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Technical Paper

Viscosity Effects on Engine Wear Under High-Temperature, High-Speed Conditions

1978-02-01
780982
Four multigrade engine oils, containing the same base oil plus SE additive package but VI improvers of differing shear stability, were evaluated in 80 000 km of high-speed, high-temperature vehicle service. Bearing, piston ring and valve guide wear, as well as oil consumption, oil filter plugging and engine cleanliness were all worse for the engines operated on the low-shear stability oils. The wear differences were traced to differences in high-shear-rate viscosity, while the cleanliness, filter plugging and oil consumption differences occurred because of excessive wear or polymer shear degradation. These results suggest that engine oil viscosity should be specified under high-shear-rate conditions.
Technical Paper

Use of CAE Methods for Optimization of Polypropylene Structural Components in Automotive Applications

2000-12-01
2000-01-3163
Since their introduction in automobiles, polymeric materials have enabled designers and engineers to differentiate products based on performance attributes, mechanical response, aesthetics, and manufacturing techniques. A large segment of these applications utilizes polypropylene (PP) resins. One of the attractive features of PP polymers is the ability to tailor their mechanical, thermal and processing performance envelope via modification of their composition and the addition of fillers. Key to the successful application of PP resins in structural systems is the ability of designers and engineers to understand the material response and to properly model the behavior of PP structures upon different mechanical and thermal loading conditions.
Technical Paper

U.S. Automotive Corrosion Trends at 5 & 6 Years

1989-12-01
892578
In 1985, the Body Division of the Automotive Corrosion and Prevention Committee of SAE (ACAP) concluded that an automotive body corrosion survey for public consumption was needed. The committee proceeded to develop a survey methodology and conducted surveys in the Detroit area every second year starting in 1985. The survey is a closed car parking lot survey of nineteen panels or partial panels checking for perforations, blisters and surface rust. Similar surveys have and will continue to be conducted at biyearly intervals for comparison purposes to track the results of industry wide corrosion protection “improvements”. This is a report of the results of the first three surveys. THE ACAP COMMITTEE BODY DIVISION has now completed the third in its series of biyearly surveys. It is now possible to see some very clear results of industry actions and some indication of future performance.
Technical Paper

U.S. Automotive Corrosion Trends Over the Past Decade

1995-02-01
950375
Since 1985, the Body Division of the Automotive Corrosion and Prevention Committee of SAE (ACAP) has conducted biannual surveys of automotive body corrosion in the Detroit area. The purpose of these surveys is to track industry wide corrosion protection improvements and to make this information available for public consumption. The survey consists of a closed car parking lot survey checking for perforations, blisters, and surface rust. This paper reports the results of the five surveys conducted to date.
Technical Paper

U. S. Automotive Corrosion Trends: 1998 SAE (ACAP) Automotive Body Corrosion Survey Results

2003-03-03
2003-01-1244
The Body Division of the Automotive Corrosion and Prevention Committee of SAE (ACAP) has conducted biannual surveys of automotive body corrosion in the Detroit area since 1985. The purpose of these surveys is to track industry-wide corrosion protection improvements and to make this information available for public consumption. The survey consists of a closed car parking lot survey checking for perforations, blisters, and surface rust. This paper reports the results of the seven surveys conducted since 1985.
Technical Paper

The Oxidative Stability of GM's DEXRON®-VI Global Factory Fill ATF

2006-10-16
2006-01-3241
A detailed description of the oxidative stability of GM's DEXRON®-VI Factory Fill Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF) is provided, which can be integrated into a working algorithm to estimate the end of useful oxidative life of the fluid. As described previously, an algorithm to determine the end of useful life of an automatic transmission fluid exists and is composed of two simultaneous counters, one monitoring bulk oxidation and the other monitoring friction degradation [1]. When either the bulk oxidation model or the friction model reach the specified limit, a signal can be triggered to alert the driver that an ATF change is required. The data presented in this report can be used to develop the bulk oxidation model. The bulk oxidation model is built from a large series of bench oxidation tests. These data can also be used independent of a vehicle to show the relative oxidation resistance of this fluid, at various temperatures, compared to other common lubricants.
Technical Paper

Structural Front-End Carrier Using Long Glass Fiber Polypropylene

2002-11-19
2002-01-3563
Modular front-end carriers to pre-assemble front-end components such as cooling systems, lights, and bumper beam have been in production in different vehicles for several years. Compression molded or overmolded steel/plastic carriers have traditionally been used. The present paper explains the design, material options, and engineering optimization of a composite front-end carrier, which utilizes long glass fiber injection moldable resins and adhesively bonded steel reinforcements. Experimental evaluation of prototypes shows the system met the functional performance requirements at minimum weight.
Technical Paper

