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Technical Paper

Vehicular Radar Speedometer

Certain problems associated with conventional vehicular speed sensing, such as wheel slip, wheel lock, and variable rolling radius, can be alleviated by employing microwave speed sensing. It is expected that true speed sensing will augment a number of automotive and other ground transportation applications. An experimental, two-horn, 55 GHz continuous wave radar speedometer designed to measure true ground speed in the presence of vehicular perturbations is described; the system has an ultimate design frequency of 60 GHz. An Impatt diode, solid-state transmitter was incorporated in this design because of its inherent advantages. The RF portion of the transmitter-receiver unit, including the dipole feed, is housed on a single microstrip circuit on an alumina substrate 1/2 X 1/4 in (12.7 X 6.35 mm). Vertically polarized beams incident at angles of 35 deg with respect to the horizontal system were chosen as a design compromise.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Touchscreen Shelf Study

Researchers report an estimated 35.7 million of vehicles with touchscreens will be sold in 2019 worldwide [1]. As the use of touchscreens grows in the automotive industry, there is a need to study how driver’s arm and hand moves to access the touchscreen as well as how the driver utilizes the hardware around the touchscreen. In order to aid drivers while using the touchscreen and to minimize distractions, the drivers’ hand must be able to freely move to perform a task on the touchscreen without the trim interfering with the task. At the same time some trim may be used to support the hand and fingers while accessing the touchscreen particularly during tasks that take a longer period of time to complete. A study was performed to understand the effect of the size and the angle of a shelf placed under a touchscreen. Motion capture (Mocap) data of the hand of subjects performing two different tasks on the touchscreen was collected in the Human Occupant Package Simulator (HOPS).
Technical Paper

Vehicle Integrated Non-Intrusive Monitoring of Driver Biological Signals

A vehicle integrated sensing and analysis system has been designed, implemented, and demonstrated to nonintrusively monitor several biological signals of the driver. The biological driver signals measured by the system are the heart electrical signals or pseudo Lead-I electrocardiography (pLI-ECG), the galvanic skin response (GSR) or electrical conductance measured from the driver's fingers to palm, the palm skin temperature, the face skin temperature, and the respiration rate. The pLI-ECG and GSR measurements are made through direct contact of the driver hands with stainless steel electrodes integrated in the steering wheel rim. The temperature measurements are made with non-contacting infrared temperature sensors, also located on the steering wheel. The respiration rate was measured using a flexible thin film piezoelectric sensor affixed to the seatbelt.
Technical Paper

The Impact Behavior of the Hybrid II Dummy

The head, chest and femurs of three Hybrid II dummies were impacted with a ballistic pendulum at various angles to determine what differences in accelerometer and femur load cell output would result for a constant energy input. Also evaluated were suspicious tension loads in the femur load cell output when the legs were subjected to obvious off-center impacts during crash tests. It was found that the dummy legs can be subjected to very high torsion and bending loads which can have a significant effect on the femur load cell axial load outputs.
Technical Paper

The Handling of Non-Uniform Parts and Peak Hand Forces

Due to the challenges in quantifying hand loads in manufacturing environments it is often assumed that the load is evenly distributed between the hands, even when handling parts with non-uniform mass distribution. This study estimated hand loads for six female subjects, when handling a custom part in 8 different configurations (2 weights, 4 CofM locations). The calculated hand loads varied from 20 to 50% of the weight being handled. The magnitude of asymmetrical hand loading depended on both the part orientation and the location of the CoM. Based on this study the knowledge of part weight, CofM location and hand positioning will allow the users of digital human models to perform more realistic and reliable task analysis assessments as the force distributions will be more representative of the actual loading rather than simply assuming the load is evenly distributed between the hands.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Skull Thickness Variations on Human Head Dynamic Impact Responses

Variations in human skull thickness affecting human head dynamic impact responses were studied by finite element modeling techniques, experimental measurements, and histology examinations. The aims of the study were to better understand the influences of skull thickness variations on human head dynamic impact responses and the injury mechanisms of human head during direct impact. The thicknesses of the frontal bone of seven human cadaver skulls were measured using ultrasonic technology. These measurements were compared with previous experimental data. Histology of the skull was recorded and examined. The measured data were analyzed and then served as a reference to vary the skull thickness of a previously published three-dimensional finite element human head model to create four models with different skull thickness. The skull thicknesses modeled are 4.6 mm, 5.98 mm, 7.68 mm, and 9.61 mm.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Limiting Shoulder Belt Load with Air Bag Restraint

