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Technical Paper

Wear Test Method for Developing Plastic Materials for Applications Wherein a Plastic Part is Rotating or Reciprocating Against a Metal Surface

The wear test introduced in this paper can be used to determine and rank PV (pressure time velocity) capability of plastic materials for applications where a plastic part is rotating or reciprocating against a metal surface. It provides an accelerated test method to evaluate the wear performance of plastic materials. A single test can provide tribological information at multiple PV conditions. The tribological information obtained from this method includes coefficient of friction, PV (pressure times velocity) limits, and interface temperature profile. This test is currently used by General Motors Corporation to develop plastic materials for transmission thrust washer and dynamic seal applications. The test is running in two sequences (A & B), capable of a PV range from 50,000 psi-ft/min 500,000 psi-ft/min, under dry conditions. The PV steps in sequence A are combinations of high pressure and low velocity - for applications where high loads are expected, such as thrust washers.
Technical Paper

Use of Repeated Crash-Tests to Determine Local Longitudinal and Shear Stiffness of the Vehicle Front with Crush

Crash-test-data on local longitudinal and shear stiffness of the vehicle front is needed to estimate impact severity from car deformation in offset or pole impacts, and to predict vehicle acceleration and compartment intrusion in car-to-car crashes. Repeated full frontal crash-tests were carried out with a load-cell barrier to determine the local longitudinal stiffness with increasing crush. Repeated off-set tests were run to determine shear stiffness. Two single high-speed tests (full frontal and offset) were carried out and compared to the repeated tests to determine the rate sensitivity of the front structure. Four repetitions at 33.4 km/h provided equivalent energy absorption to a single 66.7 km/h test, when rebound was considered. Power-train inertial effects were estimated from highspeed tests with and without power-train. Speed effects averaged 2% per [m/s] for crush up to power-train impact, and post-crash measurements were a reasonable estimate of front-structure stiffness.
Technical Paper

Thoracic Injury Risk Curves for Rib Deflections of the SID-IIs Build Level D

Injury risk curves for SID-IIs thorax and abdomen rib deflections proposed for future NCAP side impact evaluations were developed from tests conducted with the SID-IIs FRG. Since the floating rib guide is known to reduce the magnitude of the peak rib deflections, injury risk curves developed from SID-IIs FRG data are not appropriate for use with SID-IIs build level D. PMHS injury data from three series of sled tests and one series of whole-body drop tests are paired with thoracic rib deflections from equivalent tests with SID-IIs build level D. Where possible, the rib deflections of SID-IIs build level D were scaled to adjust for differences in impact velocity between the PMHS and SID-IIs tests. Injury risk curves developed by the Mertz-Weber modified median rank method are presented and compared to risk curves developed by other parametric and non-parametric methods.
Technical Paper

The USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project

Over the past five years, the US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) has brought together representatives from DaimlerChrysler, General Motors, Ford Motor Company and over 40 other participant companies from the Mg casting industry to create and test a low-cost, Mg-alloy engine that would achieve a 15 - 20 % Mg component weight savings with no compromise in performance or durability. The block, oil pan, and front cover were redesigned to take advantage of the properties of both high-pressure die cast (HPDC) and sand cast Mg creep- resistant alloys. This paper describes the alloy selection process and the casting and testing of these new Mg-variant components. This paper will also examine the lessons learned and implications of this pre-competitive technology for future applications.
Technical Paper

Tensile Deformation and Fracture of Press Hardened Boron Steel using Digital Image Correlation

Tensile measurements and fracture surface analysis of low carbon heat-treated boron steel are reported. Tensile coupons were quasi-statically deformed to fracture in a miniature tensile testing stage with custom data acquisition software. Strain contours were computed via a digital image correlation method that allowed placement of a digital strain gage in the necking region. True stress-true strain data corresponding to the standard tensile testing method are presented for comparison with previous measurements. Fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy and the deformation mechanisms were identified.
Technical Paper

Software Testing Strategies for Model-Based Chassis Control Systems

Model-based design and development is emerging in the automotive industry, largely revealing its popularity in chassis control systems [1]. Although it is an efficient and accepted design tool for chassis systems, proper processes and strategies need to be in place to ensure the integrity and correctness of the production software. This paper describes software testing strategies for complex chassis control systems in a model-based environment. In detail, it highlights various testing methods for different phases, such as unit testing and integration testing. It will also address issues and challenges that were faced with each method and propose possible solutions.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Study of Staircase Fatigue Tests Using Monte Carlo Simulation

