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Technical Paper

Visualization of Mixture Preparation in a Port-Fuel Injection Engine During Engine Warm-up

1995-10-01
952481
The fuel injection process in the port of a firing 4-valve SI engine at part load and 25°C head temperature was observed by a high speed video camera. Fuel was injected when the valve was closed. The reverse blow-down flow when the intake valve opens has been identified as an important factor in the mixture preparation process because it not only alters the thermal environment of the intake port, but also strip-atomizes the liquid film at the vicinity of the intake valve and carries the droplets away from the engine. In a series of “fuel-on” experiments, the fuel injected in the current cycle was observed to influence the fuel delivery to the engine in the subsequent cycles.
Technical Paper

The National Space Biomedical Research Institute Education and Public Outreach Program: Engaging the Public and Inspiring the Next Generation of Space Explorers

2005-07-11
2005-01-3105
The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), established in 1997, is a twelve-university consortium dedicated to research that will impact mankind's next exploratory steps. The NSBRI's Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP), is supporting NASA's education mission to, “Inspire the next generations…as only NASA can,” through a comprehensive Kindergarten through post-doctoral education program. The goals of the EPOP are to: communicate space exploration biology to schools; support undergraduate and graduate space-based courses and degrees; fund postdoctoral fellows to pursue space life sciences research; and engage national and international audiences to promote understanding of how space exploration benefits people on Earth. NSBRI EPOP presents its accomplishments as an educational strategy for supporting science education reform, workforce development, and public outreach.
Technical Paper

The General Motors Driving Simulator

1994-03-01
940179
A driving simulator development project at the Systems Engineering and Technical Process Center (SE/TP) is exploring the role of driving simulation in the vehicle design process. The simulator provides two vehicle mockup testing arenas that support a wide field of view, computer-generated image of the road scene which dynamically responds to driver commands as a function of programmable vehicle model parameters. Two unique aspects of the simulator are the fast 65 ms response time and low incidence rate of simulator induced syndrome (about 5%). Preliminary model validation results and data comparing driver performance in a vehicle vs. the simulator indicate accurate handling response dynamics within the on-center handling region (<0.3g lateral acceleration). Applications have included supporting the development of new steering system concepts, as well as evaluating the usability of vehicle controls and displays.
Technical Paper

The Application of Direct Body Excitation Toward Developing a Full Vehicle Objective Squeak and Rattle Metric

2001-04-30
2001-01-1554
In order to engineer Squeak & Rattle (S&R) free vehicles it is essential to develop an objective measurement method to compare and correlate with customer satisfaction and subjective S&R assessments. Three methods for exciting S&Rs -type surfaces. Excitation methods evaluated were road tests over S&R surfaces, road simulators, and direct body excitation (DBE). The principle of DBE involves using electromagnetic shakers to induce controlled, road-measured vibration into the body, bypassing the tire patch and suspension. DBE is a promising technology for making objective measurements because it is extremely quiet (test equipment noise does not mask S&Rs), while meeting other project goals. While DBE is limited in exposing S&Rs caused by body twist and suspension noises, advantages include higher frequency energy owing to electro-dynamic shakers, continuous random excitation, lower capital cost, mobility, and safety.
Technical Paper

Synthesis of Chassis Parameters for Ride and Handling on the 1997 Chevrolet Corvette

1997-02-24
970097
This paper describes the performance attributes of the all-new front and rear SLA (short-long arm) suspensions, steering system, and tires of the 1997 Corvette. The process by which these subsystem attributes flowed down from vehicle-level requirements for ride and handling performance is briefly described. Additionally, where applicable, specific subsystem attributes are rationalized back to a corresponding vehicle-level performance requirement. Suspension kinematic and compliance characteristics are described and contrasted to those of the previous generation (1984 to 1996 Model Year) Corvette. Both synthesis/analysis activities as well as mule-level vehicle development work are cited for their roles in mapping out specific subsystem attributes and related vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

Research Alliances, A Strategy for Progress

1995-09-01
952146
In today's business climate rapid access to, and implementation of, new technology is essential to enhance competitive advantage. In the past, universities have been used for research contracts, but to fully utilize the intellectual resources of education institutions, it is essential to approach these relationships from a new basis: alliance. Alliances permit both parties to become active participants and achieve mutually beneficial goals. This paper will examine the drivers and challenges for industrial -- university alliances from both the industrial and academic perspectives.
Technical Paper

Requirements and Potential for Enhanced EVA Information Interfaces

2003-07-07
2003-01-2413
NASA has long recognized the advantages of providing improved information interfaces to EVA astronauts and has pursued this goal through a number of development programs over the past decade. None of these activities or parallel efforts in industry and academia has so far resulted in the development of an operational system to replace or augment the current extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) Display and Controls Module (DCM) display and cuff checklist. Recent advances in display, communications, and information processing technologies offer exciting new opportunities for EVA information interfaces that can better serve the needs of a variety of NASA missions. Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI) has been collaborating with Simon Fraser University and others on the NASA Haughton Mars Project and with researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boeing, and Symbol Technologies in investigating these possibilities.
Technical Paper

