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Technical Paper

The Use of Finite Element Analysis to Predict Body Build Distortion

1995-04-01
951120
Finite element methods can be used to simulate a class of variation problems induced by build distortion in the assembly process. The FEM approach was used to study two representative assembly problems: 1) Front fender mounting and resulting distortion due to various fastening sequences; and, 2) Coupe door assembly process and resulting deformation due to clamping and welding of flexible sheet metal parts. FEM is used to generate sensitivities of various process conditions. Correlation with measured Co-ordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) data is shown. The use of FEM to simulate manufacturing/assembly processes in the automotive industry is in it's infancy. As the new methods are developed this capability can be used to study the assembly process and provide guidance in designing more robust parts and assembly processes.
Technical Paper

The Automotive Primary Power Supply System

1974-02-01
741208
This paper describes the major electrical characteristics of the automotive power supply system. It is a compilation of existing data and new information that will be helpful to both the electrical component and electronic assembly designers. Previously available battery/alternator data is organized to be useful to the designer. New dynamic information on battery impedance is displayed along with “cogging” transients, regulation limits and load dump characteristics.
Technical Paper

Robust Process Design for a Four-Bar Decklid Hinge System

2003-03-03
2003-01-0878
Auto components with large manufacturing variation may cause vehicle quality problems after they are assembled. The impact of this variation depends on the assembly process used. If the assembly process is sensitive to the component variation, the impact may be more significant. In this case, an assembly process with lower sensitivity to component variation will solve the problem. This paper presents an example where the component variation largely impacted the quality of the car, and a more robust assembly process solved the problem.
Technical Paper

Piston-Ring Assembly Friction Modeling by Similarity Analysis

1993-03-01
930794
A semi-empirical engine piston/ring assembly friction model based on the concept of the Stribeck diagram and similarity analysis is described. The model was constructed by forming non-dimensional parameters based on design and operating conditions. Friction data collected by the Fixed-Sleeve method described in [1]* at one condition, were used to correlate the coefficient of friction of the assembly and the other non-dimensional parameters. Then, using the instantaneous cylinder pressure as input together with measured and calculated design and operating parameters, reasonable assembly friction and fmep predictions were obtained for a variety of additional conditions, some of which could be compared with experimental values. Model inputs are component dimensions, ring tensions, piston skirt spring constant, piston skirt thermal expansion, engine temperatures, speed, load and oil viscosity.
Technical Paper

Nylon RIM Development for Automotive Body Panels

1985-02-01
850157
The performance and production requirements for future passenger vehicles has increased the efforts to replace metal body panels with plastic materials. This has been accomplished, to a large extent on some production vehicles that have been introduced recently. Unfortunately, these plastic body applications have necessitated special off-line handling or low temperature paint processing. However, the advantages of RIM nylon, offer the potential for uniquely new plastic body designs, that can be processed through existing assembly plants, much like the steel panels they are intended to replace. The intent of this paper is to discuss the rationale for future plastic body panel material selection and related nylon RIM development efforts.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Management in the Auto Manufacturing Industry - A Report from President Clinton's Council on Sustainable Development Auto Team

1995-10-01
951871
An assessment of automobile painting at General Motor's Lake Orion, Michigan, USA assembly facility from a life cycle perspective was conducted. The Orion Facility produces the new Oldsmobile Aurora and Buick Riviera models. Improvements in on-site pollution prevention, energy conservation and regulatory barriers to technology innovation were identified. The environmental implications of auto body substrate material choice were analyzed. A life cycle inventory framework was developed for paint suppliers and other parts of the auto painting life cycle. An Alternative Regulatory System was proposed for the entire U.S. auto industry that will, if implemented, facilitate the integration of environmental management into core business strategies and planning.
Technical Paper

Impact of Part Variation on In-Process Coordinate Measurements for Automotive Body Assemblies

1998-09-29
982273
Coordinate measurement gages dominate in the area of dimensional control and variation reduction of automotive body assembly processes. However, coordinate measurement gages do not have the capability to track certain measured features. This incapability introduces inherent measurement error created by part (feature) mislocation in constrained non-measured directions. This inherent measurement error weakens the methods used for process control and variation reduction. In this paper, a principle of measurement uncertainty is developed in order to estimate the measurement error caused by this deficiency. The developed principle describes measurement error, which is independent of any other error related to the mechanical or optical coordinate measurement machines (CMMs, OCMMs). Additionally, an error map determined by the measurement uncertainty principle is created for error compensation.
Technical Paper

Glass Drop Design for Automobile Windows - Design of Glass Contour, Shape, Drop Motion, and Motion Guidance Systems