The staircase fatigue test method is a well-established, but poorly understood probe for determining fatigue strength mean and standard deviation. The sensitivity of results to underlying distributions was studied using Monte Carlo simulation by repeatedly sampling known distributions of hypothetical fatigue strength data with the staircase test method. In this paper, the effects of the underlying distribution on staircase test results are presented with emphasis on original normal, lognormal, Weibull and bimodal data. The results indicate that the mean fatigue strength determined by the staircase testing protocol is largely unaffected by the underlying distribution, but the standard deviation is not. Suggestions for conducting staircase tests are provided.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Residual Forming Effects on Full Vehicle Frontal Impact and Body-in-White Durability Analyses

Forming of sheet metal structures induces pre-strains, thickness variations, and residual stresses. Pre-strains in the formed structures introduce work hardening effects and change material fatigue properties such as stress-life or strain-life. In the past, crashworthiness and durability analyses have been carried out using uniform sheet thickness and stress- and strain-free initial conditions. In this paper, crashworthiness and durability analyses of hydroformed front rails, stamped engine rails and shock towers on a full vehicle and a Body-In-White structure are performed considering the residual forming effects. The forming effects on the crash performance and fatigue life are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Relationship of Crash Test Procedures to Vehicle Compatibility

This paper examines the effect that test barriers currently used for frontal and side impact tests have had on collision compatibility between different-sized vehicles. The peak force levels generated by the vehicles’ front structures are one of the significant factors in determining vehicle compatibility. It is shown from principles of mechanics that the use of fixed barriers as a test device may lead to higher force levels for front ends of larger vehicles and thus increase the incompatibility between large and small vehicles. Review of data from various sources supports this conclusion that the peak force levels of vehicles’ front ends have increased in proportion to their test mass. Available crash data is also examined for a relationship between NCAP ratings of vehicles and the likelihood of serious and fatal injuries to occupants of those vehicles. These data do not show any relationship between the frontal NCAP ratings of vehicles and their rate of serious or fatal injuries.
Technical Paper

Progress Toward a Magnesium-Intensive Engine: The USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project

The US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) and the US Department of Energy launched the Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project in 2001 to determine the feasibility and desirability of producing a magnesium-intensive engine; a V6 engine with a magnesium block, bedplate, oil pan, and front cover. In 2003 the Project reached mid-point and accomplished a successful Decision Gate Review for entry into the second half (Phase II) of the Project. Three tasks, comprising Phase I were completed: (1) evaluation of the most promising low-cost, creep-resistant magnesium alloys, (2) design of the engine components using the properties of the optimized alloys and creation of cost model to assess the cost/benefit of the magnesium-intensive engine, and (3) identification and prioritization of scientific research areas deemed by the project team to be critical for the use of magnesium in powertrain applications.
Technical Paper

Plating on Plastics - Exterior Trim Part Properties

Chrome plated automotive exterior parts continue to be popular. A good understanding of the properties of the unplated and plated parts is required to have the lowest cost successful design. In this work, traditional mechanical properties are compared between plated and unplated ABS and ABS+PC grades of plastic. Additional findings are shared for the thermal growth properties that are important to the designer who is trying to minimize gaps to adjacent components and for the engineer who wants the plated parts to resist cracking or peeling. Finally, some bend testing results are reviewed to understand better the susceptibility of the chrome plated plastics to crack when bent. In total, these results will help the exterior trim part designers optimize for cost, fit and finish.
Technical Paper

Plane Stress Fracture Toughness Testing of Die Cast Magnesium Alloys

Plane stress fracture behavior was measured for magnesium alloys AM60B, AM50A, and AZ91D produced by high-pressure die casting. Compact Tension (CT) specimens were obtained from plate samples with approximately 2-5 mm thickness. The compliance unloading technique was used to record crack extension for each specimen. The AM50A and AM60B specimens exhibited stable crack extension beyond ASTM E 1820 limits for Jmax (∼ 33 kJ m-2 and 22 kJ m-2, respectively) and Δamax (2.1 mm and 1.3 mm, respectively). The data were in good agreement with a power law fit for J vs. Δa. The AZ91D samples had unstable crack extension, with a flat R-curve and a critical fracture energy Jc of ∼ 7.5 kJ m-2. All fractures were by microvoid coalescence, initiated between the primary Mg grains and the brittle Mg17Al12 phase.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Automatic Transmission Fluids -A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF subcommittee members have compared the two oxidation bench test methods, Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test (ABOT) and Indiana Stirring Oxidation Stability Test (ISOT), using a number of factory-fill and service-fill ATFs obtained in Japan and in the US. In many cases, the ATFs were more severely oxidized after the ABOT procedure than after the same duration of the ISOT procedure. The relative severity of these two tests was influenced by the composition of the ATFs. The bench test oxidation data were compared with the transmission and the vehicle oxidation test data.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Correlation of Driveshaft Whirl Dynamics for RWD Sport Utility Vehicles

