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Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel-to-Road Aerodynamic Drag Correlation

A comprehensive test program was conducted to correlate aerodynamic drag measurements from the General Motors Aerodynamics Laboratory with coastdown results. An improved method of coastdown testing was used to minimize the sources of error in determining aerodynamic drag. Several vehicles were tested, covering a large range of aerodynamic drag values, representative of current and future production vehicles. Wind tunnel and coastdown results were determined to be in good agreement, with an average drag coefficient difference of only. 008 (2%).
Technical Paper

Wind Noise and Drag Optimization Test Method for Sail-Mounted Exterior Mirrors

An L18 Taguchi-style Design of Experiments (DOE) with eight factors was used to optimize exterior mirrors for wind noise and drag. Eighteen mirror properties were constructed and tested on a full size greenhouse buck at the Lockheed low-speed wind tunnel in Marietta, GA. Buck interior sound data and drag measurements were taken at 80 MPH wind speed (0° yaw angle). Key wind noise parameters were the fore/aft length of mirror housing and the plan view angle of the mirror housing's inboard surface. Key drag parameters were the fore/aft length of the mirror housing, the cross-section shape of the mirror pedestal, and the angle of the pedestal (relative to the wind).
Technical Paper

Wake Structures of Rectangular Bodies with Radiused Edges Near a Plane Surface

Almost all published results of wake measurements for ground vehicles or similar shapes have included very limited information on streamwise development of wake structures. This is typically a result of the fact that the wake measurements have been conducted as parts of particular vehicle development efforts. So the focus has been on the incremental changes in the wakes associated with alternative geometries or buildup of various parts. The objectives are typically reached by limiting the surveys to a single streamwise plane. The present study, by contrast, is a study of wake development for a series of relatively simple rectangular shapes with radiused edges with a systematic variation in the ratio of height to width or “Aspect Ratio”.
Technical Paper


AS a basis for the analyses of this symposium, a hypothetical car has been used to evaluate the engine power distribution in performance. Effects of fuel,-engine accessories, and certain car accessories are evaluated. The role of the transmission in making engine power useful at normal car speeds is also discussed. Variables encountered in wind and rolling resistance determinations are reevaluated by improved test techniques. Net horsepower of the car in terms of acceleration, passing ability and grade capability are also summarized.
Technical Paper

Update on the Developments of the SAE J2334 Laboratory Cyclic Corrosion Test

The Corrosion Task Force of the Automotive/Steel Partnership has developed the SAE J2334 cyclic laboratory test for evaluating the cosmetic corrosion resistance of auto body steel sheet. [Ref. 1] Since the publishing of this test in 1997, further work has improved the precision of J2334. In this paper, the results of this work along with the revisions to the J2334 test will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Uncertainty Analysis of Aerodynamic Coefficients in an Automotive Wind Tunnel

This paper presents an uncertainty analysis of aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for production vehicles in an automotive wind tunnel. The analysis uses a Monte Carlo numerical simulation technique. Emphasis is placed on defining the elemental random and systematic uncertainties from the tunnel’s instrumentation, understanding how they propagate through the data reduction equations and under what conditions specific elemental error sources are or are not important, and how the approach to data reduction influences the overall uncertainties in the coefficients. The results of the analysis are used to address the issue of averaging time in the context of maintaining a maximum allowable uncertainty level. Also, a maximum error requirement in the vehicle’s installation is suggested to allow the use of rapid but approximate vehicle alignment methods without incurring errors that exceed the data uncertainty. Observed reproducibility results are presented spanning a 16 month period.
Technical Paper

Truck Aerodynamics

A requirement for larger trucks and higher operating speed is indicated. The present report presents wind tunnel data on drag of a Chevrolet truck-trailer combination. Possible means of drag reduction are examined. Although side force and yawing moment data are presented, their effect on directional stability are not, at present analyzed.
Technical Paper

Transient CFD Simulations of a Bell Sprayer

A methodology is developed that incorporates high resolution CFD flowfield information and a particle trajectory simulation, aimed at addressing Paint Transfer Efficiency (PTE) for bell sprayers. Given a solid model for the bell sprayer, the CFD simulation, through automeshing, determines a high resolution Cartesian volume mesh (14-20 million cells). With specified values of the initial shaping air, transient and steady-state flow field information is obtained. A particle trajectory visualization tool called SpraySIM uses this complicated flowfield information to determine the particle trajectories of the paint particles under the influence of drag, gravity and electrostatic potential. The sensitivity of PTE on shaping air velocity, charge-to-mass ratio, potential, and particle diameter are examined.
Technical Paper

