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Technical Paper

Vapor-Locking Tendencies of Fuels A Practical Approach

THIS paper describes what the authors consider to be a simplified method of determining the vapor-locking tendencies of gasolines. The study of vapor lock was undertaken after they found the Reid vapor pressure method to be inadequate. The result of their work was the development of the General Motors vapor pressure, a single number which predicts vapor-locking tendency. The authors point out the following advantages of the new method: It allows direct comparisons of vapor-lock test results of different reference fuel systems; establishes distribution curves of volatility requirements of cars for vapor-lock free operation and of vapor-locking tendencies of gasolines; is a common reference value for both petroleum and automotive engineers. Finally, it more realistically evaluates the effects of small weathering losses on vapor-locking tendency than does Rvp.
Technical Paper

The Northstar DOHC V-8 Engine for Cadillac

General Motors Powertrain Division has developed a new V-8 engine for Cadillac vehicles in the 1990s. The Northstar engine incorporates the use of aluminum for both the cylinder block and head and other lightweight materials throughout. The valve train incorporates direct acting hydraulic lifters actuating the four valves per cylinder through dual overhead camshafts. The primary focus of the project has been to produce an engine of unquestioned reliability and exceptional value which is pleasing to the customer throughout the range of loads and speeds. The engine was designed with a light weight valve train, low valve overlap and moderate lift, resulting in a very pleasing combination of smooth idle and a broad range of power. The use of analytical methods early in the design stage enabled systems to be engineered to optimize reliability, pleaseability and value by reducing frictional losses, noise, and potential leak paths, while increasing efficiency and ease of manufacture.
Technical Paper

The Electronically Controlled 6.5L Diesel Engine

For model year 1994, General Motors has completed the roll out of the 6.5L Diesel Engine, with the introduction of the light duty certified naturally aspirated and turbocharged engines. At the heart of the expanded use of the 6.5L is a new electronic powertrain control system. The objectives for this system were to produce an engine that has less variation, is easier to assemble, low cost and capable of meeting both heavy and light duty future emissions requirements. Control features include Fuel Quantity and Timing, EGR, Wastegate, Glow Plugs, Transmission, Cruise Control and Diagnostics.
Technical Paper

The Bulge of Tubes and a Failure Criterion for Tube Hydroforming

The bulge test in hydroforming is a simple fundamental experiment used to obtain basic knowledge in tube expansion. The results can be used to assist design and manufacturing of hydroformed automotive parts. It also can be used to develop a failure criterion for tubes in hydroforming. For these purposes, a section of a long unsupported tube with fixed ends was simulated numerically to obtain the mechanical states of the tube subjected to internal pressure. Steel and aluminum tubes are used. For the bulge tests, the internal pressure reaches a maximum and then decreases in value without failure while the stress, strain and volume of the tube keep increasing. A failure criterion for the bursting of a tube is proposed based on the stress-strain curve of the material.
Technical Paper

Streamlining Chassis Tuning for Chevrolet and GMC Trucks and Vans

This paper describes some methods for greatly reducing or possibly eliminating subjective tuning of suspension parts for ride and handling. Laptop computers can now be used in the vehicle to guide the tuning process. The same tools can be used to select solutions that reduce sensitivity to production and environmental variations. OBJECTIVE Reduce or eliminate time required for tuning of suspension parts for ride characteristics. Improve the robustness of ride performance relative to variations in ambient temperature and production tolerances. PROBLEM REQUIRING SOLUTION AND METHOD OF APPROACH Traditional development programs for new vehicles include time-consuming subjective ride evaluations. One example is shock absorber tuning. Even if sophisticated models define force-velocity curves, numerous hardware iterations are needed to find valvings that will reproduce the curves. Many evaluation rides are needed to modify the valvings to meet performance targets.
Technical Paper

Reliability and Maintainability of Machinery and Equipment for Effective Maintenance

Typically, “Reliability and Maintainability (R&M)” is perceived as a tool for products alone. Putting emphasis on reliability only at the cost of maintainability is another archetype. Inclusion of both reliability and maintainability (R&M) in all the phases of the machinery and equipment (M&E) life cycle is required in order to be world competitive in manufacturing. R&M is mainly a design function and it should be a part of any design review. Inclusion of the R&M concept early in the life cycle of M&E is key to cost effective and competitive manufacturing. Neither responsive manufacturing nor preventive maintenance can raise it above the level of inherent R&M.
Technical Paper

