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Technical Paper

Vehicular Radar Speedometer

1973-02-01
730125
Certain problems associated with conventional vehicular speed sensing, such as wheel slip, wheel lock, and variable rolling radius, can be alleviated by employing microwave speed sensing. It is expected that true speed sensing will augment a number of automotive and other ground transportation applications. An experimental, two-horn, 55 GHz continuous wave radar speedometer designed to measure true ground speed in the presence of vehicular perturbations is described; the system has an ultimate design frequency of 60 GHz. An Impatt diode, solid-state transmitter was incorporated in this design because of its inherent advantages. The RF portion of the transmitter-receiver unit, including the dipole feed, is housed on a single microstrip circuit on an alumina substrate 1/2 X 1/4 in (12.7 X 6.35 mm). Vertically polarized beams incident at angles of 35 deg with respect to the horizontal system were chosen as a design compromise.
Technical Paper

The Virtual Stiffness Profile - A Design Methodology for Pedestrian Safety

2002-07-09
2002-01-2119
European car manufacturers and suppliers are currently stepping up the effort to develop solutions to meet pedestrian safety requirements, which will come into effect, starting in 2005. Numerous concepts, both active and passive, are being investigated to fulfil the pedestrian safety specifications, in addition to the many other limitations imposed on the front end of the car. All of them deal with the topic of energy absorption. Here, an approach to achieving a passive solution will be presented, describing the development of the ‘Virtual Stiffness Profile’ (VSP) to help identify the optimum balance of engineering and styling to meet the requirements. In this paper, specific emphasis is placed on the lower leg impact.
Technical Paper

The Oxidative Stability of GM's DEXRON®-VI Global Factory Fill ATF

2006-10-16
2006-01-3241
A detailed description of the oxidative stability of GM's DEXRON®-VI Factory Fill Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF) is provided, which can be integrated into a working algorithm to estimate the end of useful oxidative life of the fluid. As described previously, an algorithm to determine the end of useful life of an automatic transmission fluid exists and is composed of two simultaneous counters, one monitoring bulk oxidation and the other monitoring friction degradation [1]. When either the bulk oxidation model or the friction model reach the specified limit, a signal can be triggered to alert the driver that an ATF change is required. The data presented in this report can be used to develop the bulk oxidation model. The bulk oxidation model is built from a large series of bench oxidation tests. These data can also be used independent of a vehicle to show the relative oxidation resistance of this fluid, at various temperatures, compared to other common lubricants.
Technical Paper

The General Motors Driving Simulator

1994-03-01
940179
A driving simulator development project at the Systems Engineering and Technical Process Center (SE/TP) is exploring the role of driving simulation in the vehicle design process. The simulator provides two vehicle mockup testing arenas that support a wide field of view, computer-generated image of the road scene which dynamically responds to driver commands as a function of programmable vehicle model parameters. Two unique aspects of the simulator are the fast 65 ms response time and low incidence rate of simulator induced syndrome (about 5%). Preliminary model validation results and data comparing driver performance in a vehicle vs. the simulator indicate accurate handling response dynamics within the on-center handling region (<0.3g lateral acceleration). Applications have included supporting the development of new steering system concepts, as well as evaluating the usability of vehicle controls and displays.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Limiting Shoulder Belt Load with Air Bag Restraint

1995-02-01
950886
The dilemma of using a shoulder belt force limiter with a 3-point belt system is selecting a limit load that will balance the reduced risk of significant thoracic injury due to the shoulder belt loading of the chest against the increased risk of significant head injury due to the greater upper torso motion allowed by the shoulder belt load limiter. However, with the use of air bags, this dilemma is more manageable since it only occurs for non-deploy accidents where the risk of significant head injury is low even for the unbelted occupant. A study was done using a validated occupant dynamics model of the Hybrid III dummy to investigate the effects that a prescribed set of shoulder belt force limits had on head and thoracic responses for 48 and 56 km/h barrier simulations with driver air bag deployment and for threshold crash severity simulations with no air bag deployment.
Technical Paper

Synthesis of Chassis Parameters for Ride and Handling on the 1997 Chevrolet Corvette

1997-02-24
970097
This paper describes the performance attributes of the all-new front and rear SLA (short-long arm) suspensions, steering system, and tires of the 1997 Corvette. The process by which these subsystem attributes flowed down from vehicle-level requirements for ride and handling performance is briefly described. Additionally, where applicable, specific subsystem attributes are rationalized back to a corresponding vehicle-level performance requirement. Suspension kinematic and compliance characteristics are described and contrasted to those of the previous generation (1984 to 1996 Model Year) Corvette. Both synthesis/analysis activities as well as mule-level vehicle development work are cited for their roles in mapping out specific subsystem attributes and related vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

Size, Weight and Biomechanical Impact Response Requirements for Adult Size Small Female and Large Male Dummies

