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Technical Paper

the effect of Residual Stresses Induced by Strain-Peening upon Fatigue Strength

THE PURPOSE of this experiment was to determine the role of residual stresses in fatigue strength independent of other factors usually involved when residual stresses are introduced. It consisted of an investigation of the influence of residual stresses introduced by shotpeening on the fatigue strength of steel (Rockwell C hardness 48) in unidirectional bending. Residual stresses were varied by peening under various conditions of applied strain. This process introduced substantially the same amount and kind of surface cold working with residual stresses varying over a wide range of values. It was found that shotpeening of steel of this hardness is beneficial primarily because of the nature of the macro-residual-stresses introduced by the process. There is no gain attributable to “strain-hardening” for this material. An effort was made to explain the results on the basis of three failure criteria: distortion energy, maximum shear stress, and maximum stress.*
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Synthesis Techniques for the Integration of Chassis Systems in Total Vehicle Design

A practical methodology is presented for the synthesis of Chassis Systems and their integration into a vehicle design to achieve a specified vehicle dynamic performance. By focusing on the fundamental performance requirements of gain, response time, and stability in midrange handling and the higher level design parameters of front and rear cornering compliance it is possible to find optimum values for these design parameters. The balancing of these higher level design parameters, in the context of overall vehicle performance, determines primary system requirements for the front suspension, rear suspension, tires, and steering system which may in turn be met by a variety of specific hardware designs.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cross Wind Air Flow Analysis

CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) has been used to analyze vehicle air flow. In cross wind conditions an asymmetrical flow field around the vehicle is present. Under these circumstances, in addition to the forces present with symmetric air flow (drag and lift forces and pitching moment), side forces and moments (rolling and yawing) occur. Issues related to fuel economy, driveability, sealing effects (caused by suction exerted on the door), structural integrity (sun roof, spoiler), water management (rain deposit), and dirt deposit (shear stress) have been investigated. Due to the software developments and computer hardware improvements, results can be obtained within a reasonable time frame with excellent accuracy (both geometry and analytical solution). The flow velocity, streamlines, pressure field, and component forces can be extracted from the analysis results through visualization to identify potential improvement areas.
Technical Paper

Variation in Cyclic Deformation and Strain-Controlled Fatigue Properties Using Different Curve Fitting and Measurement Techniques

The strain-life approach is now commonly used for fatigue life analysis and predictions in the ground vehicle industry. This approach requires the use of material properties obtained from strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests. These properties include fatigue strength coefficient (σf′), fatigue strength exponent (b), fatigue ductility coefficient (εf′), fatigue ductility exponent (c), cyclic strength coefficient (K′), and cyclic strain hardening exponent (n′). To obtain the aforementioned properties for the material, raw data from stable cyclic stress-strain loops are fitted in log-log scale. These data include total, elastic and plastic strain amplitudes, stress amplitude, and fatigue life. Values of the low cycle fatigue properties (σf′, b, εf′, c) determined from the raw data depend on the method of measurement and fitting. This paper examines the merits and influence of using different measurement and fitting methods on the obtained properties.
Technical Paper

Truck Aerodynamics

A requirement for larger trucks and higher operating speed is indicated. The present report presents wind tunnel data on drag of a Chevrolet truck-trailer combination. Possible means of drag reduction are examined. Although side force and yawing moment data are presented, their effect on directional stability are not, at present analyzed.
Technical Paper

The Manufacturing Manager and the Computer

This paper discusses the development and execution of a unique one-day, hands-on seminar designed to introduce top-level manufacturing managers to the computer. Total emphasis is on manufacturing applications, and each manager is afforded an opportunity to use the computer himself. The mystery of data cards, teletype terminals, and CRTs is removed during line balancing, simulation, and process control work sessions. The seminar was developed by General Motor's Manufacturing Development Activity for internal presentation to GM managers.
Technical Paper

Squeak Studies on Material Pair Compatibility

The more noise and vibration improvements are incorporated into our vehicles, the more customers notice squeaks and rattles (S&R). Customers increasingly perceive S&R as a direct indicator of vehicle build quality and durability. The high profile nature of S&R has the automotive industry striving to develop the understanding and technology of how to improve the S&R performance in the vehicle. Squeaks and itches make up a significant amount of Squeak and Rattle complaints found in today's vehicles. Squeaks and itches are the result of stick slip behavior between two interacting surfaces. Squeak itch behavior is dependent upon a large number of parameters including but not limited to: the material itself, temperature, humidity, normal load, system compliance, part geometry, velocity, surface roughness, wear, contaminants, etc. This paper will describe the analysis of sound data and friction data and the relationship between them.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Extrusions

Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.
Technical Paper

Investigating Impulsive Sounds - Beyond “Zwicker-Loudness”

The common occurrence of impulsive sounds in automobiles and the recent emphasis on producing vehicles with a “quality sound” has increased the need for a method for measuring the pitch of impulsive sounds. Using Zwicker’s Loudness Patterns as a basis, a data reduction method was developed which summarizes the frequency content of each pattern. The method yields time varying quantities called Percentile Partial Loudness Frequencies from a time series of Loudness Patterns. Several “simple” impulsive sounds, representing a range of pitches, were investigated using this method. Visual inspection of the results has identified trends which seem to rank the impulsive sounds in agreement with subjective pitch rankings of a listening jury. In addition, the method appears to be capable of ranking the early portion of the impulse as a sharp or dull attack. Further investigations are needed to confirm these observations and refine the technique.
Technical Paper

Interrelationship of Design, Lubrication, and Metallurgy in Cam and Tappet Performance

A PROGRAM was undertaken to evaluate the performance of cams and tappets as influenced by design, lubrication, and metallurgical techniques. Car and dynamometer tests and a newly developed bench test are described. The latter shows promise in lending itself to the determination of the effects of single variables in a practical, short, and economic fashion, while the former do not. For the conditions of high contact stress and boundary lubrication experienced in cam and tappet operation, the authors draw several conclusions from the test work described, categorically related to the design, lubrication, and metallurigical problems present.
Technical Paper

FEA Predictions and Test Results from Magnesium Beams in Bending and Axial Compression

Finite element analysis (FEA) predictions of magnesium beams are compared to load versus displacement test measurements. The beams are made from AM60B die castings, AM30 extrusions and AZ31 sheet. The sheet and die cast beams are built up from two top hat sections joined with toughened epoxy adhesive and structural rivets. LS-DYNA material model MAT_124 predicts the magnesium behavior over a range of strain rates and accommodates different responses in tension and compression. Material test results and FEA experience set the strain to failure limits in the FEA predictions. The boundary conditions in the FEA models closely mimic the loading and constraint conditions in the component testing. Results from quasi-static four-point bend, quasi-static axial compression and high-speed axial compression tests of magnesium beams show the beam's behavior over a range of loadings and test rates. The magnesium beams exhibit significant material cracking and splitting in all the tests.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Continuous Annealed Bake Hardenable Steel for Improved Dent Resistance

The potential of bake hardenable steel as a substitute for SAE 1008 steel to reduce gage and improve dent resistance is investigated in this report. Outer body panels in particular are susceptible to palm printing and other forms of denting. Conventional SAE 1008 steel and a developmental continuous annealed bake hardenable steel from Inland Steel Company are compared for dent performance properties. Bake hardenable (BH) steel is a medium strength (200-350 MPa) steel that receives an increase in yield strength during the heating of the paint bake cycle. An increase in yield strength would result in an increase in dent resistance. The increase in dent resistance is more quantitatively evaluated by comparing the BH steel with the current production material (SAE 1008) of a rear compartment lid outer.
Technical Paper

Effect of Simulated Material Properties and Residual Stresses on High Cycle Fatigue Prediction in a Compacted Graphite Iron Engine Block

Casting, machining and structural simulations were completed on a V8 engine block made in Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) for use in a racing application. The casting and machining simulations generated maps of predicted tensile strength and residual stress in the block. These strength and stress maps were exported to a finite element structural model of the machined part. Assembly and operating loads were applied, and stresses due to these loads were determined. High cycle fatigue analysis was completed, and three sets of safety factors were calculated using the following conditions: uniform properties and no residual stress, predicted properties and no residual stress, and predicted properties plus residual stress.
Technical Paper

Counter-Gravity Casting Process for Making Thinwall Steel Exhaust Manifolds

Casting technology developmentshave led to a manufacturing process that allows the casting of thin wall (2-3mm) heat resistant ferritic stainless steel exhaust manifolds which can replace stamped and tubular weldments as well as iron castings where temperature requirements are increased. This casting process combines the thin wall and clean metal benefits of the counter gravity, vacuum-assist casting process using thin, light-weight bonded sand molds supported by vacuum-ridgidized sand. This combination is called the LSVAC (Loose Sand Vacuum Assisted Casting) process, a patented process. This process will significantly contribute to the growth of near-net shape steellstainless steel castings for automotive and allied industries. For exhaust manifolds, a modified grade of ferritic stainless steel with good oxidation resistance to 950°C in high dew point synthetic exhaust gas atmospheres was developed.