Reducing Catalytic Converter Pressure Loss with Enhanced Inlet-Header Diffusion

The function of the inlet header of a catalytic converter is to diffuse the inlet exhaust flow, decreasing its velocity and increasing its static pressure with as little loss in total pressure as possible. In practice, very little diffusion takes place in most catalytic converter inlet headers because the flow separates at the interface of the pipe and the tapered section leading to the substrate. This leads to increased converter pressure loss and flow maldistribution. An improved inlet-header design called the Enhanced Diffusion Header (EDH) was developed which combines a short, shallow-angle diffuser with a more abrupt expansion to the substrate cross section. Tests conducted in room air (cold flow) and engine exhaust showed that improved inlet-jet diffusion leads to substantial reductions in converter restriction. EDH performance was not compromised by the presence of a right-angle bend upstream of the converter.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Analysis Framework; A Comparison of HFC-134a, HFC-134a Enhanced, HFC-152a, R744, R744 Enhanced, and R290 Automotive Refrigerant Systems

The goal of this study is to assess the total Life Cycle Global Warming Impact of the current HFC-134a (R134a) refrigeration system and compare it with the effect of proposed alternatives, HFC-134a Enhanced, HFC-152 (R152a), R744, R744 Enhanced and R290, based on life cycle analysis (LCA). The enhanced systems include control strategies to elevate the compressor suction pressure as the evaporator load is reduced. The hydrofluorocarbons HFC-134a and HFC-152a are greenhouse gases (GHGs) and are subject to the Kyoto Protocol timetables, which when the treaty takes effect will require participating developed countries to reduce their overall CO2 equivalent emissions of six GHGs by at least 5% by 2012 from 1990 levels.
Technical Paper

General Motors DEXRON®-VI Global Service-Fill Specification

During early 2005 General Motors released a newly developed ATF for the factory fill of all GM Powertrain stepped gear automatic transmissions. The new fluid provided significantly improved performance in terms of friction durability, viscosity stability, aeration and foam control and oxidation resistance. In addition, the fluid has the potential to enable improved fuel economy and extended drain intervals. Since the performance of the new fluid far exceeded that of the DEXRON®-III service fill fluids available at the time it became necessary to upgrade the DEXRON® service fill specification in order to ensure that similar fluids were available in the market for service and repair situations. This latest upgrade to the service fill specification is designated DEXRON®-VI [1].
Technical Paper

Front Suspension Multi-Axis Testing

A front suspension laboratory test procedure was developed to reproduce time-correlated fatigue damaging events from a light truck road durability test. Subsequently, the performance of front suspension systems for the GMT 400 light truck program were evaluated in terms of customer reliability. Both prototype and pilot testing, as well as computer modeling, were used in the evaluation.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Sulfate Trapping Candidates-Results From Dynamometer and Vehicle Screening Tests

The performance of potential sulfate sorbents was evaluated using an engine-dynamometer screening test procedure. Bulk and supported sorbents were tested. The two most promising sorbents were a bulk CaO preparation and alumina supported Na. The CaO sorbent appeared to be inherently non-selective between sulfates and SO2. Calcining this sorbent in a CO2 atmosphere resulted in increased pellet crush strength and reduced volume expansion upon use. The Na/Al2O3 sorbent had good activity and selectivity, but may lack capacity and be subject to leaching losses of Na-compounds. Vehicle and dynamometer durability testing of these two sorbents was conducted. From these preliminary tests, it was determined that neither met all the criteria of an ideal sorbent for vehicle use.
Technical Paper

Diagnosis of Off-Brake Performance Issues with Low Range Pressure Distribution Sensors

Brake caliper and corner behavior in the off-brake condition can lead, at times, to brake system performance issues such as residual drag (and related issues such as pulsation, judder, and loss of fuel economy), and caliper pryback during aggressive driving maneuvers. The dynamics in the brake corner can be strikingly complex, with numerous friction interfaces, rubber component and grease dynamics, deflections of multiple components, and significant dependence on usage conditions. Displacements of moving parts are usually small, and the residual forces in the caliper interfaces involved are also small in comparison with other forces acting on the same components, making direct observation very difficult. The present work attempts to illuminate off-brake behavior in two different conditions - residual drag and pryback - through the use of low-range pressure distribution sensors placed in between the caliper (pistons and fingers) and the brake pad pressure plates.
Technical Paper

Development of Skin Thermal Transducer for Automotive Applications

This paper summarizes the design, development, fabrication, validation, and application of a new device called the Skin Thermal Transducer (STT). The development of this instrument was driven by the demand for reliable information on human skin temperatures during contact with a warm surface on the interior of an automobile. The primary technology that enabled the development of the STT was the thermo-electric cooler (TEC) in combination with a heat sink that is used to simulate the core temperature of the human body. The STT was validated with human skin data and the agreement was within an acceptable range. The STT provides the automotive engineer with a measuring device to optimize and validate the underbody regions of the vehicle with respect to occupant thermal comfort. The STT can also be applied to optimize other automotive and non-automotive products in which the human skin touches a warm surface.
Technical Paper