Ting Noise Generation in Automotive Applications

Automobile customers are looking for higher performance and quieter comfortable rides. The driveline of a vehicle can be a substantial source of NVH issues. This paper provides an understanding of a driveline noise issue which can affect any variant of driveline architecture (FWD, AWD, RWD and 4X4). This metallic noise is mostly present during the take-off and appropriately termed as ting noise. This noise was not prevalent in the past. For higher fuel economy, OEMs started integrating several components for lighter subsystems. This in effect made the system more sensitive to the excitation. At present the issue is addressed by adding a ting washer in the interface of the wheel hub bearings and the halfshafts. This paper explains the physics behind the excitation and defines the parameters that influence the excitation. The halfshaft and the wheel hub are assembled with a specified hub nut torque.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Simulations of Automotive Catalytic Converter Internal Flow

The three-dimensional non-reacting flow field inside a typical dual-monolith automotive catalytic converter was simulated using finite difference analysis. The monolithic brick resistance was formulated from the pressure gradient of fully developed laminar duct-flow and corrected for the entrance effect. This correlation was found to agree with experimental pressure drop data, and was introduced as an additional source term into the non-dimensional momentum governing equation within the brick. Flow distribution within the monolith was found to depend strongly on the diffuser performance, which is a complex function of flow Reynolds number, brick resistance, and inlet pipe length and bending angles. A distribution index was formulated to quantify the degree of non-uniformity at selected test cases covering ranges of flow conditions, brick types, and inlet conditions.
Technical Paper

The Oxidative Stability of GM's DEXRON®-VI Global Factory Fill ATF

A detailed description of the oxidative stability of GM's DEXRON®-VI Factory Fill Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF) is provided, which can be integrated into a working algorithm to estimate the end of useful oxidative life of the fluid. As described previously, an algorithm to determine the end of useful life of an automatic transmission fluid exists and is composed of two simultaneous counters, one monitoring bulk oxidation and the other monitoring friction degradation [1]. When either the bulk oxidation model or the friction model reach the specified limit, a signal can be triggered to alert the driver that an ATF change is required. The data presented in this report can be used to develop the bulk oxidation model. The bulk oxidation model is built from a large series of bench oxidation tests. These data can also be used independent of a vehicle to show the relative oxidation resistance of this fluid, at various temperatures, compared to other common lubricants.
Technical Paper

The Aerodynamic Development of the Probe IV Advanced Concept Vehicle

The aerodynamic development and characteristics of a four-passenger advanced concept automobile are described. An overview of the areas of the vehicle design which were dealt with to obtain a drag coefficient value of 0.153 is provided. The interior packaging philosophy is outlined which led to the potential for packaging four to six passengers within an extremely low drag automobile. Parametric shape studies of the major surface design elements are documented from the contributing development testing. The particular design treatments adopted and the rationale behind the choice of design are examined for each of the aerodynamically-sensitive areas of the vehicle. Examinations of the unique solutions to vehicle cooling, ramp and curb clearance, front wheel skirting and vehicle attitude are presented. Full scale wind tunnel data is shown for the configurations examined and vehicle stability parameters compared with conventional vehicles.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Flow Control Devices in Support of Vehicle Drag Reduction

Flow control devices can enable vehicle drag reduction through the mitigation of separation and by modifying local and global flow features. Passive vortex generators (VG) are an example of a flow control device that can be designed to re-energize weakly-attached boundary layers to prevent or minimize separation regions that can increase drag. Accurate numerical simulation of such devices and their impact on the vehicle aerodynamics is an important step towards enabling automated drag reduction and shape optimization for a wide range of vehicle concepts. This work demonstrates the use of an open-source computational-fluid dynamics (CFD) framework to enable an accurate and robust evaluation of passive vortex generators in support of vehicle drag reduction. Specifically, the backlight separation of the Ahmed body with a 25° slant is used to evaluate different turbulence models including variants of the RANS, DES, and LES formulations.
Technical Paper