High interest is expressed in using analytical models to eliminate costly driveline tests used to determine the stresses produced in the driveshaft and driveline during resonant operating conditions. This paper discusses an analytical model to simulate the driveline-bending integrity, test procedure. Three major subsystems are modeled in this analytical approach, namely powertrain, rear axle, and driveshaft. Imbalance masses were added on the driveshaft to induce the whirl motion of the driveshaft. The combination of nonlinear Multi-body System Simulation (MSS) and linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in the time domain was employed for the evaluation of the dynamic interaction between several parts.
Technical Paper

Magnesium Engine Cradle - The USCAR Structural Cast Magnesium Development Project

The Structural Cast Magnesium Development Project is a jointly sponsored effort by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) Automotive Metals Division (AMD) to identify and resolve technical and manufacturing issues that limit the light weighting opportunities of applying large-scale structural cast magnesium automotive components. This project, which began in the end of year 2001, comprises General Motors, Ford, DaimlerChrysler and thirty-four other North America companies and organizations. The project has its overall objective set to determine the technical feasibility and practicality of producing and implementing a one-piece front engine cradle casting. This paper provides an overview of the project scopes and up-to-date accomplishments.
Technical Paper

Integrating Test and Analytical Methods for the Quantification and Identification of Manual Transmission Driveline Clunk

Driveline clunk is a phenomenon that can adversely affect customer perception of vehicle quality. Clunk is created by the impact of two driveline components as they oscillate in response to a torque disturbance in the driveline system. This disturbance is typically initiated by a driver controlled engine torque variation, most severely through a throttle or clutch manipulation. This torque variation excites a torsional response from the driveline, manifested by a variety of mechanisms such as resonances of various shafts, housings and axles, clutch oscillations, and gear impacts. Because automotive drivelines are complex systems composed of many rotating components, difficulty arises in identifying the impacts that cause clunk and evaluating the significant parameters that can positively affect these collisions. This paper will describe the application of analysis and test methods in the investigation of clunk in a rear wheel drive, manual transmission vehicle.
Technical Paper

Intake Manifold Whistle Suppression in a Product Development Environment

An intake manifold produced a distinct whistle noise in a vehicle while driving through high torque conditions. The diagnostic tests in a steady air flow test bench helped reveal that the whistle was occurring due to the shear layer instabilities in the air flow over the sump cavity in the intake manifold which acts as an Helmoltz-like resonator. Joint time-frequency domain signal analysis was applied to detect the peak whistle. A sharp radius and a ramp at the upstream edge of the sump cavity reduced the peak whistle sound pressure level from 106dB to 85dB in the air flow bench and made the whistle inaudible in the vehicle. Tolerance study was performed on this geometry to allow manufacturing variations. A test method, using rapid prototype parts, has been developed in order to identify whistles early in the design cycle.
Technical Paper

Injury Risk Curves for the WorldSID 50th Male Dummy

The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/SC12/TC22/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonized dummy into regulations. More than 45 organizations from all around the world have contributed to this effort including governmental agencies, research institutes, car manufacturers and dummy manufacturers. The first production version of the WorldSID 50th male dummy was released in March 2004 and demonstrated an improved biofidelity over existing side impact dummies. Full-scale vehicle tests covering a wide range of side impact test procedures were performed worldwide with the WorldSID dummy. However, the vehicle safety performance could not be assessed due to lack of injury risk curves for this dummy. The development of these curves was initiated in 2004 within the framework of ISO/SC12/TC22/WG6 (Injury criteria).
Journal Article

Hot Surface Ignition of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Mixtures

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of hot surface ignition (HSI) testing and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) auto-ignition testing (AIT) performed on gasoline fuel mixtures containing varying levels of ethanol. With the increased consumer interest in ethanol-based fuels as a measure of reducing the United States dependence on foreign oil, the use of E85 and other ethanol/petroleum fuel blends is on the increase. While some autoignition data for summer and winter blends of gasoline on hot surfaces exist beyond the standard ASTM E659-78 test procedure [1], there is little data on ethanol-based fuels and their HSI characteristics.