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Technical Paper

Vehicle Underbody Thermal Simulation Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

This study was initiated to evaluate the thermal characteristics of a vehicle underbody using math-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation based on 3-D configuration. Simulations without heat shields were carried out for different vehicle operating conditions which placed several areas at risk of exceeding their thermal design limits. Subsequently, simulations with several heat shield designs were performed. Results show that areas at risk without shields are well within thermal design limits when shielded. Part of the CFD simulation results were compared with experimental data, with reasonable correlation. The CFD approach can provide useful design information in a very short time frame.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Rollover Sensor Test Modeling

A computational model of a mid-size sport utility vehicle was developed using MADYMO. The model includes a detailed description of the suspension system and tire characteristics that incorporated the Delft-Tyre magic formula description. The model was correlated by simulating a vehicle suspension kinematics and compliance test. The correlated model was then used to simulate a J-turn vehicle dynamics test maneuver, a roll and non-roll ditch test, corkscrew ramp and a lateral trip test, the results of which are presented in this paper. The results indicate that MADYMO is able to reasonably predict the vehicle and occupant responses in these types of applications and is potentially suited as a tool to help setup a suite of vehicle configurations and test conditions for rollover sensor testing. A suspension system sensitivity study is presented for the laterally tripped non-roll event.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamic Handling Computer Simulation - Model Development, Correlation, and Application Using ADAMS

A new capability to simulate transient, non-linear handling maneuvers analytically, and dynamically display the vehicle's response with 3-dimensional animated graphics has been developed and is being utilized by Ford Motor Company. The implementation of this capability, which includes complete affects of steering and suspension kinematics, individual bushing compliances, non-linear shock absorber and jounce bumper characteristics, and transient tire force and moment data, represents a new frontier in the development of light truck and passenger car vehicles. Development of this model lends itself to analytical evaluations of numerous types of handling related maneuvers such as classical or linear behavior, transient and limit stability analysis, and special situations such as cross wind stability, torque steer, and vehicle drift characteristics.
Technical Paper

The Use of Numerical Simulations to Perform Engineering Calculations of Window Defogging

Two simple models for the calculation of window defogging have been developed. One uses a lumped system analysis to compute the evaporation of the liquid layer, while the other uses a transient, one dimensional conduction analysis. Both use Sherwood numbers and Nusselt numbers at the liquid air interface that are calculated via a computer simulation using FLUENT. The FLUENT simulations show that steady state Sherwood and Nusselt numbers are just as valid as those calculated from a transient simulation. Results are presented in terms of evaporation rates and liquid layer decrease with time.
Technical Paper

The Reinvention of the Wheel: Progress in Car Radios and Their Future

Advances in digital and analog electronics have drastically changed car radio circuitry. Improvements in miniaturization of electrical and mechanical components have radically altered their size and styling. Computer modeling of the vehicle's interior environment has optimized car radio acoustics. It seems that the list of modern break-throughs is never ending. It is the intent of this paper to show that many of the technical marvels of today's car radios were first applied years, even decades, ago. From those early concepts, and their current revivals, a projection into the future of automobile radios will be made. As previously mentioned [1]: “If history teaches anything, it teaches the potential for repetition.”
Technical Paper

The Impact of Globalization and New Materials on the Transition to a Fully Digital Tool and Die

Until recently, tool & die making was a very traditional industry, relying on extensive know-how accumulated over decades of practice. Essentially, it remained a two stage-process: engineering/manufacture, followed by tryout/productionization. Improvements focused on engineering and production methods, but tryout remained the exclusive domain of the die maker. At last, advances in computer modeling methods and the adoption of aggressive lean management principles have brought transformational changes to the tryout phase. At the same time, new safety and weight imperatives have increased the penetration of advanced materials, whose formability characteristics are quite different from mild steels. This paper will explore how these advanced materials affect this transformation.
Technical Paper

The 1997 Chevrolet Corvette Structure Architecture Synthesis

This paper describes the design, synthesis-analysis and development of the unique vehicle structure architecture for the fifth generation Chevrolet Corvette, ‘C5’, which starts in the 1997 model year. The innovative structural layout of the ‘C5’ enables torsional rigidity in an open roof vehicle which exceeds that of all current production open roof vehicles by a wide margin. The first structural mode of the ‘C5’ in open roof configuration approaches typical values measured in similar size fixed roof vehicles. Extensive use of CAE and a systems methodology of benchmarking and requirements rolldown were employed to develop the ‘C5’ vehicle architecture. Simple computer models coupled with numerical optimization were used early in the design process to evaluate every design concept and alternative iteration for mass and structural efficiency.
Journal Article

