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Technical Paper

The Northstar DOHC V-8 Engine for Cadillac

1992-02-01
920671
General Motors Powertrain Division has developed a new V-8 engine for Cadillac vehicles in the 1990s. The Northstar engine incorporates the use of aluminum for both the cylinder block and head and other lightweight materials throughout. The valve train incorporates direct acting hydraulic lifters actuating the four valves per cylinder through dual overhead camshafts. The primary focus of the project has been to produce an engine of unquestioned reliability and exceptional value which is pleasing to the customer throughout the range of loads and speeds. The engine was designed with a light weight valve train, low valve overlap and moderate lift, resulting in a very pleasing combination of smooth idle and a broad range of power. The use of analytical methods early in the design stage enabled systems to be engineered to optimize reliability, pleaseability and value by reducing frictional losses, noise, and potential leak paths, while increasing efficiency and ease of manufacture.
Technical Paper

The Development of Auto Temp II

1972-02-01
720288
The development of the AUTO TEMP II Temperature Control System used in Chrysler Corp. vehicles is summarized. A description of the design, development, function, and manufacturing aspects of the control system is presented, with emphasis on unique control parameters, reliability, serviceability, and check-out of production assemblies. Auto Temp II was developed by Chrysler in conjunction with Ranco Incorporated. The servo-controlled, closed-loop system, which has a sensitivity of 0.5 F, utilizes a water-flow control valve for temperature control, along with a cold engine lockout. The basic components are: sensor string, servo, and amplifier. All automatic functions involving control of mass flow rate, temperature, and distribution of the air entering the vehicle, are encompassed in one control unit. All components are mechanically linked through the gear train and are responsive to the amplifier through the feedback potentiometer.
Technical Paper

TRUCK PERFORMANCE— Computed versus Measured Data

1958-01-01
580040
THIS paper outlines tests made to verify the SAE recommended practice for estimating truck ability performance described in TR-82. The author has collected data on four vehicles and compares it with the results computed in TR-82 and with a Method X. The data includes information on air and rolling resistance, effect of wind velocity, chassis friction power, grade ability, and the like. The author concludes that the SAE method of TR-82 is at the present time the most reliable method for computing truck ability.
Technical Paper

Reliability and Maintainability of Machinery and Equipment for Effective Maintenance

1993-03-01
930569
Typically, “Reliability and Maintainability (R&M)” is perceived as a tool for products alone. Putting emphasis on reliability only at the cost of maintainability is another archetype. Inclusion of both reliability and maintainability (R&M) in all the phases of the machinery and equipment (M&E) life cycle is required in order to be world competitive in manufacturing. R&M is mainly a design function and it should be a part of any design review. Inclusion of the R&M concept early in the life cycle of M&E is key to cost effective and competitive manufacturing. Neither responsive manufacturing nor preventive maintenance can raise it above the level of inherent R&M.
Technical Paper

Reliability Estimation and Failure Prediction of Vehicle Systems and Components

1990-09-01
901740
For designing new products or developing new specifications, the reliability performance of systems and components experienced by the customer provides invaluable information for the engineer. This information, not only provides for the visibility of reliability requirements, but also an awareness of potential degradation of the systems and components during its life cycle. In this paper, a method is presented for predicting vehicle system and component reliability from vehicle fleet repair data. This method combines sampling stratification, computer data analysis and statistical modeling techniques into a reliability analysis procedure to provide reliability prediction. Specifically, published vehicle fleet data was used to provide the basis for predicting the vehicle system and component reliability at any mileage level.
Technical Paper

Reliability Analysis of Data with No Failure from Fleet and Proving Ground Endurance Tests

1992-02-01
920773
The reliability of an electronic sensor in the automotive applications is assessed using data from Fleet Test and proving ground Vehicle Endurance test. These nonfailure data are multiply censored at different mileage. Reliability analysis of data with no failure is rarely discussed in most reliability literature. This paper applies the Weibull maximum likelihood analysis based on known values of the Weibull shape parameter to extract useful reliability information. The well-known Weibayes and Weibest methods are subsets of the discussed approach. The sensitivity of the change of reliability levels over a range of Weibull shape parameter values is also examined in our case. The Huang-Porter (1991) approach of obtaining a reliability lower bound regardless of the Weibull shape parameter values is also applied and its potential of practical application is discussed. Practical limitations of all methods are discussed.
Technical Paper

Front Suspension Multi-Axis Testing

1987-11-01
872255
A front suspension laboratory test procedure was developed to reproduce time-correlated fatigue damaging events from a light truck road durability test. Subsequently, the performance of front suspension systems for the GMT 400 light truck program were evaluated in terms of customer reliability. Both prototype and pilot testing, as well as computer modeling, were used in the evaluation.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Automotive Front Seat Structure Constructed of Polymer Composite