Refinement and Verification of the Structural Stress Method for Fatigue Life Prediction of Resistance Spot Welds Under Variable Amplitude Loads

2000-10-03
2000-01-2727
The work presented here builds on the practical and effective spot weld fatigue life prediction method, the structural stress method (SSM), that was developed at Stanford University. Constant amplitude loading tests for various spot weld joint configurations have been conducted and the SSM has been shown to accurately predict fatigue life. In this paper refinements to the structural stress approach are first presented, including a variable amplitude fatigue life prediction method based on the SSM and Palmgren-Miner's rule. A test matrix was designed to study the fatigue behavior of spot welds under tensile shear loading conditions. Constant amplitude tests under different R-ratios were performed first to obtain the necessary material properties. Variable amplitude tests were then performed for specimens containing single and multiple welds.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Vehicle Side Impact Test: Development. Application and Design Iterations

1996-02-01
960101
This paper describes a numerical simulation technique applicable to the FMVSS 214 side impact test through the use of the finite element method (FEM) technology. The paper outlines the development of the side impact dummy (SID), moving deformable barrier (MDB) and the test vehicle FEM models, as well as the development of new advanced constitutive models of materials and algorithms in LS-DYNA3D which are related to the topic. Presented in the paper are some initial simulation problems which were encountered and solved, as well as the correlation of the simulation data to the physical test.
Technical Paper

Modeling Space Suit Mobility: Applications to Design and Operations

2001-07-09
2001-01-2162
Computer simulation of extravehicular activity (EVA) is increasingly being used in planning and training for EVA. A space suit model is an important, but often overlooked, component of an EVA simulation. Because of the inherent difficulties in collecting angle and torque data for space suit joints in realistic conditions, little data exists on the torques that a space suit’s wearer must provide in order to move in the space suit. A joint angle and torque database was compiled on the Extravehicular Maneuvering Unit (EMU), with a novel measurement technique that used both human test subjects and an instrumented robot. Using data collected in the experiment, a hysteresis modeling technique was used to predict EMU joint torques from joint angular positions. The hysteresis model was then applied to EVA operations by mapping out the reach and work envelopes for the EMU.
Technical Paper

Low-Power Flexible Controls Architecture for General Motors Partnership for a New Generation (Pngv) Precept Vehicle

2000-11-01
2000-01-C060
The complexity of designing and implementing a vehicle electrical control system for ultra fuel-efficient hybrid vehicles is significantly greater than that of a conventional vehicle. To quickly demonstrate and iterate capabilities of these vehicles, an efficient and rapid means for developing requirements, mapping these into an electrical control and communications architecture, and developing prototype systems is needed. The General Motors Precept concept vehicle is an example of an energy- efficient vehicular control system developed using a "requirements to software'' development process and electronic controller infrastructure that demonstrates these attributes. The Precept is General Motors Corporation's technology demonstration concept vehicle developed to address General Motors Corporation's commitment to the Partnership for a New Generation (PNGV) program.
Technical Paper

Liquid Fuel Visualization Using Laser-Induced Fluoresence During Cold Start

1998-10-19
982466
The presence of liquid fuel inside the engine cylinder is believed to be a strong contributor to the high levels of hydrocarbon emissions from spark ignition (SI) engines during the warm-up period. Quantifying and determining the fate of the liquid fuel that enters the cylinder is the first step in understanding the process of emissions formation. This work uses planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to visualize the liquid fuel present in the cylinder. The fluorescing compounds in indolene, and mixtures of iso-octane with dopants of different boiling points (acetone and 3-pentanone) were used to trace the behavior of different volatility components. Images were taken of three different planes through the engine intersecting the intake valve region. A closed valve fuel injection strategy was used, as this is the strategy most commonly used in practice. Background subtraction and masking were both performed to reduce the effect of any spurious fluorescence.
Technical Paper

Human Volunteer Testing of GM Air Cushions

1972-02-01
720443
From November 1970 through August 1971 an extensive program of static and dynamic air cushion inflation tests utilizing human volunteers was conducted at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, sponsored by the Department of Transportation. Forty-one full cushion deployment static firings were made, with air cushion hardware and seating buck environment designed by General Motors. The static series was followed by 35 dynamic sled firings of human volunteers, beginning at 8.6 g (15.1 mph) and culminating at 21.7 g (31.5 mph). A major objective of both the static and dynamic test series was to identify changes in air-cushion design found necessary to improve its protective capability for human beings. Because of the severity of cushion deployment, one modification was made following the initial static tests: The orifice diameter size of the bag inlet was reduced from 1.0 to 0.6 in to diminish the rapidity of bag inflation. This modification proved effective in the dynamic series.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Evaluation of Headlight Switching Systems