The dilemma of using a shoulder belt force limiter with a 3-point belt system is selecting a limit load that will balance the reduced risk of significant thoracic injury due to the shoulder belt loading of the chest against the increased risk of significant head injury due to the greater upper torso motion allowed by the shoulder belt load limiter. However, with the use of air bags, this dilemma is more manageable since it only occurs for non-deploy accidents where the risk of significant head injury is low even for the unbelted occupant. A study was done using a validated occupant dynamics model of the Hybrid III dummy to investigate the effects that a prescribed set of shoulder belt force limits had on head and thoracic responses for 48 and 56 km/h barrier simulations with driver air bag deployment and for threshold crash severity simulations with no air bag deployment.
Technical Paper

Structural Response of Lower Leg Muscles in Compression: A Low Impact Energy Study Employing Volunteers, Cadavers and the Hybrid III

Little has been reported in the literature on the compressive properties of muscle. These data are needed for the development of finite element models that address impact of the muscles, especially in the study of pedestrian impact. Tests were conducted to characterize the compressive response of muscle. Volunteers, cadaveric specimens and a Hybrid III dummy were impacted in the posterior and lateral aspect of the lower leg using a free flying pendulum. Volunteer muscles were tested while tensed and relaxed. The effects of muscle tension were found to influence results, especially in posterior leg impacts. Cadaveric response was found to be similar to that of the relaxed volunteer. The resulting data can be used to identify a material law using an inverse method.
Technical Paper

Size, Weight and Biomechanical Impact Response Requirements for Adult Size Small Female and Large Male Dummies

This paper summarizes the rationale used to specify the geometric, inertial and impact response requirements for a small adult female dummy and a large adult male dummy with impact biofidelity and measurement capacity comparable to the Hybrid III dummy, the most advanced midsize adult male dummy. Body segment lengths and weights for these two dummies were based on the latest anthropometry studies for the extremes of the U.S.A. adult population. Other characteristic body segment dimensions were calculated from geometric and mass scaling relationships that assured that each body segment had the same mass density as the corresponding body segment of the Hybrid III dummy. The biomechanical impact response requirements for the head, neck, chest and knee of the Hybrid III dummy were scaled to give corresponding biomechanical impact response requirements for each dummy.
Technical Paper

Rollover and Drop Tests - The Influence of Roof Strength on Injury Mechanics Using Belted Dummies

This report presents the test methods and results of a study involving lap/shoulder belted dummies in dynamic dolly rollover tests and inverted vehicle drop tests. Data are presented showing dummy neck loadings resulting from head impacts to the vehicle interior as the vehicle contacts the ground. Comparison of the number and magnitude of axial neckloads are presented for rollcaged and production vehicles, as well as an analysis of the factors which influence neckloads under these conditions.
Technical Paper

Robust Design for Occupant Restraint System

Computational analysis of occupant safety has become an efficient tool to reduce the development time for a new product. Multi-body computer models (e.g. Madymo models) that simulate vehicle interior, restraint system and occupants in various crash modes have been widely used in the occupant safety area. To ensure public safety, many injury numbers, such as head injury criteria, chest acceleration, chest deflection, femur loads, neck load, and neck moment, are monitored. Deterministic optimization methods have been employed to meet various safety requirements. However, with the further emphasis on product quality and consistency of product performance, variations in modeling, simulation, and manufacturing, need to be considered.
Technical Paper

Results of the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association Component and Full-Vehicle Side Impact Test Procedure Evaluation Program

This paper presents an extensive research program undertaken to develop improved side impact test methods. The development of a component side impact test device along with an associated test procedure are reviewed. The results of accident data analysis techniques to define anatomical areas most likely to be injured during side impact and definition of test device response corridors based on human surrogate testing conducted by the Association Peugeot/Renault and the University of Heidelberg are discussed. The relationship of response corridors and accident data analysis in earlier phases of the project resulted in definition and development of a component side impact test device to represent the human thorax. A test program to evaluate and compare component and full-vehicle test results is presented.
Technical Paper

Responses of Animals Exposed to Deployment of Various Passenger Inflatable Restraint System Concepts for a Variety of Collision Severities and Animal Positions

This paper summarizes the results of tests conducted with anesthetized animals that were exposed to a wide range of passenger inflatable restraint cushion forces for a variety of impact sled - simulated accident conditions. The test configurations and inflatable restraint system concepts were selected to produce a broad spectrum of injury types and severities to the major organs of the head, neck and torso of the animals. These data were needed to interpret the significance of the responses of an instrumented child dummy that was being used to evaluate child injury potential of the passenger inflatable restraint system being developed by General Motors Corporation. Injuries ranging from no injury to fatal were observed for the head, neck and abdomen regions. Thoracic injuries ranged from no injury to critical, survival uncertain.
Technical Paper

Rear Impact Tests of Starcraft-Type Seats with Out-of-Position and In-Position Dummies

