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Technical Paper

Thermal Durability of a Ceramic Wall-Flow Diesel Filter for Light Duty Vehicles

The thermal durability of a large frontal area cordierite ceramic wall-flow filter for light-duty diesel engine is examined under various regeneration conditions. The radial temperature distribution during burner regeneration, obtained by eight different thermocouples at six different axial sections of a 75″ diameter x 8″ long filter, is used together with physical properties of the filter to compute thermal stresses via finite element analysis. The stress-time history of the filter is then compared with the strength and fatigue characteristics of extruded cordierite ceramic monolith. The successful performance of the filter over as many as 1000 regenerations is attributed to three important design parameters, namely unique filter properties, controlled regeneration conditions, and optimum packaging design. The latter induces significant radial and axial compression in the filter thereby enhancing its strength and reducing the operating stresses.
Technical Paper

The Use of Finite Element Analysis to Predict Body Build Distortion

Finite element methods can be used to simulate a class of variation problems induced by build distortion in the assembly process. The FEM approach was used to study two representative assembly problems: 1) Front fender mounting and resulting distortion due to various fastening sequences; and, 2) Coupe door assembly process and resulting deformation due to clamping and welding of flexible sheet metal parts. FEM is used to generate sensitivities of various process conditions. Correlation with measured Co-ordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) data is shown. The use of FEM to simulate manufacturing/assembly processes in the automotive industry is in it's infancy. As the new methods are developed this capability can be used to study the assembly process and provide guidance in designing more robust parts and assembly processes.
Technical Paper

The 1997 Chevrolet Corvette Structure Architecture Synthesis

This paper describes the design, synthesis-analysis and development of the unique vehicle structure architecture for the fifth generation Chevrolet Corvette, ‘C5’, which starts in the 1997 model year. The innovative structural layout of the ‘C5’ enables torsional rigidity in an open roof vehicle which exceeds that of all current production open roof vehicles by a wide margin. The first structural mode of the ‘C5’ in open roof configuration approaches typical values measured in similar size fixed roof vehicles. Extensive use of CAE and a systems methodology of benchmarking and requirements rolldown were employed to develop the ‘C5’ vehicle architecture. Simple computer models coupled with numerical optimization were used early in the design process to evaluate every design concept and alternative iteration for mass and structural efficiency.
Technical Paper

Structural Composite Floorpan: Design Synthesis, Prototype, Build and Test

A design synthesis approach is used to design and analyze a Resin-Transfer-Molded (RTM) composite floorpan to meet the product requirements and assess the structural performance. The design envelope is based on packaging constraints representative of a production vehicle to ensure a feasible design intent. Finite element analysis of the composite design is used to guide the design and integrate all of the product performance requirements to achieve a feasible design concept. Issues discussed include the design and analysis, design features, composite material tailoring, prototype fabrication, vehicle build, and product validation. Stiffness, strength and durability tests were performed on the floorpan and the fully trimmed vehicle, and all requirements were met.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Hybrid III Dummy Response to Impact by Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis

The Hybrid III dummy is an anthropomorphic (humanlike) test device, generally used in crashworthiness testing to assess the extent of occupant protection provided by the vehicle structure and its restraint systems in the event of vehicle crash. Lumped-parameter analytical models are commonly used to simulate the dummy response. These models, by virtue of their limited number of degrees of freedom, can neither represent accurate three-dimensional dummy geometry nor detailed structural deformations. In an effort to improve the state-of-the-art in analytical dummy simulations, a set of finite element models of the Hybrid III dummy segments - head, neck, thorax, spine, pelvis, knee, upper extremities and lower extremities - were developed. The component models replicated the hardware geometry as closely as possible. Appropriate elastic material models were selected for the dummy “skeleton”, with the exterior “soft tissues” represented by viscoelastic materials.
Technical Paper

SIR Sensor Closure Time Prediction for Frontal Impact Using Full Vehicle Finite Element Analysis

This paper describes an analytical method to predict the sensor closure time for an airbag (Supplemental Inflatable Restraint - SIR) system in frontal impacts. The analytical tools used are the explicit finite element code, an in-house sensor closure time prediction program, and a full vehicle finite element model. Nodal point information obtained from the full vehicle finite element simulation is used to predict the sensor closure time of the airbag system. This analytical method can provide the important crash signature information for a SIR system development of a new vehicle program. In this paper, 0-degree frontal impacts at four different impact speeds with two different bumper energy absorption systems are studied using the non-linear finite element computer program DYNA3D. It is concluded that this analytical method is very useful to predict the SIR sensor closure time.
Technical Paper

Rear Full Overlap High Speed Car-to-Car Impact Simulation

A rear full overlap car-to-car high speed impact simulation using the DYNA3D Finite Element Software was performed to examine the crush mode for rear structure of a vehicle and to observe the effect of rear bumper system in order to maintain the fuel system integrity. The study was conducted first for two different bumper system configurations, namely: (1) validating the model for struck vehicle with steel rear bumper system, (2) simulating rear end collision with composite rear bumper system attached to the rear rails of struck vehicle. Later a third simulation of the model was conducted with a viable design modification to the composite bumper system for improved crashworthiness. It was identified that a more comprehensive FEA model of the bullet car including front end structure, powertrain components, cooling system and other components which constitute the load paths should be incorporated in the analysis to obtain more meaningful correlation and crashworthiness prediction.
Technical Paper

