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Technical Paper

the use of Bench Wear tests in Materials Development

TWO TYPES of bench wear tests employed by the General Motors Research Laboratories are described, and examples are given to illustrate the application of the tests to material development problems. It is shown that correlation of a bench test with service may be achieved even when the laboratory test conditions do not appear to duplicate service conditions exactly. It is postulated that this behaviour is related to the formation of certain types of surface films during the wearing process. Some preliminary results are given of a study of the influence of lubricant type and material composition on the formation of anti-wear films.
Technical Paper

the effect of Residual Stresses Induced by Strain-Peening upon Fatigue Strength

THE PURPOSE of this experiment was to determine the role of residual stresses in fatigue strength independent of other factors usually involved when residual stresses are introduced. It consisted of an investigation of the influence of residual stresses introduced by shotpeening on the fatigue strength of steel (Rockwell C hardness 48) in unidirectional bending. Residual stresses were varied by peening under various conditions of applied strain. This process introduced substantially the same amount and kind of surface cold working with residual stresses varying over a wide range of values. It was found that shotpeening of steel of this hardness is beneficial primarily because of the nature of the macro-residual-stresses introduced by the process. There is no gain attributable to “strain-hardening” for this material. An effort was made to explain the results on the basis of three failure criteria: distortion energy, maximum shear stress, and maximum stress.*
Technical Paper

some metallurgical aspects of … Pontiac V-8 Engine Pearlitic Malleable Iron Crankshaft

PEARLITIC malleable iron crankshafts are being used in the new Pontiac engine as a result of recent developments. This paper discusses the physical properties of pearlitic malleable iron such as elastic modulus, fatigue endurance, and tensile strength. According to the author, definite machining economies result from using pearlitic malleable iron crankshafts.
Technical Paper


AS a basis for the analyses of this symposium, a hypothetical car has been used to evaluate the engine power distribution in performance. Effects of fuel,-engine accessories, and certain car accessories are evaluated. The role of the transmission in making engine power useful at normal car speeds is also discussed. Variables encountered in wind and rolling resistance determinations are reevaluated by improved test techniques. Net horsepower of the car in terms of acceleration, passing ability and grade capability are also summarized.
Technical Paper

Viscosity Effects on Engine Wear Under High-Temperature, High-Speed Conditions

Four multigrade engine oils, containing the same base oil plus SE additive package but VI improvers of differing shear stability, were evaluated in 80 000 km of high-speed, high-temperature vehicle service. Bearing, piston ring and valve guide wear, as well as oil consumption, oil filter plugging and engine cleanliness were all worse for the engines operated on the low-shear stability oils. The wear differences were traced to differences in high-shear-rate viscosity, while the cleanliness, filter plugging and oil consumption differences occurred because of excessive wear or polymer shear degradation. These results suggest that engine oil viscosity should be specified under high-shear-rate conditions.
Technical Paper

Variation in Cyclic Deformation and Strain-Controlled Fatigue Properties Using Different Curve Fitting and Measurement Techniques

The strain-life approach is now commonly used for fatigue life analysis and predictions in the ground vehicle industry. This approach requires the use of material properties obtained from strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests. These properties include fatigue strength coefficient (σf′), fatigue strength exponent (b), fatigue ductility coefficient (εf′), fatigue ductility exponent (c), cyclic strength coefficient (K′), and cyclic strain hardening exponent (n′). To obtain the aforementioned properties for the material, raw data from stable cyclic stress-strain loops are fitted in log-log scale. These data include total, elastic and plastic strain amplitudes, stress amplitude, and fatigue life. Values of the low cycle fatigue properties (σf′, b, εf′, c) determined from the raw data depend on the method of measurement and fitting. This paper examines the merits and influence of using different measurement and fitting methods on the obtained properties.
Technical Paper

Vapor-Locking Tendencies of Fuels A Practical Approach

THIS paper describes what the authors consider to be a simplified method of determining the vapor-locking tendencies of gasolines. The study of vapor lock was undertaken after they found the Reid vapor pressure method to be inadequate. The result of their work was the development of the General Motors vapor pressure, a single number which predicts vapor-locking tendency. The authors point out the following advantages of the new method: It allows direct comparisons of vapor-lock test results of different reference fuel systems; establishes distribution curves of volatility requirements of cars for vapor-lock free operation and of vapor-locking tendencies of gasolines; is a common reference value for both petroleum and automotive engineers. Finally, it more realistically evaluates the effects of small weathering losses on vapor-locking tendency than does Rvp.
Technical Paper

