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Technical Paper

e-Thermal: Automobile Air-Conditioning Module

2004-03-08
2004-01-1509
e-Thermal is a vehicle level thermal analysis tool developed by General Motors to simulate the transient performance of the entire vehicle HVAC and Powertrain cooling system. It is currently in widespread (global) use across GM. This paper discusses the details of the air-conditioning module of e-Thermal. Most of the literature available on transient modeling of the air conditioning systems is based on finite difference approach that require large simulation times. This has been overcome by appropriately modeling the components using Sinda/Fluint. The basic components of automotive air conditioning system, evaporator, condenser, compressor and expansion valve, are parametrically modeled in Sinda/Fluint. For each component, physical characteristics and performance data is collected in form of component data standards. This performance data is used to curve fit parameters that then reproduce the component performance.
Technical Paper

e-Thermal: A Vehicle-Level HVAC/PTC Simulation Tool

2004-03-08
2004-01-1510
This paper describes a vehicle-level simulation model for climate control and powertrain cooling developed and currently utilized at GM. The tool was developed in response to GM's need to speed vehicle development for HVAC and powertrain cooling to meet world-class program execution timing (18 to 24 month vehicle development cycles). At the same time the simulation tool had to complement GM's strategy to move additional engineering responsibility to its HVAC suppliers. This simulation tool called “e-Thermal” was quickly developed and currently is in widespread (global) use across GM. This paper describes GM's objectives and requirements for developing e-Thermal. The structure of the tool and the capabilities of the simulation tool modules (refrigeration, front end airflow, passenger compartment, engine, transmission, Interior air handling …) is introduced. Model data requirements and GM's strategy for acquiring component data are also described.
Technical Paper

Wear Test Method for Developing Plastic Materials for Applications Wherein a Plastic Part is Rotating or Reciprocating Against a Metal Surface

2005-04-11
2005-01-0876
The wear test introduced in this paper can be used to determine and rank PV (pressure time velocity) capability of plastic materials for applications where a plastic part is rotating or reciprocating against a metal surface. It provides an accelerated test method to evaluate the wear performance of plastic materials. A single test can provide tribological information at multiple PV conditions. The tribological information obtained from this method includes coefficient of friction, PV (pressure times velocity) limits, and interface temperature profile. This test is currently used by General Motors Corporation to develop plastic materials for transmission thrust washer and dynamic seal applications. The test is running in two sequences (A & B), capable of a PV range from 50,000 psi-ft/min 500,000 psi-ft/min, under dry conditions. The PV steps in sequence A are combinations of high pressure and low velocity - for applications where high loads are expected, such as thrust washers.
Technical Paper

Volume Morphing to Compensate Stamping Springback

2009-04-20
2009-01-0982
A common occurrence in computer aided design is the need to make changes to an existing CAD model to compensate for shape changes which occur during a manufacturing process. For instance, finite element analysis of die forming or die tryout results may indicate that a stamped panel springs back after the press line operation so that the final shape is different from nominal shape. Springback may be corrected by redesigning the die face so that the stamped panel springs back to the nominal shape. When done manually, this redesign process is often time consuming and expensive. This article presents a computer program, FESHAPE, that reshapes the CAD or finite element mesh models automatically. The method is based on the technique of volume morphing pioneered by Sederberg and Parry [Sederberg 1986] and refined in [Sarraga 2004]. Volume morphing reshapes regions of surfaces or meshes by reshaping volumes containing those regions.
Technical Paper

Virtual Manufacturing of Automotive Body Side Outers Using Advanced Line Die Forming Simulation

2007-04-16
2007-01-1688
As a virtual manufacturing press line, line die forming simulation provides a full range math-based engineering tool for stamping die developments of automotive structure and closure panels. Much beyond draw-die-only formability analysis that has been widely used in stamping simulation community during the last decade, the line die formability analysis allows incorporating more manufacturing requirements and resolving more potential failures before die construction and press tryout. Representing the most difficult level in formability analysis, conducting line die formability analysis of automotive body side outers exemplifies the greatest technological challenge to stamping CAE community. This paper discusses some critical issues in line die analysis of the body side outers, describes technical challenges in applications, and finally demonstrates the impact of line die forming simulation on the die development.
Technical Paper

