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Technical Paper

The Use of Finite Element Analysis to Predict Body Build Distortion

1995-04-01
951120
Finite element methods can be used to simulate a class of variation problems induced by build distortion in the assembly process. The FEM approach was used to study two representative assembly problems: 1) Front fender mounting and resulting distortion due to various fastening sequences; and, 2) Coupe door assembly process and resulting deformation due to clamping and welding of flexible sheet metal parts. FEM is used to generate sensitivities of various process conditions. Correlation with measured Co-ordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) data is shown. The use of FEM to simulate manufacturing/assembly processes in the automotive industry is in it's infancy. As the new methods are developed this capability can be used to study the assembly process and provide guidance in designing more robust parts and assembly processes.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Chromium and Chromium-Free Post-Phosphating Rinses on the Corrosion Performance of Zinc and Zinc Alloy Coated Sheet Steels After Five Years Outdoor Scab Corrosion Exposure

1993-10-01
932358
A selection of commercially available chromium and chromium-free post phosphate rinses along with a deionized water rinse were evaluated over several zinc and zinc-alloy coated sheet steels. The test specimens were pretreated and electrocoated on-line in an automotive assembly plant. The effect of the rinse treatments on the cosmetic corrosion performance of the substrates, after 5 years of exposure in an outdoor scab corrosion test was determined. After this exposure none of the rinse treatments had performed better than deionized water rinse on zinc and zinc-iron coated sheet. The zinc-nickel coating showed improved scribe creepage when treated with the Cr+6/Cr+3 rinse. Data is provided comparing the concentration of the treatments used vs scribe creepage and chipping corrosion paint loss.
Technical Paper

The Automotive Primary Power Supply System

1974-02-01
741208
This paper describes the major electrical characteristics of the automotive power supply system. It is a compilation of existing data and new information that will be helpful to both the electrical component and electronic assembly designers. Previously available battery/alternator data is organized to be useful to the designer. New dynamic information on battery impedance is displayed along with “cogging” transients, regulation limits and load dump characteristics.
Technical Paper

Stiffness Simulation Techniques and Test Correlations in Automotive Interior Cockpit Systems (IP, Door Trim and Floor Console Assembly)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1025
An automotive cockpit module is a complex assembly, which consists of components and sub-systems. The critical systems in the cockpit module are the instrument panel (IP), the floor console, and door trim assemblies, which consist of many plastic trims. Stiffness is one of the most important parameters for the plastic trims' design, and it should be optimum to meet all the three functional requirements of safety, vibration and durability. This paper presents how the CAE application and various other techniques are used efficiently to predict the stiffness, and the strength of automotive cockpit systems, which will reduce the product development cycle time and cost. The implicit solver is used for the most of the stiffness analysis, and the explicit techniques are used in highly non-linear situations. This paper also shows the correlations of the CAE results and the physical test results, which will give more confidence in product design and reduce the cost of prototype testing.
Technical Paper

Robust Process Design for a Four-Bar Decklid Hinge System

2003-03-03
2003-01-0878
Auto components with large manufacturing variation may cause vehicle quality problems after they are assembled. The impact of this variation depends on the assembly process used. If the assembly process is sensitive to the component variation, the impact may be more significant. In this case, an assembly process with lower sensitivity to component variation will solve the problem. This paper presents an example where the component variation largely impacted the quality of the car, and a more robust assembly process solved the problem.
Technical Paper

Nylon RIM Development for Automotive Body Panels

1985-02-01
850157
The performance and production requirements for future passenger vehicles has increased the efforts to replace metal body panels with plastic materials. This has been accomplished, to a large extent on some production vehicles that have been introduced recently. Unfortunately, these plastic body applications have necessitated special off-line handling or low temperature paint processing. However, the advantages of RIM nylon, offer the potential for uniquely new plastic body designs, that can be processed through existing assembly plants, much like the steel panels they are intended to replace. The intent of this paper is to discuss the rationale for future plastic body panel material selection and related nylon RIM development efforts.
Technical Paper

