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Technical Paper

The Mvma Investigation Into the Complexities of Heavy Truck Splash and Spray Problem

1985-01-01
856097
Splash and spray conditions created by tractor-trailer combinations operating on the Federal highway system have been studied and tested for many years with mixed results. Past events are reviewed briefly in this paper. In additional testing during 1983, using new state-of- the-art splash/spray suppressant devices, some encouragement was provided that these devices could work. The 1984 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) test program was designed to develop practicable and reliable test procedures to measure effectiveness of splash and spray reduction methods applied to tractor-trailer combination vehicles. Over 40 different combinations of splash/spray suppression devices on five different tractors and three van trailer types were tested. The spray-cloud densities for some 400 test runs were measured by laser transmissometers and also recorded by still photography, motion pictures, and videotape. On-site observers made subjective ratings of spray density.
Book

SAE Ferrous Materials Standards Manual - 2004 Edition

2004-07-21
The 2004 SAE Ferrous Materials Standards Manual provides a comprehensive compilation of the SAE Technical Reports relating to specifications, testing, and defining of Ferrous Materials. These standards, Recommended Practices, and Information Reports have been developed by Carbon and Alloy Steels Committee, Metals Test Procedures Committee, Automotive Iron and Steel Castings Committee, Sheet and Strip Steel Committee, Elevated Temperature Properties of Ferrous Metals Committee who comprise the Metals Technical Executive Committee (MTEC). MTEC also governs the other Standards, Recommended Practices, and Information Reports that have been developed by prior division that are now inactive. As an informational guide and background for the values and procedures in the SAE Technical Report, HS-30 also includes Examples of Related SAE Technical Papers.
Technical Paper

Running Loss Test Procedure Development

1992-02-01
920322
A running loss test procedure has been developed which integrates a point-source collection method to measure fuel evaporative running loss from vehicles during their operation on the chassis dynamometer. The point-source method is part of a complete running loss test procedure which employs the combination of site-specific collection devices on the vehicle, and a sampling pump with sampling lines. Fugitive fuel vapor is drawn into these collectors which have been matched to characteristics of the vehicle and the test cell. The composite vapor sample is routed to a collection bag through an adaptation of the ordinary constant volume dilution system typically used for vehicle exhaust gas sampling. Analysis of the contents of such bags provides an accurate measure of the mass and species of running loss collected during each of three LA-4* driving cycles. Other running loss sampling methods were considered by the Auto-Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP or Program).
Technical Paper

Rollover and Drop Tests - The Influence of Roof Strength on Injury Mechanics Using Belted Dummies

1990-10-01
902314
This report presents the test methods and results of a study involving lap/shoulder belted dummies in dynamic dolly rollover tests and inverted vehicle drop tests. Data are presented showing dummy neck loadings resulting from head impacts to the vehicle interior as the vehicle contacts the ground. Comparison of the number and magnitude of axial neckloads are presented for rollcaged and production vehicles, as well as an analysis of the factors which influence neckloads under these conditions.
Technical Paper

Results of the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association Component and Full-Vehicle Side Impact Test Procedure Evaluation Program

1985-01-01
856087
This paper presents an extensive research program undertaken to develop improved side impact test methods. The development of a component side impact test device along with an associated test procedure are reviewed. The results of accident data analysis techniques to define anatomical areas most likely to be injured during side impact and definition of test device response corridors based on human surrogate testing conducted by the Association Peugeot/Renault and the University of Heidelberg are discussed. The relationship of response corridors and accident data analysis in earlier phases of the project resulted in definition and development of a component side impact test device to represent the human thorax. A test program to evaluate and compare component and full-vehicle test results is presented.
Technical Paper

Responses of Animals Exposed to Deployment of Various Passenger Inflatable Restraint System Concepts for a Variety of Collision Severities and Animal Positions

