# Search Results

Viewing 1 to 12 of 12
Technical Paper

### Using a Geometric Toolkit to Link Finite Element Calculations in Sheet Metal Forming Analysis

1994-03-01
940748
Sheet metal forming of automobile body panel consists of two processes performed in series: binder forming and punch forming. Due to differences in deformation characteristics of the two forming processes, their analysis methods are different. The binder wrap surface shape and formed part shape are calculated using different mathematical models and different finite element codes, e.g., WRAPFORM and PANELFORM, respectively. The output of the binder forming analysis may not be directly applicable to the subsequent punch forming analysis. Interpolation, or approximation, of the calculated binder wrap surface geometry is needed. This surface representation requirement is carried out using computer aided geometric design tools. This paper discusses the use of such a tool, SURFPLAN, to link WRAPFORM and PANELFORM calculations.
Technical Paper

### The Bulge of Tubes and a Failure Criterion for Tube Hydroforming

2001-03-05
2001-01-1132
The bulge test in hydroforming is a simple fundamental experiment used to obtain basic knowledge in tube expansion. The results can be used to assist design and manufacturing of hydroformed automotive parts. It also can be used to develop a failure criterion for tubes in hydroforming. For these purposes, a section of a long unsupported tube with fixed ends was simulated numerically to obtain the mechanical states of the tube subjected to internal pressure. Steel and aluminum tubes are used. For the bulge tests, the internal pressure reaches a maximum and then decreases in value without failure while the stress, strain and volume of the tube keep increasing. A failure criterion for the bursting of a tube is proposed based on the stress-strain curve of the material.
Technical Paper

### Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Extrusions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0410
Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.
Technical Paper

### Lead-time Reduction in Stamping CAE and Die Face Development using Massively Parallel Processing in Forming Simulations

2007-04-16
2007-01-1678
Since 1997, General Motors Body Manufacturing Engineering - Die Engineering Services (BME-DES) has been working jointly with our software vendor to develop and implement a parallel version of stamping simulation software for mass production analysis applications. The evolution of this technology and the insight gained through the implementation of DMP/MPP technology as well as performance benchmarks are discussed in this publication.
Technical Paper

### Influence of Laser Welding Parameters on Formability and Robustness of Blank Manufacturing: An Application to a Body Side Frame

1995-02-01
950922
A design of experiments is used to study the effect of laser weld parameters on formability of welded blanks for two different material combinations of cold rolled (bare) steel to cold rolled steel and cold rolled steel to hot dipped galvanized steel. Critical weld parameters influencing the formability of welded blanks are identified and the optimum weld set-up condition is obtained based on formability performance and consistency of formability for laser welded blanks. The results are applied to an automotive body side frame. The robustness of welded blank production is also assessed and the final welded set-up condition for the body side frame is obtained based on both the formability of welded blanks and the robustness of welded blank production. The body side frame is successfully made from the welded blanks with this final weld set-up condition.
Technical Paper

### Fuel Economy Trends and Catalytic Devices

1974-02-01
740594
In 1968, a major oil company cancelled its annual automobile economy run after sponsoring it for 18 consecutive years -presumably due to lack of interest from the public and the press. Almost coincident with that cancellation was the beginning of production automobile exhaust emission control on a national basis and a downward inflection in the historic trend of automobile fuel economy. In contrast, the past year has seen a major revival of interest, by both the public and the press, in fuel economy. In the next few weeks, the nation will be introduced to a new direction in automotive exhaust emission control which will profoundly affect the fuel economy trend. Perhaps equally, or even more important, the next few months are expected to see major national decisions on future automobile emission control which will likely have a significant influence on the direction taken by automobile fuel economy a few years hence.
Technical Paper

### Formability of Mash Seam Welded Blanks: Effects of Welding Set-Up Conditions

1995-02-01
950923
It is known that the formability of tailored welded blanks depends on the welding set-up conditions. Little information is available on the correlation between the formability of welded blanks and weld set-up conditions. In this investigation, effects of mash seam welding parameters of weld current, weld force, material overlap and planish on formability performance of welded blanks are studied. The systematic design of experiments approach is used to identify the key weld parameters influencing the formability performance of welded blanks. It is found that high weld force decreases formability of welded blanks and high weld force coupled with a small material overlap results in very low forming limit of the weld zone. Weld current has little effect on formability of welded blanks and planishing significantly reduces it. Overall, the mash seam welded blanks produced with appropriate weld set-up conditions are robust with respect to formability.
Technical Paper