Technical Analysis of a Proposed Shock Absorber Design Standard

One important part of the vehicle design process is suspension design and tuning. This is typically performed by design engineers, experienced expert evaluators, and assistance from vehicle dynamics engineers and their computer simulation tools. Automotive suspensions have two primary functions: passenger and cargo isolation and vehicle control. Suspension design, kinematics, compliance, and damping, play a key role in those primary functions and impact a vehicles ride, handling, steering, and braking dynamics. The development and tuning of a vehicle kinematics, compliance, and damping characteristic is done by expert evaluators who perform a variety of on road evaluations under different loading configurations and on a variety of road surfaces. This “tuning” is done with a focus on meeting certain target characteristics for ride, handling, and steering One part of this process is the development and tuning of the damping characteristics of the shock absorbers.
Technical Paper

Structural Optimization for Crash Pulse

In vehicle safety engineering, it is important to determine the severity of occupant injury during a crash. Computer simulations are widely used to study how occupants move in a crash, what they collide during the crash and thus how they are injured. The vehicle motion is typically defined for the occupant simulation by specifying a crash pulse. Many computer models used to analyze occupant kinematics do not calculate both vehicle motion and occupant motion at the same time. This paper presents a framework of response surface methodology for the crash pulse prediction and vehicle structure design optimization. The process is composed of running simulation at DOE sampling data points, generating surrogate models (response surface models), performing sensitivity analysis and structure design optimization for time history data (e.g., crash pulse).
Technical Paper

Steering Grunt Noise Robustness Improvement

Grunt is a structure-born noise caused by resonance of the steering gear torsion bar (T-bar) in an HPAS (Hydraulic Power Assist Steering) system. The goal of this work was to develop techniques to quantify and predict grunt in a RV (rotary valve) steering gear system. First, vehicle testing was used to identify an objective metric for grunt: y = dynamic pressure in the return line. Then, a computer simulation was developed to predict y as a function of two known control factors. The simulation results were correlated to measurements on a test vehicle. Finally, the simulation was expanded to include two additional control factors, and grunt predictions were demonstrated on a different test vehicle.
Journal Article

Side Impact Pressure Sensor Predictions with Computational Gas and Fluid Dynamic Methods

Three computational gas and fluid dynamic methods, CV/UP (Control Volume/Uniform Pressure), CPM (Corpuscular Particle Method), and ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian and Eulerian), were investigated in this research in an attempt to predict the responses of side crash pressure sensors. Acceleration-based crash sensors have been used extensively in the automotive industry to determine the restraint system firing time in the event of a vehicle crash. The prediction of acceleration-based crash pulses by using computer simulations has been very challenging due to the high frequency and noisy responses obtained from the sensors, especially those installed in crush zones. As a result, the sensor algorithm developments for acceleration-based sensors are largely based on prototype testing. With the latest advancement in the crash sensor technology, side crash pressure sensors have emerged recently and are gradually replacing acceleration-based sensor for side crash applications.
Technical Paper

SAE J3168: A Joint Aerospace-Automotive Recommended Practice for Reliability Physics Analysis of Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical Components

This paper describes a joint SAE automotive and aerospace Recommended Practice SAE J3168 now in development to standardize a process for Reliability Physics Analysis. This is a science-based approach to implement Physics-of-Failure research in conducting durability simulations in a Computer Aided Engineering Environment. It is used to calculate failure mechanism susceptibilities and estimate the likelihood of failure and the expected durability life of Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical components and equipment, due to stresses such as mechanical shock, vibration, temperature cycling, etc. Reliability Physics Analysis is based on the material science principle of stress driven damage accumulation in materials. The process enables the identification of potential failure risks early in the design phase so that such risks can be designed out in order to efficiently design high reliable and robustness into electronic products.
Technical Paper

Role of the Body Mount on the Passenger Compartment Response of a Frame/Body Structured Vehicle in Frontal Crash