1982-01-01
826047
This paper summarizes the results of tests conducted with anesthetized animals that were exposed to a wide range of passenger inflatable restraint cushion forces for a variety of impact sled - simulated accident conditions. The test configurations and inflatable restraint system concepts were selected to produce a broad spectrum of injury types and severities to the major organs of the head, neck and torso of the animals. These data were needed to interpret the significance of the responses of an instrumented child dummy that was being used to evaluate child injury potential of the passenger inflatable restraint system being developed by General Motors Corporation. Injuries ranging from no injury to fatal were observed for the head, neck and abdomen regions. Thoracic injuries ranged from no injury to critical, survival uncertain.
Technical Paper

Reducing Catalytic Converter Pressure Loss with Enhanced Inlet-Header Diffusion

1995-10-01
952398
The function of the inlet header of a catalytic converter is to diffuse the inlet exhaust flow, decreasing its velocity and increasing its static pressure with as little loss in total pressure as possible. In practice, very little diffusion takes place in most catalytic converter inlet headers because the flow separates at the interface of the pipe and the tapered section leading to the substrate. This leads to increased converter pressure loss and flow maldistribution. An improved inlet-header design called the Enhanced Diffusion Header (EDH) was developed which combines a short, shallow-angle diffuser with a more abrupt expansion to the substrate cross section. Tests conducted in room air (cold flow) and engine exhaust showed that improved inlet-jet diffusion leads to substantial reductions in converter restriction. EDH performance was not compromised by the presence of a right-angle bend upstream of the converter.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Evaluation of Headlight Switching Systems

1974-02-01
740998
A search for methods of switching a proposed three beam headlight system led to the evaluation of 41 possible schemes. Human factors criteria reduced the original 41 to three systems which were tested in a laboratory with a broad range of subjects. Recordings of practice trials, learning trials, and the responses to visual cues projected on a screen were analyzed. The same test procedure was also used to compare three alternative ways of switching conventional two beam headlight systems. Summary data is presented for the six systems tested grouped by test subject age, sex, and driving experience. The most pronounced difference observed was in the subjective preference rating among two beam switching systems. All systems tested resulted in remarkably few learning and practice trials. Small differences were recorded among systems in operational response time.
Technical Paper

General Motors Passenger Tire Performance Criteria

1976-02-01
762008
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the process of selection, development and approval of General Motors original equipment TPC passenger car tires. We have attempted to minimize detail in each specific area, but intend to provide a general comprehension of the thought processes involved and the procedures used to select the proper tire size and type for a vehicle. We will then describe the tire performance criteria involved in the overall development and approval process and will subsequently consider tire noise requirements in somewhat greater detail. The paper will conclude by describing the General Motors Tire Performance Criteria (TPC) System, which is a documentation of the General Motors Tire Performance requirements and test procedures.
Technical Paper

Front Suspension Multi-Axis Testing

1987-11-01
872255
A front suspension laboratory test procedure was developed to reproduce time-correlated fatigue damaging events from a light truck road durability test. Subsequently, the performance of front suspension systems for the GMT 400 light truck program were evaluated in terms of customer reliability. Both prototype and pilot testing, as well as computer modeling, were used in the evaluation.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Sulfate Trapping Candidates-Results From Dynamometer and Vehicle Screening Tests

1977-02-01
770060
The performance of potential sulfate sorbents was evaluated using an engine-dynamometer screening test procedure. Bulk and supported sorbents were tested. The two most promising sorbents were a bulk CaO preparation and alumina supported Na. The CaO sorbent appeared to be inherently non-selective between sulfates and SO2. Calcining this sorbent in a CO2 atmosphere resulted in increased pellet crush strength and reduced volume expansion upon use. The Na/Al2O3 sorbent had good activity and selectivity, but may lack capacity and be subject to leaching losses of Na-compounds. Vehicle and dynamometer durability testing of these two sorbents was conducted. From these preliminary tests, it was determined that neither met all the criteria of an ideal sorbent for vehicle use.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Stress Correlation and Modeling of Driveline Bending Integrity for 4WD Sport Utility Vehicles

