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Technical Paper

Washcoat Technology and Precious Metal Loading Study Targeting the California LEV MDV2 Standard

1996-10-01
961904
Meeting the California Medium-Duty truck emissions standards presents a significant challenge to automotive engineers due to the combination of sustained high temperature exhaust conditions, high flow rates and relatively high engine out emissions. A successful catalyst for an exhaust treatment system must be resistant to high temperature deactivation, maintain cold start performance and display high three-way conversion efficiencies under most operating conditions. This paper describes a catalyst technology and precious metal loading study targeting a California Medium-Duty truck LEV (MDV2) application. At the same time a direction is presented for optimizing toward the Federal Tier 1 standard through reduction of precious metal use. The paper identifies catalytic formulations for a twin substrate, 1.23 L medium-coupled converter. Two are used per vehicle, mounted 45 cm downstream of each manifold on a 5.7 L V8 engine.
Technical Paper

Truck Aerodynamics

1962-01-01
620531
A requirement for larger trucks and higher operating speed is indicated. The present report presents wind tunnel data on drag of a Chevrolet truck-trailer combination. Possible means of drag reduction are examined. Although side force and yawing moment data are presented, their effect on directional stability are not, at present analyzed.
Technical Paper

The Mvma Investigation Into the Complexities of Heavy Truck Splash and Spray Problem

1985-01-01
856097
Splash and spray conditions created by tractor-trailer combinations operating on the Federal highway system have been studied and tested for many years with mixed results. Past events are reviewed briefly in this paper. In additional testing during 1983, using new state-of- the-art splash/spray suppressant devices, some encouragement was provided that these devices could work. The 1984 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) test program was designed to develop practicable and reliable test procedures to measure effectiveness of splash and spray reduction methods applied to tractor-trailer combination vehicles. Over 40 different combinations of splash/spray suppression devices on five different tractors and three van trailer types were tested. The spray-cloud densities for some 400 test runs were measured by laser transmissometers and also recorded by still photography, motion pictures, and videotape. On-site observers made subjective ratings of spray density.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Exhaust System Geometry on Exhaust Dilution and Odor Intensity

1971-02-01
710219
Diesel exhaust gas dilution and odor intensity were measured in the immediate vicinity of a transit bus equipped with a rear-mounted horizontal exhaust pipe, a rear-mounted vertical exhaust pipe, and a roof-top diffusion system. Exhaust dilution ratios were measured indoors during vehicle idle operation, using propane added to the exhaust gas as a tracer. Exhaust odor intensities were measured also indoors during vehicle idle operation by a human panel, using a threshold odor measurement technique. On the average, the dilution of the exhaust gas around the bus with the vertical exhaust pipe was about eight times greater than it was with the horizontal pipe. Odor intensity, as measured by the threshold response distance, was about 35% less with the vertical pipe than with the horizontal pipe. The roof-top diffuser was not as effective as the vertical exhaust pipe in increasing exhaust gas dilution or in reducing exhaust odor intensity.
Technical Paper

The Design and Development of the 2003 Chevrolet Kodiak and GMC TopKick Medium Duty Trucks

2002-11-18
2002-01-3100
For model year 2003, the General Motors Corporation is introducing new medium duty trucks - the Chevrolet Kodiak and GMC TopKick. These new trucks replace the previous versions of the Kodiak and TopKick medium duty trucks that were introduced in 1989 and the Chevrolet and GMC 3500HD that debuted in the 1991 model year. This new series of trucks marks a clear change in General Motors' strategy in the medium duty marketplace. It emphasizes General Motors' strong commitment to the medium duty market, as well as a strong focus on customer needs, vehicle quality and reliability. This paper describes the General Motors strategy in the medium duty market, along with the history of the design and development of these new products. Finally, this paper will discuss performance to program objectives.
Technical Paper

Streamlining Chassis Tuning for Chevrolet and GMC Trucks and Vans

2005-04-11
2005-01-0406
This paper describes some methods for greatly reducing or possibly eliminating subjective tuning of suspension parts for ride and handling. Laptop computers can now be used in the vehicle to guide the tuning process. The same tools can be used to select solutions that reduce sensitivity to production and environmental variations. OBJECTIVE Reduce or eliminate time required for tuning of suspension parts for ride characteristics. Improve the robustness of ride performance relative to variations in ambient temperature and production tolerances. PROBLEM REQUIRING SOLUTION AND METHOD OF APPROACH Traditional development programs for new vehicles include time-consuming subjective ride evaluations. One example is shock absorber tuning. Even if sophisticated models define force-velocity curves, numerous hardware iterations are needed to find valvings that will reproduce the curves. Many evaluation rides are needed to modify the valvings to meet performance targets.
Technical Paper