Performance of Coatings for Underbody Structural Components

2001-03-05
2001-01-0363
The Auto/Steel Partnership established the Light Truck Frame Project Group in 1996 with two objectives: (a) to develop materials, design and fabrication knowledge that would enable the frames on North American OEM (original equipment manufacturer) light trucks to be reduced in weight, and (b) to improve corrosion resistance of frames on these vehicles, thereby allowing a reduction in the thickness of the components and a reduction in frame weight. To address the issues relating to corrosion, a subgroup of the Light Truck Frame Project Group was formed. The group comprised representatives from the North American automotive companies, test laboratories, frame manufacturers, and steel producers. As part of a comprehensive test program, the Corrosion Subgroup has completed tests on frame coatings. Using coated panels of a low carbon hot rolled and pickled steel sheet and two types of accelerated cyclic corrosion tests, seven frame coatings were tested for corrosion performance.
Technical Paper

Nylon RIM Development for Automotive Body Panels

1985-02-01
850157
The performance and production requirements for future passenger vehicles has increased the efforts to replace metal body panels with plastic materials. This has been accomplished, to a large extent on some production vehicles that have been introduced recently. Unfortunately, these plastic body applications have necessitated special off-line handling or low temperature paint processing. However, the advantages of RIM nylon, offer the potential for uniquely new plastic body designs, that can be processed through existing assembly plants, much like the steel panels they are intended to replace. The intent of this paper is to discuss the rationale for future plastic body panel material selection and related nylon RIM development efforts.
Technical Paper

New Modified Dow Polyamide Resins Solving Under-the-Hood Warpage Problems

2002-07-09
2002-01-2104
Polyamide resins are well established within the automotive industry and are widely used in a range of demanding under-the-hood applications such as valve covers and air intake manifolds. In reality however, the disadvantages of conventional nylon products, such as excessive warpage and poor dimensional stability to name but two, make it increasingly difficult for engineers to produce the ever more complex parts demanded by new engine developments. In this paper we shall introduce a new range of modified Dow Polyamide resins that greatly reduce the above mentioned disadvantages. In comparisons with commercially available nylon 6 and 66 materials we shall illustrate improved warpage behaviour and lower moisture pick-up in combination with excellent chemical resistance to, for example, hot motor oil and ethylene glycol. In summation, examples will be provided to illustrate the improved utility of these new, modified Dow Polyamide resins.
Technical Paper

LS-DYNA3D Finite Element Model of Side Impact Dummy SID

1997-04-08
971525
Side impact dummy (SID) is a human-like test device used in the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) mandated side impact test of vehicles sold in the USA. A finite element model of SID has been developed at GM as a part of a project to simulate the side impact test. The objective is to better predict physical test results by replacing traditional rigid-body lumped parameter models with a finite element model. The project included, besides mesh generation, the development of new LS-DYNA3D constitutive models for rubber and foam-like materials, and enhancements of contact interface and other algorithms. This paper describes the GM SID finite element model and its performance in side impact test simulations.
Technical Paper

Impact of Plastics on Automotive Applications and Their Role in Enabling Technology Innovation

2000-12-01
2000-01-3164
Automotive manufacturers are driving for improvement, creativity and innovation in vehicle systems in order to differentiate products in the global market. Progress in fuel efficiency, occupant safety, comfort, recyclable friendly pre-assembled modular systems, and novel manufacturing methods is difficult to achieve if no major departure from the traditional design, engineering, material mix, and assembly approaches is considered. More importantly, these benefits will not materialize unless the relationship between automotive manufacturers and suppliers changes, allowing suppliers to take a more active role in the vehicle development process. The present paper explores achievements made towards the development of new, innovative technologies to address simplification and overall performance improvements using non-traditional materials.
Technical Paper

High Performance Damping by a New Generation of Spray-On Coatings

2003-05-05
2003-01-1581
Car manufacturers continue to strive to find creative routes to differentiate their vehicles while continuing to reduce cost. Acoustic comfort derived from high performance sprayable dampener systems is one important option for OEM's to differentiate their models. But there is a significant conflict between high performance, low cost and vehicle weight reduction. This paper describes an innovative vibration dampening material resin. It is a one part, reactive, solvent free, sprayable, epoxy based technology using a unique polymer resin with reduced safety labeling requirements. Good corrosion protection and oil absorption characteristics allow this resin to be applied in either the body or paint shop facilities. Benchmarking against the existing dampener type in the areas of damping performance, process costs, ease of application and environment/health aspects shows that this new generation of epoxy damper is superior to other current damper coatings.
Technical Paper

General Motors DEXRON®-VI Global Service-Fill Specification

2006-10-16
2006-01-3242
During early 2005 General Motors released a newly developed ATF for the factory fill of all GM Powertrain stepped gear automatic transmissions. The new fluid provided significantly improved performance in terms of friction durability, viscosity stability, aeration and foam control and oxidation resistance. In addition, the fluid has the potential to enable improved fuel economy and extended drain intervals. Since the performance of the new fluid far exceeded that of the DEXRON®-III service fill fluids available at the time it became necessary to upgrade the DEXRON® service fill specification in order to ensure that similar fluids were available in the market for service and repair situations. This latest upgrade to the service fill specification is designated DEXRON®-VI [1].
Technical Paper