Utilization of a Chassis Dynamometer for Development of Exterior Noise Control Systems

The development of systems and components for control of exterior noise has traditionally been done through an iterative process of on road testing. Frequently, road testing of vehicle modifications are delayed due to ambient environmental changes that prevent testing. Vehicle dynamometers used for powertrain development often had limited space preventing far field measurements. Recently, several European vehicle manufacturers constructed facilities that provided adequate space for simulation of the road test. This paper describes the first implementation of that technology in the U.S.. The facility is typical of those used world wide, but it is important to recognize some of the challenges to effective utilization of the technique to correlate this measurement to on road certification.
Technical Paper

TodayS Electronics in TodayS Vehicles

Historically, the long development time required to produce a new automobile has meant that the electronics in that vehicle might lag the state-of-the-art by several years. For traditional vehicle electronics, this was certainly an appropriate delay, ensuring through extensive testing and qualification that the quality and reliability of the electronic systems met rigorous standards. However, with the growing consumer-oriented electronics content in today's vehicles, it is becoming more difficult for the automotive manufacturers to meet consumers' expectations with older technology. Couple this with the fast-paced consumer product cycle, typically nine to eighteen and the result is increasing pressure on the vehicle manufacturers from after-market electronics suppliers, who can update their product lines as fast as the component manufacturers can produce new models.
Technical Paper

The Automobile: Unwanted Technology - The Later Years Part I: Cars and Crises 1960-1990 Part II: The Dawning of Automotive Electronics

Several factors have influenced the size and design of domestic passenger cars over the past 30 years. Of most significance has been the influx of imported cars, initially from Europe, later from Japan. Interspersed within the fabric of this influx have been two energy crises and several recessions, and the onset of safety, emission, and energy regulations. These factors have led to various responses by domestic manufacturers as indicated by the types of products and vehicle systems that they have introduced during this period. This paper chronicles both the events as well as the responses.
Technical Paper

THE CADILLAC FRAME: A New Design Concept for Lower Cars

THE 1957 Cadillac frame is a significant step in design progress toward the ever lower passenger cars demanded by customers and, therefore, car manufacturers. Stemming from tests and experimental designs in process since 1950, this frame combines reduction in height with a slight increase in structural efficiency. It reverses the trend toward the more costly and heavier structures usually associated with lower cars. Mr. Milliken discusses in Part I the steps Cadillac has taken in the last 19 years to reduce the height 9½ in. to 55½ in. The “Tubular Cenrer-X” frame of the 1957 Eldorado Brougham was the latest and most successful answer to the problem. In Part II Mr. Parker describes the A. O. Smith Corp.'s development of the basic idea and the experimental phases and testing which led to the production designs.
Technical Paper

Squeak Studies on Material Pair Compatibility

The more noise and vibration improvements are incorporated into our vehicles, the more customers notice squeaks and rattles (S&R). Customers increasingly perceive S&R as a direct indicator of vehicle build quality and durability. The high profile nature of S&R has the automotive industry striving to develop the understanding and technology of how to improve the S&R performance in the vehicle. Squeaks and itches make up a significant amount of Squeak and Rattle complaints found in today's vehicles. Squeaks and itches are the result of stick slip behavior between two interacting surfaces. Squeak itch behavior is dependent upon a large number of parameters including but not limited to: the material itself, temperature, humidity, normal load, system compliance, part geometry, velocity, surface roughness, wear, contaminants, etc. This paper will describe the analysis of sound data and friction data and the relationship between them.

SAE Ferrous Materials Standards Manual - 2004 Edition

The 2004 SAE Ferrous Materials Standards Manual provides a comprehensive compilation of the SAE Technical Reports relating to specifications, testing, and defining of Ferrous Materials. These standards, Recommended Practices, and Information Reports have been developed by Carbon and Alloy Steels Committee, Metals Test Procedures Committee, Automotive Iron and Steel Castings Committee, Sheet and Strip Steel Committee, Elevated Temperature Properties of Ferrous Metals Committee who comprise the Metals Technical Executive Committee (MTEC). MTEC also governs the other Standards, Recommended Practices, and Information Reports that have been developed by prior division that are now inactive. As an informational guide and background for the values and procedures in the SAE Technical Report, HS-30 also includes Examples of Related SAE Technical Papers.
Technical Paper