2002-03-04
2002-01-1044
Reducing the high cost of hardware testing with analytical methods has been highly accelerated in the automotive industry. This paper discusses an analytical model to simulate the driveline bending integrity test for the longitudinal 4WD-driveline configuration. The dynamic stresses produced in the adapter/transfer case and propeller shaft can be predicted analytically using this model. Particularly, when the 4WD powertrain experiences its structural bending during the operation speed and the propeller shaft experiences the critical whirl motion and its structural bending due to the inherent imbalance. For a 4WD-Powertrain application, the dynamic coupling effect of a flexible powertrain with a flexible propeller shaft is significant and demonstrated in this paper. Three major subsystems are modeled in this analytical model, namely the powertrain, the final rear drive, and the propeller shafts.
Technical Paper

Brain Injury Risk Assessment of Frontal Crash Test Results

1994-03-01
941056
An objective, biomechanically based assessment is made of the risks of life-threatening brain injury of frontal crash test results. Published 15 ms HIC values for driver and right front passenger dummies of frontal barrier crash tests conducted by Transport Canada and NHTSA are analyzed using the brain injury risk curve of Prasad and Mertz. Ninety-four percent of the occupants involved in the 30 mph, frontal barrier compliance tests had risks of life-threatening brain injury less than 5 percent. Only 3 percent had risks greater than 16 percent which corresponds to 15 ms HIC > 1000. For belt restrained occupants without head contact with the interior, the risks of life-threatening brain injury were less than 2 percent. In contrast, for the more severe NCAP test condition, 27 percent of the drivers and 21 percent of the passengers had life-threatening brain injury risks greater than 16 percent.
Technical Paper

Anti-Lacerative Windshield Materials; Field Evaluation by General Motors

1984-02-01
840391
This paper describes a test of 2500 General Motors passenger cars equipped with anti-lacerative windshields and driven in rental fleets. It also de840391 scribes the laboratory tests conducted prior to the fleet installation of the test windshields. Evaluation of haze development caused by abrasion of the anti-lacerative surface will take several more years of exposure. Other test results have been encouraging, except for the difficulties encountered in the removal of stickers and decals from the inner surface.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Test and Development of the Corvette C5 for Showroom Stock Racing

2002-12-02
2002-01-3333
This pager documents a one shift (10 hour) wind tunnel test program conducted on a Corvette C5 prepared for Sports Car Club of America (S.C.C.A.) World Challenge racing. The testing was conducted at the Canadian National Research Center in Ottawa, Canada. Specific areas of test included front fascia and under tray, rear air discharge, rear wing configuration and angle, B-pillar configuration, and ride height. Standard wind tunnel test procedures were followed. In total twenty-six separate configurations were evaluated. Data for front and rear lift, total drag, and lift/drag (L/D) ratio are provided for each test configuration. The cumulative effects of the aerodynamic changes evaluated in this program, calculated at 192 KPH (120 MPH), increased front down force by 318 N (72 Lb.), and rear down force by 770 N (173 Lb.). Lift/drag ratio was improved from -0.597 to -1.016. These changes increased total drag by 381 N (86 Lb.).
Technical Paper

A Predictive Process for Spring Failure Rates in Automotive Parts Applications

1991-02-01
910356
This paper discusses an analytical technique for computing the failure rate of steel springs used in automotive part applications. Preliminary computations may be performed and used to predict spring failure rates quickly at a very early stage of a product development cycle and to establish program reliability impact before commitment. The analytical method is essentially a combination of various existing procedures that are logically sequenced to compute a spring probability of failure under various operational conditions. Fatigue life of a mechanical component can be computed from its S-N curve. For steels, the S-N curve can be approximated by formulae which describe the fatigue life as a function of its endurance limit and its alternating stress. Most springs in service are preloaded and the actual stress fluctuates about a mean level. In order to compute an equivalent alternating stress with zero mean, an analytical method based on the Goodman Diagram is used.
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