1995-04-01
951110
This paper presents a new computerized approach for designing the automobile window glass contour, the glass drop motion, and the regulator systems. The three-dimensional geometrical relationship of the glass contour, the drop path, and its guidance system have been studied. Methods for barrel and helical drops are presented for optimizing the glass profile and drop path trajectories. Criteria for perfecting the glass contour are developed for shaping the profile of the vehicle clay model. Methods for correcting the glass contour and shape are presented. Examples are provided to illustrate how to improve the design. This approach integrates the development works of glass contour, drop motion and regulator systems. Through this design approach the window glass can fit and move perfectly in the door assembly.
Technical Paper

Effect of Simulated Material Properties and Residual Stresses on High Cycle Fatigue Prediction in a Compacted Graphite Iron Engine Block

2010-04-12
2010-01-0016
Casting, machining and structural simulations were completed on a V8 engine block made in Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) for use in a racing application. The casting and machining simulations generated maps of predicted tensile strength and residual stress in the block. These strength and stress maps were exported to a finite element structural model of the machined part. Assembly and operating loads were applied, and stresses due to these loads were determined. High cycle fatigue analysis was completed, and three sets of safety factors were calculated using the following conditions: uniform properties and no residual stress, predicted properties and no residual stress, and predicted properties plus residual stress.
Technical Paper

Component Mode Synthesis for Substructures with Non-Matching Interfaces

2007-05-15
2007-01-2333
When performing vibration analysis of complex vehicle structures, it is often important to be able to evaluate the effects of design changes in one or more substructures (e.g., for design optimization). It may also be convenient to allow different components to be modeled independently by different groups or organizations. For both cases, it is inevitable that some substructures will have non-matching finite element meshes at the interface where they are physically connected. Thus, a key challenge is to be able to handle the dynamic assembly of components with non-matching meshes and the subsequent global vibration analysis in a systematic and efficient manner. To tackle this problem, the enhancement of component mode synthesis methods for handling finite element models partitioned into non-matching substructures is considered in this paper. Some existing methods are reviewed, and new methods are developed.
Technical Paper

Application of a Constrained Layer Damping Treatment to a Cast Aluminum V6 Engine Front Cover

2005-05-16
2005-01-2286
Constrained Layer Damping (CLD) treatments have long provided a means to effectively impart damping to a structure [1, 2 and 3]. Traditionally, CLD treatments are constructed of a very thin polymer layer constrained by a thicker metal layer. Because the adhesion of a thin polymer layer is very sensitive to surface finish, surfaces that a CLD treatment can be effectively applied to have historically been limited to those that are very flat and smooth. New developments in material technology have provided thicker materials that are very effective and less expensive to apply when used as the damping layer in a CLD treatment. This paper documents the effectiveness of such a treatment on a cast aluminum front cover for a V6 engine. Physical construction of the treatment, material properties and design criteria will be discussed. Candidate applications, the assembly process, methods for secondary mechanical fastening will be presented.
Technical Paper

Application of Variation Simulation in Body Assembly Process Design

2001-10-16
2001-01-3064
Build variation has long been recognized as one of the most important factors in vehicle performance. In this study an elastic assembly simulation program is used to guide a wheelhouse assembly process design to reduce build variation. Five (5) different clamping schemes are evaluated through the simulation program. From the five proposed process design choices, the best assembly process was identified, which results in reduced assembly variation and less tooling and manufacturing costs. Two different variation simulation approaches, one based on perturbation and the other based on Design of Experiments, were used to predict the assembly variation. Good agreement between the two approaches provided a validity check for the simulation tool.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Process for Spring Failure Rates in Automotive Parts Applications

1991-02-01
910356
This paper discusses an analytical technique for computing the failure rate of steel springs used in automotive part applications. Preliminary computations may be performed and used to predict spring failure rates quickly at a very early stage of a product development cycle and to establish program reliability impact before commitment. The analytical method is essentially a combination of various existing procedures that are logically sequenced to compute a spring probability of failure under various operational conditions. Fatigue life of a mechanical component can be computed from its S-N curve. For steels, the S-N curve can be approximated by formulae which describe the fatigue life as a function of its endurance limit and its alternating stress. Most springs in service are preloaded and the actual stress fluctuates about a mean level. In order to compute an equivalent alternating stress with zero mean, an analytical method based on the Goodman Diagram is used.
Technical Paper

A Connectorized Passive Optical Star for Automotive Networking Applications

1994-03-01
940798
This paper introduces for the first time a fully connectorized passive optical star for use with plastic optical fiber that addresses all automotive application requirements. A unique mixing element is presented that offers linear expandability, uniformity of insertion loss, and packaging flexibility. The star is constructed of all plastic molded components to make it low cost and produceable in high volume and is single-ended to facilitate vehicle integration. The star is connectorized to facilitate assembly into the vehicle power and signal distribution system.
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