Refinement and Verification of the Structural Stress Method for Fatigue Life Prediction of Resistance Spot Welds Under Variable Amplitude Loads

The work presented here builds on the practical and effective spot weld fatigue life prediction method, the structural stress method (SSM), that was developed at Stanford University. Constant amplitude loading tests for various spot weld joint configurations have been conducted and the SSM has been shown to accurately predict fatigue life. In this paper refinements to the structural stress approach are first presented, including a variable amplitude fatigue life prediction method based on the SSM and Palmgren-Miner's rule. A test matrix was designed to study the fatigue behavior of spot welds under tensile shear loading conditions. Constant amplitude tests under different R-ratios were performed first to obtain the necessary material properties. Variable amplitude tests were then performed for specimens containing single and multiple welds.
Technical Paper

Performance of Coatings for Underbody Structural Components

The Auto/Steel Partnership established the Light Truck Frame Project Group in 1996 with two objectives: (a) to develop materials, design and fabrication knowledge that would enable the frames on North American OEM (original equipment manufacturer) light trucks to be reduced in weight, and (b) to improve corrosion resistance of frames on these vehicles, thereby allowing a reduction in the thickness of the components and a reduction in frame weight. To address the issues relating to corrosion, a subgroup of the Light Truck Frame Project Group was formed. The group comprised representatives from the North American automotive companies, test laboratories, frame manufacturers, and steel producers. As part of a comprehensive test program, the Corrosion Subgroup has completed tests on frame coatings. Using coated panels of a low carbon hot rolled and pickled steel sheet and two types of accelerated cyclic corrosion tests, seven frame coatings were tested for corrosion performance.
Technical Paper

Ncap-Field Relevance of the Metrics

By design, frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) tests focus on a narrow portion of the spectrum of field crash events. A simple, high level parsing of towaway crashes from NHTSA's National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) files shows that only a small fraction of occupants (but a somewhat larger portion of their harm as measured by ISS) find themselves in crash circumstances remotely similar to NCAP crash conditions. Looking only at seat location, area of damage, direction of force, distribution of damage, and estimated delta-V filters significantly restricts the relevance of NCAP even before critical factors like belt use and vehicle crash partner are considered. Given the limited scope of frontal NCAP it should not be surprising that it has limited usefulness in discriminating among various vehicles' overall performance in the field.
Technical Paper

Multiple Solutions by Performance Band: An Effective Way to Deal with Modeling Error

Robust optimization usually requires numerous functional evaluations, which is not feasible when the functional evaluation is time-consuming. Examples in automobile industry include crash worthiness/safety and fatigue life simulations. In practice, a response surface model (RSM) is often used as a surrogate to the CAE model, so that robust optimization can be carried out. However, if the error in the RSM is significant, the solution based on the RSM can be invalid. This paper proposes a method of finding multiple candidate solutions, all of which have similar predicted performances. This approach is effective in finding the close-to-optimum solutions when the model has error, and providing design alternatives. Examples are provided to illustrate the method.
Technical Paper

Monotonic and Fatigue Behavior of Magnesium Extrusion Alloy AM30: An International Benchmark Test in the “Magnesium Front End Research and Development Project”

Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural metal and recently attention has been focused on using them for structural automotive components. Fatigue and durability studies are essential in the design of these load-bearing components. In 2006, a large multinational research effort, Magnesium Front End Research & Development (MFERD), was launched involving researchers from Canada, China and the US. The MFERD project is intended to investigate the applicability of Mg alloys as lightweight materials for automotive body structures. The participating institutions in fatigue and durability studies were the University of Waterloo and Ryerson University from Canada, Institute of Metal Research (IMR) from China, and Mississippi State University, Westmorland, General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company and Chrysler Group LLC from the United States.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Extrusions

Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Management in the Auto Manufacturing Industry - A Report from President Clinton's Council on Sustainable Development Auto Team

An assessment of automobile painting at General Motor's Lake Orion, Michigan, USA assembly facility from a life cycle perspective was conducted. The Orion Facility produces the new Oldsmobile Aurora and Buick Riviera models. Improvements in on-site pollution prevention, energy conservation and regulatory barriers to technology innovation were identified. The environmental implications of auto body substrate material choice were analyzed. A life cycle inventory framework was developed for paint suppliers and other parts of the auto painting life cycle. An Alternative Regulatory System was proposed for the entire U.S. auto industry that will, if implemented, facilitate the integration of environmental management into core business strategies and planning.