1989-02-01
890756
This paper summarizes the rationale used to specify the geometric, inertial and impact response requirements for a small adult female dummy and a large adult male dummy with impact biofidelity and measurement capacity comparable to the Hybrid III dummy, the most advanced midsize adult male dummy. Body segment lengths and weights for these two dummies were based on the latest anthropometry studies for the extremes of the U.S.A. adult population. Other characteristic body segment dimensions were calculated from geometric and mass scaling relationships that assured that each body segment had the same mass density as the corresponding body segment of the Hybrid III dummy. The biomechanical impact response requirements for the head, neck, chest and knee of the Hybrid III dummy were scaled to give corresponding biomechanical impact response requirements for each dummy.
Technical Paper

Significance of Intersection Crashes for Older Drivers

1996-02-01
960457
As the driving population ages, there is a need to understand the accident patterns of older drivers. Previous research has shown that side impact collisions, usually at an intersection, are a serious problem for the older driver in terms of injury outcome. This study compares the frequency of side impact, intersection collisions of different driver age groups using state and national police-reported accident data as well as an in-depth analysis of cases from a fatal accident study. All data reveal that the frequency of intersection crashes increases with driver age. The state and national data show that older drivers have an increase frequency of intersection crashes involving vehicles crossing paths prior to the collision compared to their involvement in all crash types. When taking into account traffic control devices at an intersection, older drivers have the greatest involvement of multiple vehicle crashes at a signed intersection.
Technical Paper

Rollover and Drop Tests - The Influence of Roof Strength on Injury Mechanics Using Belted Dummies

1990-10-01
902314
This report presents the test methods and results of a study involving lap/shoulder belted dummies in dynamic dolly rollover tests and inverted vehicle drop tests. Data are presented showing dummy neck loadings resulting from head impacts to the vehicle interior as the vehicle contacts the ground. Comparison of the number and magnitude of axial neckloads are presented for rollcaged and production vehicles, as well as an analysis of the factors which influence neckloads under these conditions.
Technical Paper

Results of the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association Component and Full-Vehicle Side Impact Test Procedure Evaluation Program

1985-01-01
856087
This paper presents an extensive research program undertaken to develop improved side impact test methods. The development of a component side impact test device along with an associated test procedure are reviewed. The results of accident data analysis techniques to define anatomical areas most likely to be injured during side impact and definition of test device response corridors based on human surrogate testing conducted by the Association Peugeot/Renault and the University of Heidelberg are discussed. The relationship of response corridors and accident data analysis in earlier phases of the project resulted in definition and development of a component side impact test device to represent the human thorax. A test program to evaluate and compare component and full-vehicle test results is presented.
Technical Paper

Responses of Animals Exposed to Deployment of Various Passenger Inflatable Restraint System Concepts for a Variety of Collision Severities and Animal Positions

1982-01-01
826047
This paper summarizes the results of tests conducted with anesthetized animals that were exposed to a wide range of passenger inflatable restraint cushion forces for a variety of impact sled - simulated accident conditions. The test configurations and inflatable restraint system concepts were selected to produce a broad spectrum of injury types and severities to the major organs of the head, neck and torso of the animals. These data were needed to interpret the significance of the responses of an instrumented child dummy that was being used to evaluate child injury potential of the passenger inflatable restraint system being developed by General Motors Corporation. Injuries ranging from no injury to fatal were observed for the head, neck and abdomen regions. Thoracic injuries ranged from no injury to critical, survival uncertain.
Technical Paper

Part Two - Dummies - Description and Basis of a Three-Year-Old Child Dummy Or Evaluating Passenger Inflatable Restraint Concepts

1982-01-01
826040
A primary concern in the development of a passenger inflatable restraint system is the possibility that a child could be in the path of the deploying cushion either due to initial position at the time of an accident or due to precrash braking accompanying an accident. Previous studies by General Motors and Volvo have indicated that serious injuries to children are possible if the cushion/child interaction forces are not controlled by system design. This paper describes an instrumented child dummy which was developed to provide measurements of the various cushion/child interaction forces. An analysis is given describing the types of injuries which could be associated with the various types of interaction forces. These results were used to develop appropriate dummy instrumentation for indicating the severity of the cushion/child interaction. A description of the modifications made to an existing three-year-old child dummy are described.
Technical Paper

Occupant Energy Management Technique for Restraint System Analysis and Design -Theory and Validation

1992-09-01
922082
In this paper, the concept of ridedown analysis is extended to provide the total occupant energy and ridedown energy as functions of time. The difference between the total occupant energy and the energy absorbed by the front structure represents the energy which is dissipated by deforming the components of the restraint system. This analysis allows an improved understanding of the restraint system as a whole, and how its components interact with each other and with the front structure of the car to dissipate the occupant's energy throughout the crash event.
Technical Paper

Ncap-Field Relevance of the Metrics

2001-06-04
2001-06-0170
By design, frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) tests focus on a narrow portion of the spectrum of field crash events. A simple, high level parsing of towaway crashes from NHTSA's National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) files shows that only a small fraction of occupants (but a somewhat larger portion of their harm as measured by ISS) find themselves in crash circumstances remotely similar to NCAP crash conditions. Looking only at seat location, area of damage, direction of force, distribution of damage, and estimated delta-V filters significantly restricts the relevance of NCAP even before critical factors like belt use and vehicle crash partner are considered. Given the limited scope of frontal NCAP it should not be surprising that it has limited usefulness in discriminating among various vehicles' overall performance in the field.
Technical Paper