Field Evaluation of Down-Gauged High Performance RIM Fascia Polymers

1993-03-01
930539
Reducing the wall thickness of automotive fascia offers cost and weight savings over those manufactured today. New high performance RIM polyurethane/urea and polyurea polymers with improved mechanical properties over conventional systems make down-gauging possible while maintaining specified performance.1 Adding low cost, high surface quality fillers to these polymers provides enhanced dimensional stability in fascia at reduced wall thickness, thus meeting ever increasing demands for lower cost and high quality. This paper describes validation studies of filled RIM fascia down-gauged 22% to 3.0 mm wall thickness and compares them to conventional fascia moulded at nominal 3.9 mm wall thickness. High performance polyurethane/urea, polyurea, and conventional polyurethane/urea each incorporating wollastonite, mica, or milled glass were tested. The data include “on-car position” moisture stability, painted impact at low temperature, and material processing.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Structural Instrument Panels

2002-03-04
2002-01-1270
In structural Instrument Panels the conventionally used cross car beam is eliminated by using the plastic structure as a load carrying construction. Due to the continuous search for lowering costs and weight in the development of new cars, the concept has been applied a number of times. Many articles have been published since on this subject, describing the design concepts, engineering development and types of plastic material applied. In general, the structural instrument panel assemblies show to have substantially lower cost and weight compared with conventional cross car beam based instrument panel structures while all of performance requirements are met. Also, improved packaging space, reduction in assembly time and improved recyclability are seen as major advantages. The use of state of the art Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) has proved to reduce development time and costs.
Technical Paper

Comparison of OEM Automatic Transmission Fluids in Industry Standard Tests

2007-10-29
2007-01-3987
As a result of raised awareness regarding the proliferation of individual OEM recommended ATFs, and discussion in various forums regarding the possibility of ‘universal’ service fill fluids, it was decided to study how divergent individual OEM requirements actually are by comparing the fluids performance in industry standard tests. A bench-mark study was carried out to compare the performance of various OEM automatic transmission fluids in selected industry standard tests. All of the fluids evaluated in the study are used by certain OEMs for both factory and service fill. The areas evaluated included friction durability, oxidation resistance, viscosity stability, aeration and foam control. The results of this study are discussed in this paper. Based on the results, one can conclude that each ATF is uniquely formulated to specific OEM requirements.
Technical Paper

Application of a Constrained Layer Damping Treatment to a Cast Aluminum V6 Engine Front Cover

2005-05-16
2005-01-2286
Constrained Layer Damping (CLD) treatments have long provided a means to effectively impart damping to a structure [1, 2 and 3]. Traditionally, CLD treatments are constructed of a very thin polymer layer constrained by a thicker metal layer. Because the adhesion of a thin polymer layer is very sensitive to surface finish, surfaces that a CLD treatment can be effectively applied to have historically been limited to those that are very flat and smooth. New developments in material technology have provided thicker materials that are very effective and less expensive to apply when used as the damping layer in a CLD treatment. This paper documents the effectiveness of such a treatment on a cast aluminum front cover for a V6 engine. Physical construction of the treatment, material properties and design criteria will be discussed. Candidate applications, the assembly process, methods for secondary mechanical fastening will be presented.
Technical Paper

Analytical and Experimental Techniques in Solving the Plastic Intake Manifold NVH

2001-04-30
2001-01-1544
The intent of this paper is to summarize the work of the V8 power plant intake manifold radiated noise study. In a particular V8 engine application, customer satisfaction feedback provided observations of existing unpleasant noise at the driver's ear. A comprehensive analysis of customer data indicated that a range from 500 to 800 Hz suggests a potential improvement in noise reduction at the driver's ear. In this study the noise source was determined using various accelerometers located throughout the valley of the engine and intake manifold. The overall surface velocity of the engine valley was ranked with respect to the overall surface velocity of the intake manifold. An intensity mapping technique was also used to determine the major component noise contribution. In order to validate the experimental findings, a series of analysis was also conducted. The analysis model included not only the plastic intake manifold, but also the whole powertrain.
Technical Paper

An Economic and Environmental Life Cycle Evaluation of 100% Regrind ABS for Automotive Parts

1998-11-30
982196
The use of regrind acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) for automotive parts and components results in two types of financial savings. The first is the shared monetary savings between General Motors and the molder for the difference in the virgin resin price versus price of the ABS regrind. The second is a societal energy savings seen in the life cycle of virgin ABS versus reground ABS. An added benefit is the preservation of natural resources used to produce virgin ABS.
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