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Technical Paper

The National Space Biomedical Research Institute Education and Public Outreach Program: Engaging the Public and Inspiring the Next Generation of Space Explorers

The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), established in 1997, is a twelve-university consortium dedicated to research that will impact mankind's next exploratory steps. The NSBRI's Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP), is supporting NASA's education mission to, “Inspire the next generations…as only NASA can,” through a comprehensive Kindergarten through post-doctoral education program. The goals of the EPOP are to: communicate space exploration biology to schools; support undergraduate and graduate space-based courses and degrees; fund postdoctoral fellows to pursue space life sciences research; and engage national and international audiences to promote understanding of how space exploration benefits people on Earth. NSBRI EPOP presents its accomplishments as an educational strategy for supporting science education reform, workforce development, and public outreach.
Technical Paper

The General Motors Driving Simulator

A driving simulator development project at the Systems Engineering and Technical Process Center (SE/TP) is exploring the role of driving simulation in the vehicle design process. The simulator provides two vehicle mockup testing arenas that support a wide field of view, computer-generated image of the road scene which dynamically responds to driver commands as a function of programmable vehicle model parameters. Two unique aspects of the simulator are the fast 65 ms response time and low incidence rate of simulator induced syndrome (about 5%). Preliminary model validation results and data comparing driver performance in a vehicle vs. the simulator indicate accurate handling response dynamics within the on-center handling region (<0.3g lateral acceleration). Applications have included supporting the development of new steering system concepts, as well as evaluating the usability of vehicle controls and displays.
Technical Paper

The Application of Direct Body Excitation Toward Developing a Full Vehicle Objective Squeak and Rattle Metric

In order to engineer Squeak & Rattle (S&R) free vehicles it is essential to develop an objective measurement method to compare and correlate with customer satisfaction and subjective S&R assessments. Three methods for exciting S&Rs -type surfaces. Excitation methods evaluated were road tests over S&R surfaces, road simulators, and direct body excitation (DBE). The principle of DBE involves using electromagnetic shakers to induce controlled, road-measured vibration into the body, bypassing the tire patch and suspension. DBE is a promising technology for making objective measurements because it is extremely quiet (test equipment noise does not mask S&Rs), while meeting other project goals. While DBE is limited in exposing S&Rs caused by body twist and suspension noises, advantages include higher frequency energy owing to electro-dynamic shakers, continuous random excitation, lower capital cost, mobility, and safety.
Technical Paper

Sustainment Measures for Fighter Jet Engines

The US Air Force (USAF) has evolved a policy for the acquisition of fighter jet engines (FJE). In the 1970s and 1980s that policy placed a premium on FJE performance primarily measured by the metric: thrust/engine weight. In the 1990s, the USAF policy changed from an emphasis on performance to reduced life-cycle cost with a premium on sustainment. This paper reports the results of a study of how the USAF and Corporation Alpha (Alpha) have adapted their processes, practices, and policies to design, develop, manufacture, test, and sustain a family of FJEs. Each member of the family of FJEs is sequentially linked relative to insertion of technology designed to reduce sustainment costs. In addition to the technology linkages, the development of the family of FJEs selected for this case study is also tracked relative to US Department of Defense and USAF policy and industry design, build, and maintain processes, methods, and tools.
Technical Paper

Research Alliances, A Strategy for Progress

In today's business climate rapid access to, and implementation of, new technology is essential to enhance competitive advantage. In the past, universities have been used for research contracts, but to fully utilize the intellectual resources of education institutions, it is essential to approach these relationships from a new basis: alliance. Alliances permit both parties to become active participants and achieve mutually beneficial goals. This paper will examine the drivers and challenges for industrial -- university alliances from both the industrial and academic perspectives.
Technical Paper

Requirements and Potential for Enhanced EVA Information Interfaces

NASA has long recognized the advantages of providing improved information interfaces to EVA astronauts and has pursued this goal through a number of development programs over the past decade. None of these activities or parallel efforts in industry and academia has so far resulted in the development of an operational system to replace or augment the current extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) Display and Controls Module (DCM) display and cuff checklist. Recent advances in display, communications, and information processing technologies offer exciting new opportunities for EVA information interfaces that can better serve the needs of a variety of NASA missions. Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI) has been collaborating with Simon Fraser University and others on the NASA Haughton Mars Project and with researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boeing, and Symbol Technologies in investigating these possibilities.
Technical Paper

Refinement and Verification of the Structural Stress Method for Fatigue Life Prediction of Resistance Spot Welds Under Variable Amplitude Loads