Interpretations of the Impact Responses of a 3-Year-Old Child Dummy Relative to Child Injury Potential

1982-01-01
826048
An analysis is presented that was used to interpret the significance of response measurements made with a specially instrumented, 3-year-old child dummy that was used to evaluate child injury potential of the second-generation, passenger inflatable restraint system that was being developed by General Motors Corporation. Anesthetized animals and a specially instrumented child dummy, both 3-year-old child surrogates, were exposed to similar inflating-cushion, simulated collision environments. The exposure environments were chosen to produce a wide spectrum of animal injury types and severities, and a corresponding broad range of child dummy responses. For a given exposure environment, the animal injury severity ratings for the head, neck, thorax and abdomen are paired with dummy response values corresponding to these body regions.
Technical Paper

Impact of Plastics on Automotive Applications and Their Role in Enabling Technology Innovation

2000-12-01
2000-01-3164
Automotive manufacturers are driving for improvement, creativity and innovation in vehicle systems in order to differentiate products in the global market. Progress in fuel efficiency, occupant safety, comfort, recyclable friendly pre-assembled modular systems, and novel manufacturing methods is difficult to achieve if no major departure from the traditional design, engineering, material mix, and assembly approaches is considered. More importantly, these benefits will not materialize unless the relationship between automotive manufacturers and suppliers changes, allowing suppliers to take a more active role in the vehicle development process. The present paper explores achievements made towards the development of new, innovative technologies to address simplification and overall performance improvements using non-traditional materials.
Technical Paper

Hybrid III Sternal Deflection Associated with Thoracic Injury Severities of Occupants Restrained with Force-Limiting Shoulder Belts

1991-02-01
910812
A relationship between the risk of significant thoracic injury (AIS ≥ 3) and Hybrid III dummy sternal deflection for shoulder belt loading is developed. This relationship is based on an analysis of the Association Peugeot-Renault accident data of 386 occupants who were restrained by three-point belt systems that used a shoulder belt with a force-limiting element. For 342 of these occupants, the magnitude of the shoulder belt force could be estimated with various degrees of certainty from the amount of force-limiting band ripping. Hyge sled tests were conducted with a Hybrid III dummy to reproduce the various degrees of band tearing. The resulting Hybrid III sternal deflections were correlated to the frequencies of AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury observed for similar band tearing in the field accident data. This analysis indicates that for shoulder belt loading a Hybrid III sternal deflection of 50 mm corresponds to a 40 to 50% risk of an AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Evaluation of Headlight Switching Systems

1974-02-01
740998
A search for methods of switching a proposed three beam headlight system led to the evaluation of 41 possible schemes. Human factors criteria reduced the original 41 to three systems which were tested in a laboratory with a broad range of subjects. Recordings of practice trials, learning trials, and the responses to visual cues projected on a screen were analyzed. The same test procedure was also used to compare three alternative ways of switching conventional two beam headlight systems. Summary data is presented for the six systems tested grouped by test subject age, sex, and driving experience. The most pronounced difference observed was in the subjective preference rating among two beam switching systems. All systems tested resulted in remarkably few learning and practice trials. Small differences were recorded among systems in operational response time.
Technical Paper

High Performance Damping by a New Generation of Spray-On Coatings

2003-05-05
2003-01-1581
Car manufacturers continue to strive to find creative routes to differentiate their vehicles while continuing to reduce cost. Acoustic comfort derived from high performance sprayable dampener systems is one important option for OEM's to differentiate their models. But there is a significant conflict between high performance, low cost and vehicle weight reduction. This paper describes an innovative vibration dampening material resin. It is a one part, reactive, solvent free, sprayable, epoxy based technology using a unique polymer resin with reduced safety labeling requirements. Good corrosion protection and oil absorption characteristics allow this resin to be applied in either the body or paint shop facilities. Benchmarking against the existing dampener type in the areas of damping performance, process costs, ease of application and environment/health aspects shows that this new generation of epoxy damper is superior to other current damper coatings.
Technical Paper

Heavy Truck Safety-What We Know

1985-01-01
856106
The overall highway fatality rate has dropped almost continuously since 1925, from 20 to 2.5 per 100 million miles of travel in 1984. Still, the almost 44,000 fatalities in 1984 can and will be decreased. In 1983, 5,475 of the 42,584 highway fatalities were in accidents involving medium or heavy trucks. Only 18 percent of these were occupants of the trucks themselves; 82 percent were pedestrians or occupants of the other vehicle. The greatest number of combination truck accidents takes place on two-lane rural roads. Single-vehicle accidents are responsible for 70 percent of heavy truck occupant fatalities. Doubles and heavier trucks appear to be as safe as other heavy trucks. Rollover and ejection are responsible for the greatest number of truck occupant fatalities. When asked about her top priority as the new Secretary of Transportation, Mrs. Dole replied, “There's no higher mandate for the Department than to promote safety….”
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