines. Fugitive fuel vapor is drawn into these collectors which have been matched to characteristics of the vehicle and the test cell. The composite vapor sample is routed to a collection bag through an adaptation of the ordinary constant volume dilution system typically used for vehicle exhaust gas sampling. Analysis of the contents of such bags provides an accurate measure of the mass and species of running loss collected during each of three LA-4* driving cycles. Other running loss sampling methods were considered by the Auto-Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP or Program).
Technical Paper

Rollover and Drop Tests - The Influence of Roof Strength on Injury Mechanics Using Belted Dummies

1990-10-01
902314
This report presents the test methods and results of a study involving lap/shoulder belted dummies in dynamic dolly rollover tests and inverted vehicle drop tests. Data are presented showing dummy neck loadings resulting from head impacts to the vehicle interior as the vehicle contacts the ground. Comparison of the number and magnitude of axial neckloads are presented for rollcaged and production vehicles, as well as an analysis of the factors which influence neckloads under these conditions.
Technical Paper

Results of the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association Component and Full-Vehicle Side Impact Test Procedure Evaluation Program

1985-01-01
856087
This paper presents an extensive research program undertaken to develop improved side impact test methods. The development of a component side impact test device along with an associated test procedure are reviewed. The results of accident data analysis techniques to define anatomical areas most likely to be injured during side impact and definition of test device response corridors based on human surrogate testing conducted by the Association Peugeot/Renault and the University of Heidelberg are discussed. The relationship of response corridors and accident data analysis in earlier phases of the project resulted in definition and development of a component side impact test device to represent the human thorax. A test program to evaluate and compare component and full-vehicle test results is presented.
Technical Paper

Responses of Animals Exposed to Deployment of Various Passenger Inflatable Restraint System Concepts for a Variety of Collision Severities and Animal Positions

1982-01-01
826047
This paper summarizes the results of tests conducted with anesthetized animals that were exposed to a wide range of passenger inflatable restraint cushion forces for a variety of impact sled - simulated accident conditions. The test configurations and inflatable restraint system concepts were selected to produce a broad spectrum of injury types and severities to the major organs of the head, neck and torso of the animals. These data were needed to interpret the significance of the responses of an instrumented child dummy that was being used to evaluate child injury potential of the passenger inflatable restraint system being developed by General Motors Corporation. Injuries ranging from no injury to fatal were observed for the head, neck and abdomen regions. Thoracic injuries ranged from no injury to critical, survival uncertain.
Technical Paper

Reliability and Maintainability of Machinery and Equipment for Effective Maintenance

1993-03-01
930569
Typically, “Reliability and Maintainability (R&M)” is perceived as a tool for products alone. Putting emphasis on reliability only at the cost of maintainability is another archetype. Inclusion of both reliability and maintainability (R&M) in all the phases of the machinery and equipment (M&E) life cycle is required in order to be world competitive in manufacturing. R&M is mainly a design function and it should be a part of any design review. Inclusion of the R&M concept early in the life cycle of M&E is key to cost effective and competitive manufacturing. Neither responsive manufacturing nor preventive maintenance can raise it above the level of inherent R&M.
Technical Paper

Reducing Catalytic Converter Pressure Loss with Enhanced Inlet-Header Diffusion

1995-10-01
952398
The function of the inlet header of a catalytic converter is to diffuse the inlet exhaust flow, decreasing its velocity and increasing its static pressure with as little loss in total pressure as possible. In practice, very little diffusion takes place in most catalytic converter inlet headers because the flow separates at the interface of the pipe and the tapered section leading to the substrate. This leads to increased converter pressure loss and flow maldistribution. An improved inlet-header design called the Enhanced Diffusion Header (EDH) was developed which combines a short, shallow-angle diffuser with a more abrupt expansion to the substrate cross section. Tests conducted in room air (cold flow) and engine exhaust showed that improved inlet-jet diffusion leads to substantial reductions in converter restriction. EDH performance was not compromised by the presence of a right-angle bend upstream of the converter.
Technical Paper

Performance of Coatings for Underbody Structural Components

2001-03-05
2001-01-0363
The Auto/Steel Partnership established the Light Truck Frame Project Group in 1996 with two objectives: (a) to develop materials, design and fabrication knowledge that would enable the frames on North American OEM (original equipment manufacturer) light trucks to be reduced in weight, and (b) to improve corrosion resistance of frames on these vehicles, thereby allowing a reduction in the thickness of the components and a reduction in frame weight. To address the issues relating to corrosion, a subgroup of the Light Truck Frame Project Group was formed. The group comprised representatives from the North American automotive companies, test laboratories, frame manufacturers, and steel producers. As part of a comprehensive test program, the Corrosion Subgroup has completed tests on frame coatings. Using coated panels of a low carbon hot rolled and pickled steel sheet and two types of accelerated cyclic corrosion tests, seven frame coatings were tested for corrosion performance.
Technical Paper

POWERMATIC A New Automatic for Chevrolet Transmission Heavy-Duty Trucks

1957-01-01
570012
THIS paper describes the development of a truck automatic transmission, from a statement of broad objectives through the growing pains, to road testing of the final product. Emphasis is placed upon original thinking that led to the decision to undertake such a project, compromises that suggested themselves throughout the various stages, and features tried and found wanting as well as those retained. The finished product is described full though not in detail, stress being placed upon interesting and novel design features.
Technical Paper

Microcomputers in Instrumentation

1974-02-01
741095
Microcomputer technology has added a new dimension to the design of test instrumentation, but the connotations of the name microcomputer have a tendency to build barriers rather than offer solutions to problems. Historically, computers have been treated as systems or identifiable subsystems in instrumentation applications. The implications of complex hardware and mystical programming is often sufficient to direct the user to alternate technologies. In a new light, clear of earlier prejudices, the microcomputer becomes a functional module like other LSI devices. Flexible and economical systems involving logical control, data gathering, and numerical calculations are possible utilizations of these relatively new devices. This paper discusses a facility to assist the designer in development of test instrumentation. Emphasis is placed on use of the microcomputer as an integral part of system design. Test instrument applications are cited.
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