New Concept Modular Manual Transmission Clutch and Flywheel Assembly

1992-09-01
922110
Most United States vehicle assembly plants produce significantly more automatic transmission equipped vehicles than manual transmission vehicles. Assembling these two vehicles on a common production line can create complexity problems. This paper describes the design and development of a pre-assembled manual transmission clutch and flywheel modular assembly which reduces most of these problems. This assembly is used on the 1993 model year mini-van with a 2.5L four cylinder engine. This modular clutch system utilizes the same starter ring gear carrier (driveplate) used on automatic transmission equipped vehicles. It pilots into the crankshaft similar to the automatic transmission torque converter. It is balanced as an assembly which results in a lower system imbalance. A significant system piece cost saving, in comparison with today's competitive market, was achieved.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Management in the Auto Manufacturing Industry - A Report from President Clinton's Council on Sustainable Development Auto Team

1995-10-01
951871
An assessment of automobile painting at General Motor's Lake Orion, Michigan, USA assembly facility from a life cycle perspective was conducted. The Orion Facility produces the new Oldsmobile Aurora and Buick Riviera models. Improvements in on-site pollution prevention, energy conservation and regulatory barriers to technology innovation were identified. The environmental implications of auto body substrate material choice were analyzed. A life cycle inventory framework was developed for paint suppliers and other parts of the auto painting life cycle. An Alternative Regulatory System was proposed for the entire U.S. auto industry that will, if implemented, facilitate the integration of environmental management into core business strategies and planning.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Test Device for the Optimization of Seat Belt System Component Design and Installation Geometry

1986-02-24
860056
A laboratory test fixture was designed and built to simulate seat belt assembly installations. The anchor positions of the retractor and pillar loop, and the engaged or free-hanging position of the latchplate can be varied to either simulate a vehicle's seat belt system geometry, or to optimize a proposed geometry. The required retraction forces for a simulated geometry are determined by replacing the retractor action with a motorized load transducer that measures the force required to stow the latchplate. The pillar loop, webbing, latchplate, and their relative positions can be varied until the minimum retraction force that successfully stores the latchplate is determined. The geometry of such a condition can then be applied to future designs of seat belt assembly components and their anchor positions.
Technical Paper

Glass Drop Design for Automobile Windows - Design of Glass Contour, Shape, Drop Motion, and Motion Guidance Systems

1995-04-01
951110
This paper presents a new computerized approach for designing the automobile window glass contour, the glass drop motion, and the regulator systems. The three-dimensional geometrical relationship of the glass contour, the drop path, and its guidance system have been studied. Methods for barrel and helical drops are presented for optimizing the glass profile and drop path trajectories. Criteria for perfecting the glass contour are developed for shaping the profile of the vehicle clay model. Methods for correcting the glass contour and shape are presented. Examples are provided to illustrate how to improve the design. This approach integrates the development works of glass contour, drop motion and regulator systems. Through this design approach the window glass can fit and move perfectly in the door assembly.
Technical Paper

Five Year Outdoor Scab Corrosion Results on Zinc and Zinc Alloy Coated Sheet Steels

1993-10-01
932361
A comprehensive selection of automotive sheet steels were exposed in an outdoor scab corrosion test to provide a base-line of cosmetic corrosion performance. Eighteen different coated sheet steels along with CRS as a control were processed using two commercially available zinc phosphate chemistries. The phosphating was done using both immersion and spray phosphate processes in a laboratory and an automotive assembly plant. Scribe creepage results are reported for 5 years outdoor scab exposure. Comparisons of the scribe creepage behavior of CRS, zinc, and zinc alloy coatings and the effect of the phosphate treatment are provided. An estimate of 10 years field performance is made.
Technical Paper

Effect of Simulated Material Properties and Residual Stresses on High Cycle Fatigue Prediction in a Compacted Graphite Iron Engine Block

2010-04-12
2010-01-0016
Casting, machining and structural simulations were completed on a V8 engine block made in Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) for use in a racing application. The casting and machining simulations generated maps of predicted tensile strength and residual stress in the block. These strength and stress maps were exported to a finite element structural model of the machined part. Assembly and operating loads were applied, and stresses due to these loads were determined. High cycle fatigue analysis was completed, and three sets of safety factors were calculated using the following conditions: uniform properties and no residual stress, predicted properties and no residual stress, and predicted properties plus residual stress.
Technical Paper

Dodge Ram Pickup Vehicle: From Human Factors Development to Production Intent Metal Assembly