1992-02-01
920335
Seats play an important role in determining customer satisfaction and safety. They also represent three to five percent of the overall vehicle cost and weight. Therefore, automotive manufacturers are continuously seeking ways to improve the areas of comfort, safety, reliability, cost and weight within the seat system. The purpose of this paper is to review the development of an automotive front seat constructed of injection molded nylon frames and metal mechanisms. This development program was initiated for the purpose of reducing vehicle weight while increasing the reliability and safety of the front seats. This paper will review the material and process selection decision, a design overview, the performance criteria and the results of tests performed on the injection molded front seats.
Technical Paper

Development of Skin Thermal Transducer for Automotive Applications

1997-05-19
971855
This paper summarizes the design, development, fabrication, validation, and application of a new device called the Skin Thermal Transducer (STT). The development of this instrument was driven by the demand for reliable information on human skin temperatures during contact with a warm surface on the interior of an automobile. The primary technology that enabled the development of the STT was the thermo-electric cooler (TEC) in combination with a heat sink that is used to simulate the core temperature of the human body. The STT was validated with human skin data and the agreement was within an acceptable range. The STT provides the automotive engineer with a measuring device to optimize and validate the underbody regions of the vehicle with respect to occupant thermal comfort. The STT can also be applied to optimize other automotive and non-automotive products in which the human skin touches a warm surface.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Designs for Safety/Mission Critical Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-0775
We investigate and analyze the concept of “missed detection” and its application to the design of architectures that integrate multiple safety/mission critical functions. The analysis is based on considering different design alternatives with varying levels of missed fault detection of the components constituting the functions or subsystems. The overall system reliability and availability in a fault tolerant architecture relies as heavily on the ability to detect a fault as it does on being able to prevent a fault as one would attempt by having multiple levels of redundancy and/or improved reliability of the components in such an architecture. In short, the safety of a particular architecture depends not only on component reliability, and fault tolerance, expressed as redundancy, but also on fault detectability.
Technical Paper

Chrysler's Versatile 2.2 Liter Fuel Injection Controller

1984-09-01
841249
Using an evolutionary design process, Chrysler has developed a multi-purpose fuel injection controller which goes well beyond simply delivering fuel. Designed with efficiency in mind, this microprocessor based system brings sophisticated technology to the automobile in a reliable and serviceable form.
Technical Paper

Changes in Reliability During the Design and Development Process of a Vehicle's Electrical/Electronic Systems

1995-02-01
950826
The changes in reliability of the Electrical/Electronic Systems of a vehicle-line during its early design and development engineering processes have been studied. A computerized vehicle failure tracking system was used to provide results from several stages of early development vehicle testing at the proving grounds. The data were analyzed using a software program that assumes that failures in a repairable system, such as a car, occur as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Results suggest that, under normal circumstances, a significant and quantitative improvement in reliability is achievable as the system or component design progresses through the early design and development processes. This also provides a means of predicting future system(s) reliability when the system(s) is in production.
Technical Paper

Assessing Required Levels of Redundancy for Composite Safety/Mission Critical Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-1664
We investigate and analyze the concept of “shared redundancy” and its application to the design of architectures that integrate multiple safety/mission critical functions or subsystems. The analysis is based on considering different design alternatives with varying levels of physical redundancy of the components constituting the functions or subsystems. Under a set of assumptions, we show that the overall system reliability and availability in a shared redundancy based architecture can be improved without increasing the levels of physical redundancy for the components employed at the subsystem level. However, such an improvement will be limited by the component(s) with the minimal level of redundancy.
Technical Paper

Assessing Error in Reliability Estimates Obtained via CAE Simulations

2003-03-03
2003-01-0146
When using a math model to estimate the failure rate of a product, or the mean and standard deviation of performance characteristics of the product, one important issue is the accuracy of the estimates. All math models have error. This error will be transmitted to the error in the estimates of failure rate, mean, and standard deviation. This paper presents a method to calculate the bounds on the transmitted error, which can then be used to 1) obtain confidence bounds on estimates of mean, standard deviation, and failure rate; and 2) establish accuracy requirements on math models.
Technical Paper

A New Method of Predicting the Formability of Materials

1972-02-01
720019
The paper presents a new method, based on standard laboratory cup tests, for predicting the formability of materials; in the example provided, the forming potentials of four new materials are shown. The properties of stretchability and drawability, which are the principal factors defining a material's forming limits, may be assessed using the Olsen spherical cup test and the Swift flat-bottomed cup test. In the shape analysis procedure described, the minimum amount of deformation needed to fix a desired shape is determined. Then necessary adjustments to tooling for optimum sheet metal usage are made based on calculations from a new type of chart showing stretch forming ratio and draw forming ratio, providing a comparison of the formabilities of a number of materials.
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