Sideband and Sound Field Spatial Considerations in the Measurement of Gear Noise

2005-05-16
2005-01-2517
Measurement of gear noise requires accurate measurement of gear mesh harmonic sound levels. The sound signal may include sidebands, such that the frequency bandwidth and computation method of respective “order tracking” analysis will have a profound effect on measured sound levels. A further consideration is the spatial distribution of the sound field inside typical passenger cars and light duty trucks, in which sound levels can change dramatically within small distances. This paper provides a discussion of the data processing and measurement location effects at hand. It explains their influence and provides guidelines for their selection.
Technical Paper

Rollover Sensor Signature Test Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-0375
Although rollover crashes represent a small fraction (approximately 3%) of all motor vehicle crashes, they account for roughly one quarter of crash fatalities to occupants of cars, light trucks, and vans (NHTSA Traffic Safety Facts, 2004). Therefore, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has identified rollover injuries as one of its safety priorities. Motor vehicle manufacturers are developing technologies to reduce the risk of injury associated with rollover collisions. This paper describes the development by General Motors Corporation (GM) of a suite of laboratory tests that can be used to develop sensors that can deploy occupant protection devices like roof rail side air bags and pretensioners in a rollover as well as a discussion of the challenges of conducting this suite of tests.
Technical Paper

Performance of Coatings for Underbody Structural Components

2001-03-05
2001-01-0363
The Auto/Steel Partnership established the Light Truck Frame Project Group in 1996 with two objectives: (a) to develop materials, design and fabrication knowledge that would enable the frames on North American OEM (original equipment manufacturer) light trucks to be reduced in weight, and (b) to improve corrosion resistance of frames on these vehicles, thereby allowing a reduction in the thickness of the components and a reduction in frame weight. To address the issues relating to corrosion, a subgroup of the Light Truck Frame Project Group was formed. The group comprised representatives from the North American automotive companies, test laboratories, frame manufacturers, and steel producers. As part of a comprehensive test program, the Corrosion Subgroup has completed tests on frame coatings. Using coated panels of a low carbon hot rolled and pickled steel sheet and two types of accelerated cyclic corrosion tests, seven frame coatings were tested for corrosion performance.
Technical Paper

POWERMATIC A New Automatic for Chevrolet Transmission Heavy-Duty Trucks

1957-01-01
570012
THIS paper describes the development of a truck automatic transmission, from a statement of broad objectives through the growing pains, to road testing of the final product. Emphasis is placed upon original thinking that led to the decision to undertake such a project, compromises that suggested themselves throughout the various stages, and features tried and found wanting as well as those retained. The finished product is described full though not in detail, stress being placed upon interesting and novel design features.
Technical Paper

Low-Power Flexible Controls Architecture for General Motors Partnership for a New Generation (Pngv) Precept Vehicle

2000-11-01
2000-01-C060
The complexity of designing and implementing a vehicle electrical control system for ultra fuel-efficient hybrid vehicles is significantly greater than that of a conventional vehicle. To quickly demonstrate and iterate capabilities of these vehicles, an efficient and rapid means for developing requirements, mapping these into an electrical control and communications architecture, and developing prototype systems is needed. The General Motors Precept concept vehicle is an example of an energy- efficient vehicular control system developed using a "requirements to software'' development process and electronic controller infrastructure that demonstrates these attributes. The Precept is General Motors Corporation's technology demonstration concept vehicle developed to address General Motors Corporation's commitment to the Partnership for a New Generation (PNGV) program.
Technical Paper

Heavy Truck Safety-What We Know

1985-01-01
856106
The overall highway fatality rate has dropped almost continuously since 1925, from 20 to 2.5 per 100 million miles of travel in 1984. Still, the almost 44,000 fatalities in 1984 can and will be decreased. In 1983, 5,475 of the 42,584 highway fatalities were in accidents involving medium or heavy trucks. Only 18 percent of these were occupants of the trucks themselves; 82 percent were pedestrians or occupants of the other vehicle. The greatest number of combination truck accidents takes place on two-lane rural roads. Single-vehicle accidents are responsible for 70 percent of heavy truck occupant fatalities. Doubles and heavier trucks appear to be as safe as other heavy trucks. Rollover and ejection are responsible for the greatest number of truck occupant fatalities. When asked about her top priority as the new Secretary of Transportation, Mrs. Dole replied, “There's no higher mandate for the Department than to promote safety….”
Technical Paper

Heavy Truck Safety-What We Know

1985-04-01
851191
The overall highway fatality rate has dropped almost contintinously since 1925, from 20 to 2.5 per hundred million miles of travel in 1984. Still, the almost 44, 000 fatalities in 1984 can, and will, be decreased. In 1983, 5, 475 of the 42, 584 highway fatalities were in accidents involving medium or heavy trucks. Only 18% of these were occupants of the trucks themselves. 82% were pedestrians or occupants of the “other vehicle.” The greatest number of combination truck accidents take place on two-lane rural roads. Single-vehicle accidents are responsible for 70% of heavy truck occupant fatalities. Doubles and heavier trucks appear to be as safe as other heavy trucks. Rollover and ejection are responsible for the greatest number of truck occupant fatalities.
Technical Paper