Shape Optimization of IC Engine Ports and Chambers

Intense competition and global regulations in the automotive industry has placed unprecedented demands on the performance, efficiency, and emissions of today's IC engines. The success or failure of a new engine design to meet these often-conflicting requirements is primarily dictated by its capability to provide minimal restriction for the inducted and exhausted flow and by its capability to generate strong large-scale in-cylinder motion. The first criterion is directly linked to power performance of the engine, while the latter has been shown to control the burn rate in IC engines. Enhanced burn rates are favorable to engine efficiency and partial load performance. CFD based Numerical Simulations have recently made it possible to study the development of such engine flows in great details. However, they offer little guidance for modifying the ports and chamber geometry controlling the flow to meet the desired performance.
Technical Paper

Selective Galvanizing Using Kinetic Spraying

General corrosion protection of sheet materials such as steel used in automobile construction has reached a high level of performance, due primarily to the incorporation of mill-applied treatments such as electrogalvanizing, galvannealing and other coil-coating processes developed over the last half century. While such treatments have greatly extended the corrosion resistance of steel and its various body constructs, attention is now focused on aspects of the manufacturing process wherein these intended protections are compromised by such features as weldments, joins, cut edges and extreme metal deformations such as hems. A novel metal deposition process, based on high-velocity impact fusion of solid metal particles, has been used to extend the corrosion resistance of base steel and pre-galvanized sheet, by selectively placing highly controlled depositions of zinc and other sacrificial materials in close proximity to critical manufacturing details.
Technical Paper

Resistance Spot Weldability of Three Metal Stack Dual Phase 600 Hot-dipped Galvanized Steel

Fuel economy and federal safety regulations are driving automotive companies to use Dual Phase and other Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) in vehicle body structures. Joining and assembly plays a crucial role in the selection of these steels. Specifications are available for the resistance spot welding (RSW) of lower strength sheet steels, covering many aspects of the welding process from the stabilization procedure to endurance testing. Currently, specifications in the automotive industry for RSW with AHSS are limited. It is well known that welding of a thickness ratio greater than 1:2 poses a challenge. To utilize thinner gauge AHSS panels on body-in-white, welding schedules to join the thin to thick sheet steel stack-up are needed. Most of the existing published work was conducted on uncoated sheets and welded to the same thickness.
Technical Paper

Relationship of Low-Temperature Cranking Resistance to Viscosity Characteristics of Multigrade Engine Oils

HOW well are multigrade oils performing at low temperatures? An investigation has shown that the low-tem perature properties of mulrigrade oils are often not equivalent to the single-grade oils-lOW in a mulrigrade oil may actually be 20W. One phase of this investigation, a full-scale cranking study using commercial 10W and 10W-30 oils in cars at 0 F, is discussed in detail in this paper.
Technical Paper

Refinement and Verification of the Structural Stress Method for Fatigue Life Prediction of Resistance Spot Welds Under Variable Amplitude Loads

The work presented here builds on the practical and effective spot weld fatigue life prediction method, the structural stress method (SSM), that was developed at Stanford University. Constant amplitude loading tests for various spot weld joint configurations have been conducted and the SSM has been shown to accurately predict fatigue life. In this paper refinements to the structural stress approach are first presented, including a variable amplitude fatigue life prediction method based on the SSM and Palmgren-Miner's rule. A test matrix was designed to study the fatigue behavior of spot welds under tensile shear loading conditions. Constant amplitude tests under different R-ratios were performed first to obtain the necessary material properties. Variable amplitude tests were then performed for specimens containing single and multiple welds.
Technical Paper

Optimizing 4×4 Steering Geometry

This paper is related to a new concept for the steering linkage of light trucks featuring mono-beam front axles. The current configuration of steering systems for those vehicles comprise a worm and sector steering with a Pitman arm connected to a transverse drag link. This last one connects to the steering link that finally steers the left and right wheels. The problem that has been experienced with this system is that, during a braking event, results in a very unfavorable bump steering condition.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Resistance Spot Welds:From Process to Performance

This paper addresses the modeling issues of resistance spot welds. The state of the art modeling techniques on weld process simulation, weld property prediction and weld engineering performance evaluation are presented. First, weld process simulation is performed using the incrementally coupled thermal-electrical-mechanical analyses. The resulted weld nugget size, weld residual stress and weld material property distributions are then used in determining the static performance of a single weld coupon. Comparisons with experimental measurements are presented as validations. Results generated from this single weld coupon is then used in the simulation of dynamic crush mechanism of a spot welded single hat section.