The work presented here builds on the practical and effective spot weld fatigue life prediction method, the structural stress method (SSM), that was developed at Stanford University. Constant amplitude loading tests for various spot weld joint configurations have been conducted and the SSM has been shown to accurately predict fatigue life. In this paper refinements to the structural stress approach are first presented, including a variable amplitude fatigue life prediction method based on the SSM and Palmgren-Miner's rule. A test matrix was designed to study the fatigue behavior of spot welds under tensile shear loading conditions. Constant amplitude tests under different R-ratios were performed first to obtain the necessary material properties. Variable amplitude tests were then performed for specimens containing single and multiple welds.
Technical Paper

Recommendations for Real-Time Decision Support Systems for Lunar and Planetary EVAs

Future human space exploration includes returning to the Moon and continuing to Mars. Essential to these missions is each planetary extravehicular activity, or EVA, where astronauts and robotic agents will explore lunar and planetary surfaces. Real-time decision support systems will help these explorers in efficiently planning and re-planning under time pressure sorties. Information and functional requirements for such a system are recommended and are based on on-going human-computer collaboration research.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Vehicle Side Impact Test: Development. Application and Design Iterations

This paper describes a numerical simulation technique applicable to the FMVSS 214 side impact test through the use of the finite element method (FEM) technology. The paper outlines the development of the side impact dummy (SID), moving deformable barrier (MDB) and the test vehicle FEM models, as well as the development of new advanced constitutive models of materials and algorithms in LS-DYNA3D which are related to the topic. Presented in the paper are some initial simulation problems which were encountered and solved, as well as the correlation of the simulation data to the physical test.
Technical Paper

Ncap-Field Relevance of the Metrics

By design, frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) tests focus on a narrow portion of the spectrum of field crash events. A simple, high level parsing of towaway crashes from NHTSA's National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) files shows that only a small fraction of occupants (but a somewhat larger portion of their harm as measured by ISS) find themselves in crash circumstances remotely similar to NCAP crash conditions. Looking only at seat location, area of damage, direction of force, distribution of damage, and estimated delta-V filters significantly restricts the relevance of NCAP even before critical factors like belt use and vehicle crash partner are considered. Given the limited scope of frontal NCAP it should not be surprising that it has limited usefulness in discriminating among various vehicles' overall performance in the field.
Technical Paper

Modeling Space Suit Mobility: Applications to Design and Operations

Computer simulation of extravehicular activity (EVA) is increasingly being used in planning and training for EVA. A space suit model is an important, but often overlooked, component of an EVA simulation. Because of the inherent difficulties in collecting angle and torque data for space suit joints in realistic conditions, little data exists on the torques that a space suit’s wearer must provide in order to move in the space suit. A joint angle and torque database was compiled on the Extravehicular Maneuvering Unit (EMU), with a novel measurement technique that used both human test subjects and an instrumented robot. Using data collected in the experiment, a hysteresis modeling technique was used to predict EMU joint torques from joint angular positions. The hysteresis model was then applied to EVA operations by mapping out the reach and work envelopes for the EMU.
Technical Paper

Human Volunteer Testing of GM Air Cushions

From November 1970 through August 1971 an extensive program of static and dynamic air cushion inflation tests utilizing human volunteers was conducted at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, sponsored by the Department of Transportation. Forty-one full cushion deployment static firings were made, with air cushion hardware and seating buck environment designed by General Motors. The static series was followed by 35 dynamic sled firings of human volunteers, beginning at 8.6 g (15.1 mph) and culminating at 21.7 g (31.5 mph). A major objective of both the static and dynamic test series was to identify changes in air-cushion design found necessary to improve its protective capability for human beings. Because of the severity of cushion deployment, one modification was made following the initial static tests: The orifice diameter size of the bag inlet was reduced from 1.0 to 0.6 in to diminish the rapidity of bag inflation. This modification proved effective in the dynamic series.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Evaluation of Headlight Switching Systems

A search for methods of switching a proposed three beam headlight system led to the evaluation of 41 possible schemes. Human factors criteria reduced the original 41 to three systems which were tested in a laboratory with a broad range of subjects. Recordings of practice trials, learning trials, and the responses to visual cues projected on a screen were analyzed. The same test procedure was also used to compare three alternative ways of switching conventional two beam headlight systems. Summary data is presented for the six systems tested grouped by test subject age, sex, and driving experience. The most pronounced difference observed was in the subjective preference rating among two beam switching systems. All systems tested resulted in remarkably few learning and practice trials. Small differences were recorded among systems in operational response time.
Technical Paper