1974-02-01
740998
A search for methods of switching a proposed three beam headlight system led to the evaluation of 41 possible schemes. Human factors criteria reduced the original 41 to three systems which were tested in a laboratory with a broad range of subjects. Recordings of practice trials, learning trials, and the responses to visual cues projected on a screen were analyzed. The same test procedure was also used to compare three alternative ways of switching conventional two beam headlight systems. Summary data is presented for the six systems tested grouped by test subject age, sex, and driving experience. The most pronounced difference observed was in the subjective preference rating among two beam switching systems. All systems tested resulted in remarkably few learning and practice trials. Small differences were recorded among systems in operational response time.
Technical Paper

Engine-Out “Dry” Particular Matter Emissions from SI Engines

1997-10-01
972890
The Engine-Out Particulate Matter (EOPM) was collected from a spark ignition engine operating in steady state using a heated quartz fiber filter. The samples were weighted to obtain an EOPMindex and were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The EOP Mindex was not sensitive to the engine rpm and load. When the mixture is very rich (air equivalence ratio λ less than ∼ 0.7), the EOPM comprise mostly of soot particles from fuel combustion. In the lean to slightly rich region (0.8 < λ < 1.2), however, the EOPM are dominated by particles derived from the lubrication oil.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Volatility and Operating Conditions on Fuel Sprays in DISI Engines: (2) PDPA Investigation

2000-03-06
2000-01-0536
Optimal design of modern direct injection spark-ignition engines depends heavily on the characteristics and distribution of the fuel spray. This study was designed to compliment imaging experiments of changes in the spray structure due to fuel volatility and operating conditions. Use of phase-Doppler particle analysis (PDPA) allows quantitative point measurements of droplet diameter and velocity. In agreement with imaging experiments, the results show that the spray structure changes not only with ambient gas density, which is often measured, but also with fuel temperature and volatility. The mean droplet diameter was found to decrease substantially with increasing fuel temperature and decreasing ambient density. Under conditions of low potential for vaporization, the observed trends in mean droplet sizes agree with published correlations for pressure-swirl atomizers.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Volatility and Operating Conditions on Fuel Sprays in DISI Engines: (1) Imaging Investigation

2000-03-06
2000-01-0535
Optimal design of modern direct injection spark-ignition engines depends heavily on the characteristics and distribution of the fuel spray. This study was designed to investigate changes in the spray properties due to fuel volatility and operating conditions using a firing optically-accessible engine with planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging. The results show that the spray structure changes not only with ambient gas density, which is often measured, but also with fuel temperature and volatility. As ambient pressure decreases and fuel temperature increases, the volatile ends of multi-component fuels evaporate quickly, disrupting the spray structure and producing a vapor core along the axis of the spray. Beyond a certain point, evaporation is rapid enough to expand the initial cone angle of the spray while causing a decrease in the overall spray width.
Technical Paper

Development of a SIL, HIL and Vehicle Test-Bench for Model-Based Design and Validation of Hybrid Powertrain Control Strategies

2014-04-01
2014-01-1906
Hybrid powertrains with multiple sources of power have generated new control challenges in the automotive industry. Purdue University's participation in EcoCAR 2, an Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition managed by the Argonne National Laboratories and sponsored by GM and DOE, has provided an exciting opportunity to create a comprehensive test-bench for the development and validation of advanced hybrid powertrain control strategies. As one of 15 competing university teams, the Purdue EcoMakers are re-engineering a donated 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in parallel- through-the-road hybrid-electric vehicle, to reduce its environmental impact without compromising performance, safety or consumer acceptability. This paper describes the Purdue team's control development process for the EcoCAR 2 competition.
Technical Paper

Development and Implementation of a Powertrain Electrical System Simulator with Computer-Controlled Fault Generation

2006-04-03
2006-01-1599
To manage the function of a vehicle's engine, transmission, and related subsystems, almost all modern vehicles make use of one or more electronic controllers running embedded software, henceforth referred to as a Powertrain Controller System or PCS. Fully validating this PCS is a necessary step of vehicle development, and the validation process requires extensive amounts of testing. Within the automotive industry, more and more of this validation testing is being performed using Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulators to automate the extensive test sequences. A HIL simulation typically mates the physical PCS to a closed-loop real time computer simulation of a powertrain. Interfacing the physical PCS hardware to a powertrain simulation requires the HIL simulator to have extensive signal input/output (I/O) electronics and simulated actuator electrical loading.
Technical Paper

Design of Manufacturing Systems to Support Volume Flexibility

1999-05-10
1999-01-1621
This paper presents an Axiomatic Design framework for manufacturing system design and illustrates how lean cellular manufacturing can achieve volume flexibility. Axiomatic Design creates a design framework by mapping the functional requirements of a system to specific design parameters. Volume flexibility is often neglected as a requirement of manufacturing systems. Very few industries are fortunate enough to experience stable or predictable product demand. In reality, demand is often volatile and uncertain. It is important that manufacturing system designers are aware of manufacturing system types which can accommodate volume flexibility and follow a structured design methodology that assures that all requirements are met by the system.
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