A comprehensive strategy to investigate the role of the body mounts on the passenger compartment response in a frontal crash event is presented. The activities of the study include quasi-static vehicle crush testing, development of a component-level dynamic body mount test methodology, lumped-mass computer modeling, as well as technical analysis. In addition, a means of investigating the effects the body mounts have on the passenger compartment response during a frontal barrier impact is addressed.
Technical Paper

Robust Design for Occupant Restraint System

Computational analysis of occupant safety has become an efficient tool to reduce the development time for a new product. Multi-body computer models (e.g. Madymo models) that simulate vehicle interior, restraint system and occupants in various crash modes have been widely used in the occupant safety area. To ensure public safety, many injury numbers, such as head injury criteria, chest acceleration, chest deflection, femur loads, neck load, and neck moment, are monitored. Deterministic optimization methods have been employed to meet various safety requirements. However, with the further emphasis on product quality and consistency of product performance, variations in modeling, simulation, and manufacturing, need to be considered.
Technical Paper

Residual Stresses in Cup Drawing of Automotive Alloys

Residual stresses in metals are caused by a number of processes such as inhomogeneous deformation, phase changes and temperature gradients. This investigation focuses on the residual stresses caused by plastic deformation of automotive metals. Such stresses are responsible for part springback and shape distortion in many manufacturing and assembly processes. Tensile residual stresses may lead to stress cracking and, in some alloys, to stress corrosion cracking which may ultimately lead to premature product failure. The residual stress potential of metals can be evaluated by using the Split Ring Test Method. The test can be used to evaluate the effect of materials on residual stresses in cup drawing. Drawn cups are used because they produce large amounts of residual stresses and, therefore, increase measurement accuracy and reduce experimental error. A closed form analytical solution is used to estimate residual stresses in split rings taken from sections cut from the drawn cups.
Technical Paper

Reliability and Quality of Body Concept CAE Models for Design Direction Studies

There are two distinct classes of body CAE models (detailed and concept models) that can be used to support vehicle body design and development. A detailed finite element model achieves computational accuracy by precisely simulating component geometries and assembly interfaces. On the other hand, a concept model simulates stiffness behavior of joints and major load-carrying members (e.g., pillars, rails, rockers, etc.) in a body structure. The former is quite useful for conducting trade-off studies when detailed design drawings become available. The latter is valuable for up-front design direction studies prior to detailed design evolution. In concept models, major load-carrying members are universally represented by cross sectional properties (e.g., area, moments of inertia and torsion constant). The key difference between various kinds of concept models is the representation of body joints.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation for Drivability Development

Powertrain drivability evaluation and calibration is an important part of vehicle development to enhance the customer experience. This step mainly takes place on vehicle testing very late in the product development cycle, and is associated with a considerable amount of prototype, test facility, human resource and time cost. Design change options at this stage are also very limited. To reduce the development cost, a model based computer aided engineering (CAE) method is introduced and combined with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation technology. The HIL simulation method offers a possibility for drivability prediction and development in early phase of product cycle. This article describes the drivability HIL simulation process under development in Ford. The process consists of real time capable multi-domain CAE model integration, powertrain control module (PCM) and HIL simulator interface development and drivability HIL simulation.
Technical Paper

Occupant Model Correlation Using a Genetic Algorithm

Computer modeling has played important roles and gained great momentum in product development as numerical methods, computer software and hardware technologies advance rapidly. Computer models (e.g. MADYMO) that simulate vehicle interior, restraint system and occupants in various crash modes have been widely used to improve occupant safety. However, to build good occupant models, engineers often have to spend tremendous time on model correlation. The challenge of model correlation for occupant safety is that it requires matching numerous injury curves with tests, for examples: head G, chest G, chest deflection, shoulder belt load, femur loads, neck load and moment. Traditionally, this model correlation task is done by a trial and error method. This paper attempts to solve the problem systematically by using a genetic algorithm. It demonstrates that the genetic algorithm is a valuable optimization tool to obtain a high quality MADYMO model.
Technical Paper

Modeling Large Deformations Using Polycarbonate Scale Models

This paper presents a method for modeling large deformations of structures using scale plastic models. The method was used to predict the dynamic barrier crash performance of a proposed vehicle structure with the aid of a computer simulation of the collision. The use of the technique can provide design direction in the early stages of the vehicle design process.
Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.