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Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Synthesis Techniques for the Integration of Chassis Systems in Total Vehicle Design

A practical methodology is presented for the synthesis of Chassis Systems and their integration into a vehicle design to achieve a specified vehicle dynamic performance. By focusing on the fundamental performance requirements of gain, response time, and stability in midrange handling and the higher level design parameters of front and rear cornering compliance it is possible to find optimum values for these design parameters. The balancing of these higher level design parameters, in the context of overall vehicle performance, determines primary system requirements for the front suspension, rear suspension, tires, and steering system which may in turn be met by a variety of specific hardware designs.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cross Wind Air Flow Analysis

CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) has been used to analyze vehicle air flow. In cross wind conditions an asymmetrical flow field around the vehicle is present. Under these circumstances, in addition to the forces present with symmetric air flow (drag and lift forces and pitching moment), side forces and moments (rolling and yawing) occur. Issues related to fuel economy, driveability, sealing effects (caused by suction exerted on the door), structural integrity (sun roof, spoiler), water management (rain deposit), and dirt deposit (shear stress) have been investigated. Due to the software developments and computer hardware improvements, results can be obtained within a reasonable time frame with excellent accuracy (both geometry and analytical solution). The flow velocity, streamlines, pressure field, and component forces can be extracted from the analysis results through visualization to identify potential improvement areas.
Technical Paper

The General Motors Driving Simulator

A driving simulator development project at the Systems Engineering and Technical Process Center (SE/TP) is exploring the role of driving simulation in the vehicle design process. The simulator provides two vehicle mockup testing arenas that support a wide field of view, computer-generated image of the road scene which dynamically responds to driver commands as a function of programmable vehicle model parameters. Two unique aspects of the simulator are the fast 65 ms response time and low incidence rate of simulator induced syndrome (about 5%). Preliminary model validation results and data comparing driver performance in a vehicle vs. the simulator indicate accurate handling response dynamics within the on-center handling region (<0.3g lateral acceleration). Applications have included supporting the development of new steering system concepts, as well as evaluating the usability of vehicle controls and displays.
Technical Paper

The 1997 Chevrolet Corvette Structure Architecture Synthesis

This paper describes the design, synthesis-analysis and development of the unique vehicle structure architecture for the fifth generation Chevrolet Corvette, ‘C5’, which starts in the 1997 model year. The innovative structural layout of the ‘C5’ enables torsional rigidity in an open roof vehicle which exceeds that of all current production open roof vehicles by a wide margin. The first structural mode of the ‘C5’ in open roof configuration approaches typical values measured in similar size fixed roof vehicles. Extensive use of CAE and a systems methodology of benchmarking and requirements rolldown were employed to develop the ‘C5’ vehicle architecture. Simple computer models coupled with numerical optimization were used early in the design process to evaluate every design concept and alternative iteration for mass and structural efficiency.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Vehicle Structural Design For Comparison With Quantitative Criteria

To demonstrate that quantitative design criteria combined with computer analysis methods can facilitate the structural design of an automotive vehicle, two examples of computer aided preliminary design are given. The examples demonstrate analytical techniques applied at two different stages in the design process for a compact size (non-production) automobile. In the first example, analysis is applied to ensure that the front-end structure of the project vehicle is designed to withstand anticipated in-service loads. In the second example, structural dynamic analysis of the total vehicle system is performed to determine vibration response quantities in the passenger compartment. These quantities are compared with whole-body vibration criteria to assess passenger ride quality.
Technical Paper

Modeling Large Deformations Using Polycarbonate Scale Models

This paper presents a method for modeling large deformations of structures using scale plastic models. The method was used to predict the dynamic barrier crash performance of a proposed vehicle structure with the aid of a computer simulation of the collision. The use of the technique can provide design direction in the early stages of the vehicle design process.
Technical Paper

Keynote Address

Just-In-Time processing is changing the way the automotive industry operates. This paper explains Just-In-Time systems, how they are being applied at General Motors, and how the U.S. auto industry is applying them. The paper is based on three main premises: 1) the design of the product and the design of the process must be integrated, 2) the construction process is critical, and 3) the first day of operation of the process must be the first day efforts are made to improve it.
Technical Paper