Economic and Environmental Tradeoffs in New Automotive Painting Technologies

Painting is the most expensive unit operation in automobile manufacturing and the source of over 90 percent of the air, water and solid waste emissions at the assembly plant. While innovative paint technologies such as waterborne or powder paints can potentially improve plant environmental performance, implementing these technologies often requires major capital investment. A process-based technical cost model was developed for examining the environmental and economic implications of automotive painting at the unit operation level. The tradeoffs between potential environmental benefits and their relative costs are evaluated for current and new technologies.
Technical Paper

Development of a SIL, HIL and Vehicle Test-Bench for Model-Based Design and Validation of Hybrid Powertrain Control Strategies

Hybrid powertrains with multiple sources of power have generated new control challenges in the automotive industry. Purdue University's participation in EcoCAR 2, an Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition managed by the Argonne National Laboratories and sponsored by GM and DOE, has provided an exciting opportunity to create a comprehensive test-bench for the development and validation of advanced hybrid powertrain control strategies. As one of 15 competing university teams, the Purdue EcoMakers are re-engineering a donated 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in parallel- through-the-road hybrid-electric vehicle, to reduce its environmental impact without compromising performance, safety or consumer acceptability. This paper describes the Purdue team's control development process for the EcoCAR 2 competition.
Technical Paper

Development and Implementation of a Powertrain Electrical System Simulator with Computer-Controlled Fault Generation

To manage the function of a vehicle's engine, transmission, and related subsystems, almost all modern vehicles make use of one or more electronic controllers running embedded software, henceforth referred to as a Powertrain Controller System or PCS. Fully validating this PCS is a necessary step of vehicle development, and the validation process requires extensive amounts of testing. Within the automotive industry, more and more of this validation testing is being performed using Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulators to automate the extensive test sequences. A HIL simulation typically mates the physical PCS to a closed-loop real time computer simulation of a powertrain. Interfacing the physical PCS hardware to a powertrain simulation requires the HIL simulator to have extensive signal input/output (I/O) electronics and simulated actuator electrical loading.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Automotive Powertrain Choices for the Next 25 Years

This paper assesses the potential improvement of automotive powertrain technologies 25 years into the future. The powertrain types assessed include naturally-aspirated gasoline engines, turbocharged gasoline engines, diesel engines, gasoline-electric hybrids, and various advanced transmissions. Advancements in aerodynamics, vehicle weight reduction and tire rolling friction are also taken into account. The objective of the comparison is the potential of anticipated improvements in these powertrain technologies for reducing petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions at the same level of performance as current vehicles in the U.S.A. The fuel consumption and performance of future vehicles was estimated using a combination of scaling laws and detailed vehicle simulations. The results indicate that there is significant potential for reduction of fuel consumption for all the powertrains examined.
Technical Paper

Applications of Monte Carlo Simulation to Vehicle Maintenance and Component Remanufacturing Decisions

As component and systems sophistication in both cars and trucks increase, improved diagnostic capabilities are required to assure proper and expedient serviceability. Replacement of electrical modules, starter motors, carburetors, fuel injectors and even whole engines or transmissions is encouraged by high labor costs and continued vehicle mobility mandates. The remanufacturing business has grown and components previously discarded now provide valuable core elements to feed the industry. To achieve efficient utilization of capital, equipment and labor, remanufacturers must estimate when this supply of core elements will be available and plan their production schedules accordingly. In order to properly service private individuals and commercial fleets, minimize vehicle downtime and reduce life cycle costs, adaptation of available analytical tools must be made.
Technical Paper

An Economic and Environmental Life Cycle Evaluation of 100% Regrind ABS for Automotive Parts

The use of regrind acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) for automotive parts and components results in two types of financial savings. The first is the shared monetary savings between General Motors and the molder for the difference in the virgin resin price versus price of the ABS regrind. The second is a societal energy savings seen in the life cycle of virgin ABS versus reground ABS. An added benefit is the preservation of natural resources used to produce virgin ABS.
Technical Paper

A Graphical Workstation Based Part-Task Flight Simulator for Preliminary Rapid Evaluation of Advanced Displays

Advances in avionics and display technology are significantly changing the cockpit environment in current transport aircraft. The MIT Aeronautical Systems Lab (ASL) has developed a part-task flight simulator specifically to study the effects of these new technologies on flight crew situational awareness and performance. The simulator is based on a commercially-available graphics workstation, and can be rapidly reconfigured to meet the varying demands of experimental studies. The simulator has been successfully used to evaluate graphical microburst alerting displays, electronic instrument approach plates, terrain awareness and alerting displays, and ATC routing amendment delivery through digital datalinks.