### Evaluation of a High Speed, High Resolution Gas Chromatography Instrument for Exhaust Hydrocarbon Speciation

2005-04-11
2005-01-0683
The ozone forming potential (OFP) and specific reactivity (SR) of tailpipe exhaust are among the factors that determine the environmental impact of a motor vehicle. OFP and SR measurements require a lengthy determination of about 190 non-methane hydrocarbon species. A rapid gas chromatography (GC) instrument has been constructed to separate both the light (C2 - C4) and the midrange (C5 - C12) hydrocarbons in less than 10 minutes. The limit of detection is about 0.002 parts per million carbon (ppmC). Thirty exhaust samples from natural gas vehicles (NGV's) were analyzed to compare the rapid GC method with the standard GC method, which required 40-minute analyses on two different instruments. In general, evaluation of the commercial prototype from Separation Systems, Inc., indicates that a high speed, high resolution gas chromatograph can meet the need for fast, efficient exhaust hydrocarbon speciation.
Technical Paper

### Evaluation of a Dynamic Explicit Finite Element Code for Binder Forming Calculations

1995-02-01
950693
In order to develop a binder forming analysis model based on contact principle of mechanics and to search for an accurate finite element computer code to analyze the model, ABAQUS/Explicit was evaluated using a benchmark example of a step-die. Because the step-die is a quasi-static problem and ABAQUS/Explicit is a dynamic finite element code, we are particularly interested in avoiding oscillations of the blank in the die cavity after the binder is closed. The study reveals that the oscillations can be eliminated and an asymptotic solution obtained if the die close speed is not too high. The optimum die close time for the benchmark is obtained based on the efficiency of computing and accuracy of the solution. The issues of oscillations and asymptotic solutions related to analyzing a quasi-static binder forming problem by a dynamic finite element code are settled in this paper.
Technical Paper

### Application of Hydroformed Aluminum Extrusions to Vehicle Sub-Frame with Varied Wall Thickness

1999-09-28
1999-01-3180
In a typical hydroforming operation, a round tube of constant wall thickness is bent into the overall shape desired for the final part, then placed between a pair of dies. Despite some small percentage of stretch that may occur as the tube expands, the wall thickness in the original tube is therefore substantially constant at all points. In some circumstances, a part is locally thickened or reinforced for extra strength. Normally, this is achieved by using a separate piece of reinforcement at selected location. In this paper, it is intended to present a unique method to achieve an optimal structural design allowing thin or thick gages where required along its cross-section. This is done via hydroforming an aluminum extrusion tube to an optimal frame structure having varied wall thickness to satisfy various loading requirements at a minimum weight. The engine cradle is used as an example to demonstrate this methodology.
Technical Paper

### A Connectorized Passive Optical Star for Automotive Networking Applications

1994-03-01
940798
This paper introduces for the first time a fully connectorized passive optical star for use with plastic optical fiber that addresses all automotive application requirements. A unique mixing element is presented that offers linear expandability, uniformity of insertion loss, and packaging flexibility. The star is constructed of all plastic molded components to make it low cost and produceable in high volume and is single-ended to facilitate vehicle integration. The star is connectorized to facilitate assembly into the vehicle power and signal distribution system.
Technical Paper

### A Bursting Failure Criterion for Tube Hydroforming

2002-03-04
2002-01-0794
Fundamental differences exist between sheet metal forming and hydroforming processes. Sheet metal forming is basically a one step metal fabrication process. Almost all plastic deformation of an originally flat blank is introduced when the punch is moved normal to a clamped sheet metal. Hydroforming, however, consists of multiple steps of tube making, pre-bending, crushing, pressurization, etc. Each of the above mentioned steps can introduce permanent plastic deformations. The forming limit diagram obtained for sheet metal forming may or may not be used in hydroforming evaluations. A failure criterion is proposed for predicting bursting failures in tube hydroforming. The tube material's stress-strain curve, obtainable from uniaxial tensile test and subjected to some postulations under large stress/strain states, is used in judging the failure.