1993-11-01
932988
To evaluate and refine interior architecture of the new Dodge Ram pickup truck three years before production, a road worthy interior package validation buck was built using a fiberglass body shell. Molds for the shell were made using CAD/CAM techniques. Advanced CAD/CAM techniques were used to build the interior buck of a subsequent model from individual panels molded in carbon fiber. This buck also included inner structural panels and interior trim components taken from CAD data. For this and subsequent new vehicle programs, refinement of construction techniques allows the bucks to serve as aids in product design and manufacturing feasibility studies.
Technical Paper

Brake and Clutch Pedal System Optimization Using Design for Manufacture and Assembly

1992-02-01
920774
This paper describes the application of the Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) method at Chrysler. Attention is focused on the development of the clutch and brake pedal and bracketry system of the PL project in the Small Car Platform. The Chrysler DFMA procedure including competitive evaluation and value engineering was utilized during the initial design phase involving product concept development from the original functional and manufacturing requirements. After the first laboratory tests, a number of key design and manufacturing concerns surfaced and led to a second cycle of DFMA analysis. The procedure permits major design functions and manufacturing and assembly process issues and criteria to be incorporated in the initial design stages.
Technical Paper

Body-in-White Prototype Process in Chrysler's Jeep/Truck Platform

1993-11-01
933038
Chrysler Corporation's Jeep and Truck platform implemented a new design and prototype process for the body-in -white of a new pickup truck. A team approach achieved concurrent body design, stamping die design, assembly process development, and assembly tooling development. The first domestic US industry use of a 100% electronic design and release system was instrumental in the process. The new process produced a prototype body-in-white on time at 95 WBVP (weeks before volume production) with the highest level of production-intent components ever achieved within Chrysler at this stage of development.
Technical Paper

Application of a Constrained Layer Damping Treatment to a Cast Aluminum V6 Engine Front Cover

2005-05-16
2005-01-2286
Constrained Layer Damping (CLD) treatments have long provided a means to effectively impart damping to a structure [1, 2 and 3]. Traditionally, CLD treatments are constructed of a very thin polymer layer constrained by a thicker metal layer. Because the adhesion of a thin polymer layer is very sensitive to surface finish, surfaces that a CLD treatment can be effectively applied to have historically been limited to those that are very flat and smooth. New developments in material technology have provided thicker materials that are very effective and less expensive to apply when used as the damping layer in a CLD treatment. This paper documents the effectiveness of such a treatment on a cast aluminum front cover for a V6 engine. Physical construction of the treatment, material properties and design criteria will be discussed. Candidate applications, the assembly process, methods for secondary mechanical fastening will be presented.
Technical Paper

Application of Variation Simulation in Body Assembly Process Design

2001-10-16
2001-01-3064
Build variation has long been recognized as one of the most important factors in vehicle performance. In this study an elastic assembly simulation program is used to guide a wheelhouse assembly process design to reduce build variation. Five (5) different clamping schemes are evaluated through the simulation program. From the five proposed process design choices, the best assembly process was identified, which results in reduced assembly variation and less tooling and manufacturing costs. Two different variation simulation approaches, one based on perturbation and the other based on Design of Experiments, were used to predict the assembly variation. Good agreement between the two approaches provided a validity check for the simulation tool.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Process for Spring Failure Rates in Automotive Parts Applications

1991-02-01
910356
This paper discusses an analytical technique for computing the failure rate of steel springs used in automotive part applications. Preliminary computations may be performed and used to predict spring failure rates quickly at a very early stage of a product development cycle and to establish program reliability impact before commitment. The analytical method is essentially a combination of various existing procedures that are logically sequenced to compute a spring probability of failure under various operational conditions. Fatigue life of a mechanical component can be computed from its S-N curve. For steels, the S-N curve can be approximated by formulae which describe the fatigue life as a function of its endurance limit and its alternating stress. Most springs in service are preloaded and the actual stress fluctuates about a mean level. In order to compute an equivalent alternating stress with zero mean, an analytical method based on the Goodman Diagram is used.
Technical Paper

A Connectorized Passive Optical Star for Automotive Networking Applications

1994-03-01
940798
This paper introduces for the first time a fully connectorized passive optical star for use with plastic optical fiber that addresses all automotive application requirements. A unique mixing element is presented that offers linear expandability, uniformity of insertion loss, and packaging flexibility. The star is constructed of all plastic molded components to make it low cost and produceable in high volume and is single-ended to facilitate vehicle integration. The star is connectorized to facilitate assembly into the vehicle power and signal distribution system.
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