Optimization Methods Applied to Determine Clamping Forces in Fixture Design

This paper presents an optimization technique for clamping forces determination in fixture design. First, the finite element analysis (FEA) is applied to determine the coefficients of compliant matrix of a fixture-workpiece system subjected to machining and clamping forces. Then, a nonlinear optimization model is constructed in terms of the FEA results and mechanical and geometrical constraints. The optimization model is derived to determine the feasible clamps under the corresponding force effects. The optimal magnitude and direction of clamping forces minimize the workpiece deformation at particular key points. Finally, a scaled engine block with the 3-2-1 fixturing principle is given as an example.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Vehicle Side Impact Test: Development. Application and Design Iterations

This paper describes a numerical simulation technique applicable to the FMVSS 214 side impact test through the use of the finite element method (FEM) technology. The paper outlines the development of the side impact dummy (SID), moving deformable barrier (MDB) and the test vehicle FEM models, as well as the development of new advanced constitutive models of materials and algorithms in LS-DYNA3D which are related to the topic. Presented in the paper are some initial simulation problems which were encountered and solved, as well as the correlation of the simulation data to the physical test.
Technical Paper

FEA Predictions and Test Results from Magnesium Beams in Bending and Axial Compression

Finite element analysis (FEA) predictions of magnesium beams are compared to load versus displacement test measurements. The beams are made from AM60B die castings, AM30 extrusions and AZ31 sheet. The sheet and die cast beams are built up from two top hat sections joined with toughened epoxy adhesive and structural rivets. LS-DYNA material model MAT_124 predicts the magnesium behavior over a range of strain rates and accommodates different responses in tension and compression. Material test results and FEA experience set the strain to failure limits in the FEA predictions. The boundary conditions in the FEA models closely mimic the loading and constraint conditions in the component testing. Results from quasi-static four-point bend, quasi-static axial compression and high-speed axial compression tests of magnesium beams show the beam's behavior over a range of loadings and test rates. The magnesium beams exhibit significant material cracking and splitting in all the tests.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Stress Correlation and Modeling of Driveline Bending Integrity for 4WD Sport Utility Vehicles

Reducing the high cost of hardware testing with analytical methods has been highly accelerated in the automotive industry. This paper discusses an analytical model to simulate the driveline bending integrity test for the longitudinal 4WD-driveline configuration. The dynamic stresses produced in the adapter/transfer case and propeller shaft can be predicted analytically using this model. Particularly, when the 4WD powertrain experiences its structural bending during the operation speed and the propeller shaft experiences the critical whirl motion and its structural bending due to the inherent imbalance. For a 4WD-Powertrain application, the dynamic coupling effect of a flexible powertrain with a flexible propeller shaft is significant and demonstrated in this paper. Three major subsystems are modeled in this analytical model, namely the powertrain, the final rear drive, and the propeller shafts.
Technical Paper

Brake Squeal Analysis by Finite Elements

An approximate analysis method for brake squeal is presented. Using MSC/NASTRAN a geometric nonlinear solution is run using a friction stiffness matrix to model the contact between the pad and rotor. The friction coefficient can be pressure dependent. Next, linearized complex modes are found where the interface is set in a slip condition. Since the entire interface is set sliding, it produces the maximum friction work possible during the vibration. It is a conservative measure for stability evaluation. An averaged friction coefficient is measured and used during squeal. Dynamically unstable modes are found during squeal. They are due to friction coupling of neighboring modes. When these modes are decoupled, they are stabilized and squeal is eliminated. Good correlation with experimental results is shown. It will be shown that the complex modes baseline solution is insensitive to the type of variations in pressure and velocity that occur in a test schedule.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Design Methodology for Active Top Pads During Airbag Deployment

Using a combination of engineering test experience, explicit finite-element analysis, and advanced materials characterization, a predictive engineering method has been developed that can assist in the development of active top pads. An active top pad is the component of the instrument panel that covers the passenger airbag module and articulates during a crash event, allowing the airbag to deploy. This paper highlights the predictive analysis method, analytical results interpretation, and suggestions for future development.
Technical Paper

2002 Pontiac Montana Frequency Improvements Employing Structural Foam

This paper documents a joint development process between General Motors and Dow Automotive to improve primary body structure frequencies on the GM family of midsize vans by utilizing cavity-filling structural foam. Optimum foam locations, foam quantity, and foam density within the body structure were determined by employing both math-based modeling and vehicle hardware testing techniques. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of the Body-In-White (BIW) and “trimmed body” were used to predict the global body structure modes and associated resonant frequencies with and without structural foam. The objective of the FEA activity was to quantify frequency improvements to the primary body structure modes of matchboxing, bending, and torsion when using structural foam. Comprehensive hardware testing on the vehicle was also executed to validate the frequency improvements observed in the FEA results.