Front Suspension Multi-Axis Testing

1987-11-01
872255
A front suspension laboratory test procedure was developed to reproduce time-correlated fatigue damaging events from a light truck road durability test. Subsequently, the performance of front suspension systems for the GMT 400 light truck program were evaluated in terms of customer reliability. Both prototype and pilot testing, as well as computer modeling, were used in the evaluation.
Technical Paper

Diagnostic Assistant Based on Graphical Probabilistic Models

2004-03-08
2004-01-0680
Electro-Motive Division of GM jointly with HRL Laboratories have developed a software tool, called TechPro, which assists in troubleshooting of diesel locomotives. The tool has been tested extensively in the field for the last two years. It has improved significantly the quality of diagnosis of locomotives. The tool is based on Graphical Probabilistic Models and Case Data Bases. We will discuss the design of the tool, its performance and will show its relevance to diagnosis of automobiles.
Technical Paper

Development of a PEM Fuel Cell System for Vehicular Application

1992-08-01
921541
Allison Gas Turbine Division of General Motors is performing the first phase of a multiphase development project aimed at demonstrating an electric vehicle based on a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. This work is sponsored by the Office of Transportation Technologies of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) through the DoE's Chicago Field Office (Contract No. DE-AC02-90CH10435). This work complements major efforts under way to produce electric vehicles for reducing pollution in key urban areas. Battery powered vehicles will initially satisfy niche markets where limited range vehicles can meet commuter needs. The PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid using methanol as fuel potentially offers an extremely attractive option to increasing the range, payload, and/or performance of battery powered vehicles.
Technical Paper

Developing Hydrogen (H2) Specification Guidelines for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Vehicles

2005-04-11
2005-01-0011
In 1999, the Society of Automotive Engineers established the Fuel Cell Standards Committee (FCSC). The Committee is organized in subcommittees that address issues such as Interface, Hydrogen (H2) Quality, Safety, Performance, Emissions and Fuel Consumption, Recycling and Terminology. Since its inception the SAE/FCSC has published several recommended practices, which have drawn the attention of national and international organizations. These include SAE J2578 (Fuel Cell Vehicle Safety), SAE J2600 (Compressed H2 Surface Vehicle Refueling Devices), and SAE J2594 (Recyclability of Fuel Cell Systems). The need for having one common grade of hydrogen for all US commercial hydrogen-refueling stations for FCVs was the reason to establish the H2 Quality Task Force (HQTF) in late 2003. At the present time there is no representative US-national or international standard addressing the quality of hydrogen fuel that is acceptable for fuel cell vehicles.
Technical Paper

Describing the Truck Driver Stomach and Shin-Knee Accommodation Tools

1987-08-01
871532
Truck driver shin-knee and stomach postion tools have been developed to describe where certain percentages of truck drivers position there knees and stomachs in various workspace arrangements. Separate equations describe the accommodation level for driver populations with male to female ratios of 50/50, 75/25, and a range from 90/10 to 95/5. These equations can be used as a design tool to locate the curves in vehicle space to describe the region behind which the given populations shin-knees, and stomachs would be located. Equations and curves are provided for both the left leg, which operates the clutch, and the right leg, which operates the accelerator.
Technical Paper

Describing the Truck Driver Eye and Head Accommodation Tools

1987-08-01
871531
Truck driver eye and head position tools have been developed to describe where certain percentages of truck drivers position there eyes and heads in various workspace arrangements. Separate equations describe the accommodation level for driver populations with male to female ratios of 50/50, 75/25, and a range from 90/10 to 95/5. These equations can be used as a design tool to locate the curves in vehicle space to describe the region behind which the given populations eyes and heads would be located. Equations and curves are provided for both the drivers eye and head in the side view. It has become increasingly apparent that there is a need for improved methods of accommodating truck drivers in heavy truck cab design. Currently, practices used in the automobile industry for passenger car design are utilized for the design of heavy trucks. These practices.
Technical Paper

Applications of Monte Carlo Simulation to Vehicle Maintenance and Component Remanufacturing Decisions

1983-02-01
830550
As component and systems sophistication in both cars and trucks increase, improved diagnostic capabilities are required to assure proper and expedient serviceability. Replacement of electrical modules, starter motors, carburetors, fuel injectors and even whole engines or transmissions is encouraged by high labor costs and continued vehicle mobility mandates. The remanufacturing business has grown and components previously discarded now provide valuable core elements to feed the industry. To achieve efficient utilization of capital, equipment and labor, remanufacturers must estimate when this supply of core elements will be available and plan their production schedules accordingly. In order to properly service private individuals and commercial fleets, minimize vehicle downtime and reduce life cycle costs, adaptation of available analytical tools must be made.
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