Development for an Aged Tire Durability Standard - Steady State DOE Study

In the work leading to the TREAD Act, some members of Congress expressed the need for some type of aging test on light vehicle tires. Since no industry-wide recommended practice existed, the ASTM F09.30 Aged Tire Durability task group was established in 2002 to develop a scientifically valid, short duration, laboratory aged tire durability test which correlates to in-service aging. The target end-of-test condition was belt edge separation (or related tire conditions). One strategy, driven by that objective, has been a Steady State DOE investigating aging temperature and duration, as well as, roadwheel speed, pressure and deflection. Testing was performed on three tire types, including two where relevant field aging data was publicly available from NHTSA studies. A region of interest, within the design space, was identified where target end-of-test conditions were possible and undesirable (non-target or non-representative of those seen in consumer use) were avoided.
Technical Paper

Development for an Aged Tire Durability Standard - Rationale for a Steady State DOE

In response to the TREAD act of 2002, ASTM F09.30 Aged Tire Durability Task Group was formed with the objective of developing a scientifically valid, short duration aged durability test which correlates to field behavior. The target end-of-test condition was belt edge separation (or related damage). One strategy, driven by that objective, has been a steady state design of experiment investigating aging temperature and duration as well as roadwheel speed, pressure and deflection. The rationale behind investigating a steady state test and selecting these parameters and methodology for setting their initial values is reviewed.
Technical Paper

Development for an Aged Tire Durability Standard - Comparison of Stepped-Up Load and Steady State DOE Results

In response to the TREAD act of 2002, ASTM F09.30 Aged Tire Durability Task Group was formed with the objective of developing a scientifically valid, short duration, laboratory aged tire durability test which correlates to field behavior. The target end-of-test condition was belt edge separation (or related damage). Two strategies have been investigated, aged stepped-up load and steady state DOE. Results of the two strategies are compared and contrasted and a test condition from the steady state DOE has been identified as the preferred direction for further validation.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Designs for Safety/Mission Critical Systems

We investigate and analyze the concept of “missed detection” and its application to the design of architectures that integrate multiple safety/mission critical functions. The analysis is based on considering different design alternatives with varying levels of missed fault detection of the components constituting the functions or subsystems. The overall system reliability and availability in a fault tolerant architecture relies as heavily on the ability to detect a fault as it does on being able to prevent a fault as one would attempt by having multiple levels of redundancy and/or improved reliability of the components in such an architecture. In short, the safety of a particular architecture depends not only on component reliability, and fault tolerance, expressed as redundancy, but also on fault detectability.
Technical Paper

Combining DFSS and Multi-body Dynamics for Vehicle Ride Tuning

A methodology involving Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) and Multi-body dynamic simulation is employed to tune a body-on-frame vehicle, for improved ride (shake) performance. The design space is limited to four sets of symmetric body mounts for a vehicle. The stiffness and damping characteristics of the mounts are the control factors in the virtual experiment. Variation of these design parameters from the nominal settings, as well as axle size, tire and wheel combinations, tire pressure, shock damping, and vehicle speed constitute the noise factors. This approach proves to be an excellent predictor of the vehicle behavior, by which much insight as to influence of each parameter on vehicle performance is gained. Ultimately, specific recommendations for the control factor settings are provided. Subsequent hardware builds show excellent agreement with the analytical model and suggested tuning.
Technical Paper

Assessing Required Levels of Redundancy for Composite Safety/Mission Critical Systems

We investigate and analyze the concept of “shared redundancy” and its application to the design of architectures that integrate multiple safety/mission critical functions or subsystems. The analysis is based on considering different design alternatives with varying levels of physical redundancy of the components constituting the functions or subsystems. Under a set of assumptions, we show that the overall system reliability and availability in a shared redundancy based architecture can be improved without increasing the levels of physical redundancy for the components employed at the subsystem level. However, such an improvement will be limited by the component(s) with the minimal level of redundancy.
Technical Paper

Assessing Error in Reliability Estimates Obtained via CAE Simulations

When using a math model to estimate the failure rate of a product, or the mean and standard deviation of performance characteristics of the product, one important issue is the accuracy of the estimates. All math models have error. This error will be transmitted to the error in the estimates of failure rate, mean, and standard deviation. This paper presents a method to calculate the bounds on the transmitted error, which can then be used to 1) obtain confidence bounds on estimates of mean, standard deviation, and failure rate; and 2) establish accuracy requirements on math models.