Glass Drop Design for Automobile Windows - Design of Glass Contour, Shape, Drop Motion, and Motion Guidance Systems

This paper presents a new computerized approach for designing the automobile window glass contour, the glass drop motion, and the regulator systems. The three-dimensional geometrical relationship of the glass contour, the drop path, and its guidance system have been studied. Methods for barrel and helical drops are presented for optimizing the glass profile and drop path trajectories. Criteria for perfecting the glass contour are developed for shaping the profile of the vehicle clay model. Methods for correcting the glass contour and shape are presented. Examples are provided to illustrate how to improve the design. This approach integrates the development works of glass contour, drop motion and regulator systems. Through this design approach the window glass can fit and move perfectly in the door assembly.
Technical Paper

Frequency Domain Considerations in Vehicle Design for Optimal Structural Feel

A vehicle perceived to be solid and vibration free is said to have good “structural feel”. Specification for vehicle design to achieve a good stuctural feel depends heavily on the management of resonant modes existing in the low frequency domain. These resonances include vehicle rigid body, chassis subsystem, body flexure and large component modes. A process to specify the placement of resonant modes in the low frequency domain is discussed. This process allocates blocks within the frequency domain for classes of resonant modes stated above. Segregation of these blocks of resonant modes in the frequency domain limits modal interaction, thereby minimizing sympathetic vibration. Additionally, known areas of human body sensitivity within this low frequency domain are stated. Lastly, known vibration inputs are identified. This process is cognizant of these inputs and avoids overlapping with the vehicle resonant modes to provide further insurance of minimal modal interaction.
Technical Paper

Establishing Brake Design Parameters for Customer Satisfaction

Brake engineers are very familiar with designing automotive brake systems to meet performance requirements such as those specified in FMVSS 105. However, merely complying with governmental regulations does not ensure that the resulting brake system will satisfy customers of the product. Many attributes of brake performance are characterized by our customers in very subjective terms. In many cases it is not apparent how to incorporate these subjective customer desires into our product designs. This paper describes a process for transforming customer preferences about brake system performance expressed in subjective terms into objective parameters for brake system design. The process for converting customer preferences into design parameters involves several steps. The desires of the customer must be identified. This is often done in marketing clinics, customer interviews or surveys.
Technical Paper

Automotive Noise and Vibration Control Practices in the New Millennium

The approaches used to develop an NVH package for a vehicle have changed dramatically over the last several years. New noise and vibration control strategies have been introduced, new materials have been developed, advanced testing techniques have been implemented, and sophisticated computer modeling has been applied. These approaches help design NVH solutions that are optimized for cost, performance, and weight. This paper explains the NVH practices available for use in designing vehicles for the new millennium.
Technical Paper

Advances in Complex Eigenvalue Analysis for Brake Noise

Brake squeal has been analyzed by finite elements for some time. Among several methods, complex eigenvalue analysis is proving useful in the design process. It requires hardware verification and it falls into a simulation process. However, it is fast and it can provide guidance for resolving engineering problems. There are successes as well as frustrations in implementing this analysis tool. Its capability, robustness and reliability are closely examined in many companies. Generally, the low frequency squealing mechanism is a rotor axial direction mode that couples the pads, rotor, and other components; while higher frequency squeal mainly exhibits a rotor tangential mode. Design modifications such as selection of rotor design, insulator, chamfer, and lining materials are aimed specifically to cure these noise-generating mechanisms. In GM, complex eigenvalue analysis is used for brake noise analysis and noise reduction. Finite element models are validated with component modal testing.
Technical Paper

A Connectorized Passive Optical Star for Automotive Networking Applications

This paper introduces for the first time a fully connectorized passive optical star for use with plastic optical fiber that addresses all automotive application requirements. A unique mixing element is presented that offers linear expandability, uniformity of insertion loss, and packaging flexibility. The star is constructed of all plastic molded components to make it low cost and produceable in high volume and is single-ended to facilitate vehicle integration. The star is connectorized to facilitate assembly into the vehicle power and signal distribution system.