Objective: This study analyzed available rear impact sled tests with Starcraft-type seats that use a diagonal belt behind the seatback. The study focused on neck responses for out-of-position (OOP) and in-position seated dummies. Methods: Thirteen rear sled tests were identified with out-of-position and in-position 5 th , 50 th and 95 th Hybrid III dummies in up to 47.6 mph rear delta Vs involving Starcraft-type seats. The tests were conducted at Ford, Exponent and CSE. Seven KARCO rear sled tests were found with in-position 5 th and 50 th Hybrid III dummies in 21.1-29.5 mph rear delta Vs involving Starcraft-type seats. In all of the in-position and one of the out-of-position series, comparable tests were run with production seats. Biomechanical responses of the dummies and test videos were analyzed.
Technical Paper

Occupant Model Correlation Using a Genetic Algorithm

Computer modeling has played important roles and gained great momentum in product development as numerical methods, computer software and hardware technologies advance rapidly. Computer models (e.g. MADYMO) that simulate vehicle interior, restraint system and occupants in various crash modes have been widely used to improve occupant safety. However, to build good occupant models, engineers often have to spend tremendous time on model correlation. The challenge of model correlation for occupant safety is that it requires matching numerous injury curves with tests, for examples: head G, chest G, chest deflection, shoulder belt load, femur loads, neck load and moment. Traditionally, this model correlation task is done by a trial and error method. This paper attempts to solve the problem systematically by using a genetic algorithm. It demonstrates that the genetic algorithm is a valuable optimization tool to obtain a high quality MADYMO model.
Technical Paper

Neck Injury Prevention in Low Speed Rear Impact

Head restraint has become an important element in seat design due to the severity of neck injuries in rear-end collisions. The objective of this paper is to present an analytical and efficient approach to assist engineers in analyzing the design parameters of the seat and head restraint system. The CAE simulation models with Bio-RID dummy were assembled to correlate to 10 mph rear impact sled tests. The correlated models were then adopted in Design of Experiment (DOE) studies to explore all the significant design parameters influencing occupant neck injuries. Based on the results from the DOE studies, we are able to improve the seat and head restraint designs for reducing the risk of neck injuries in rear-end impacts.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Design for Vehicle Pitch and Drop of Body-on-Frame Vehicles

Vehicle pitch and drop play an important role for occupant neck and head injury at frontal impact. The excessive vehicle header drop, due to vehicle pitch and drop during crash, induces aggressive interaction between occupant head and sun visor/header that causes serious head and neck injuries. For most of body-on-frame vehicles, vehicle pitch and drop have commonly been observed at frontal impact tests. It is because the vehicle body is pulled downward by frame rails, which bend down during crash. Hence, the challenges of frame design are not only to absorb crash energy but also to manage frame deformation for minimizing vehicle pitch and drop. In this paper, the finite element method is used to analyze frame deformation at full frontal impact. To ensure the quality of CAE model, a full vehicle FEA model is correlated to barrier tests. In addition, a study of CAE modeling affecting vehicle header drop is performed.
Technical Paper

Model of IIHS Side Impact Torso Response Measures Using Transfer Function Equations

Vehicle to vehicle crash compatibility is becoming an increasingly more important consideration during vehicle safety development due to the increasing numbers of SUVs and pickups in the vehicle fleet. According to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), their side impact crash test represents what happens when a passenger vehicle is struck by a pickup truck or SUV. The IIHS side impact test measures 37 different response criteria using an instrumented 5th percentile female SID-IIs ATD (anthropomorphic test device) in driver and left rear passenger seats. These measures are grouped into head and neck, torso, and pelvis and left leg regions. This paper will describe the development of transfer function equation models to assess the performance of design countermeasures by comparing the response measures of the torso region of the body.
Technical Paper

Matched-Pair Rollover Impacts of Rollcaged and Production Roof Cars Using the Controlled Rollover Impact System (CRIS)

Three rollcaged and three production roof vehicles were exposed to matched-pair rollover impacts using the Controlled Rollover Impact System (CRIS). The roof-to-ground contacts were representative of severe impacts in previous rollover testing and real world rollovers. The seat belted dummies measured nearly identical head impacts and neck loads with or without the rollcage, despite significant roof crush in the production roof vehicles. Roof crush had no measurable influence on the severity of the head accelerations and neck loads.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effects of Wheel Slip on Vehicle Emissions and Fuel Economy

BACKGROUND Powertrain developers have suggested that slip at the vehicle tire and chassis dynamometer contact point for US06 emissions testing causes unmanageable variability. In order to counteract slip, some developers have been requesting their vehicles be strapped down tighter. Strapping a vehicle down tighter may lead to unrepresentatively low fuel economy and high emissions (many tests are run FTP/Hwy/US06 consecutively). EXPERIMENT A study was developed to investigate the effects of dynamometer roll surface roughness and vehicle restraint strap tension on fuel economy, emissions, and the amount of wheel slip. In addition, a correlation may be established between wheel slip and fuel economy and emissions. A three factor, two-level, full factorial design with three replicates was planned. The factors were dynamometer surface roughness, vehicle, and strap tension.