Vibration Modeling and Correlation of Driveline Boom for TFWD/AWD Crossover Vehicles

2003-05-05
2003-01-1495
Reducing the high cost of hardware testing with analytical methods has been highly accelerated in the automotive industry. This paper discusses an analytical model to simulate the driveline boom test for the transverse engine with all wheel drive configuration on a front-wheel drive base (TFWD/AWD). Driveline boom caused by engine firing frequency that excites the bending mode of the propeller shaft becomes a noise and vibration issue for the design of TFWD/AWD driveline. The major source of vibrations and noise under the investigation in this paper is the dominant 3rd order engine torque pulse disturbance that excites the bending of the propeller shaft, the bending of the powertrain and possible the bending of the rear halfshaft. All other excitation sources in this powertrain for a 60° V6 engine with a pushrod type valvetrain are assessed and NVH issues are also considered in this transient dynamic model.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Panel Vibro-Acoustic Behavior and Damping

2003-05-05
2003-01-1406
Damping treatments are widely used in passenger vehicles, but the knowledge of damping treatments is often fragmentary in the industry. In this study, vibro-acoustics behavior of a set of vehicle floor and dash panels with various types of damping treatments was investigated. Sound transmission loss, sound radiation efficiency as well as damping loss factor were measured. The damping treatments ranged from laminated steel construction (thin viscoelastic layer) and doubler plate construction (thick viscoelastic layer) to less structural “bake-on” damping and self-adhesive aluminum foil-backed damping treatments. In addition, the bare vehicle panels were tested as a baseline and the fully carpeted floor panel was tested as a reference. The test data were then examined together with analytical modeling of some of the test configurations. As expected, the study found that damping treatments add more than damping. They also add mass and change body panel stiffness.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dash Mat SEA Modeling and Correlation

2007-05-15
2007-01-2310
The dash mat is one of the most important acoustic components in the vehicle for both powertrain noise and road noise attenuation. To optimize acoustic performance and mass requirements in the advanced development stage, analytical modeling is essential. The development of a detailed Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model of a dash mat is discussed in this paper. Modeling techniques and correlation with test are presented for two different production dash mat designs, a barrier-decoupler conventional system and a dual layer dissipative system without a mass barrier. The material properties and thickness distribution are used in the SEA model together with the geometry information of the dash panel. With the SEA model suitably correlated, trade-off studies are conducted to investigate the relationship between mass reduction of the barrier and change in decoupler thickness. The effects of air gaps are also considered in both modeling and testing.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Component Fatigue Analysis Considering Largest Overall Loop for Multiple Surfaces

2006-04-03
2006-01-0979
In the automotive industry, vehicle durability analysis is based on test schedule encompassing multiple road surfaces (events) including rough roads, potholes, etc. Traditionally, in the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) world, road load data for various road surfaces are measured/predicted and fatigue life is predicted for each individual road surface. Fatigue life for the complete test schedule is then calculated with Miner’s rule by summing fatigue damage for each road surface with an appropriate number of repetitions. A major pitfall of this approach is that it does not consider the effect of the largest rainflow range across the entire test schedule. The method described in this paper was developed to perform fatigue analysis of structures subjected to diverse road surfaces and also consider the case in which the maximum overall peak and minimum overall valley do not occur over the same road surface.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Compatibility - Analysis of the Factors Influencing Side Impact Occupant Injury

1999-03-01
1999-01-0067
This paper discusses a study conducted by GM to better understand the factors that influence injury potential in vehicle-to-vehicle side impacts. A number of other studies have been done which focus primarily on frontal vehicle-to-vehicle compatibility. GM focused on side impact compatibility in this study due to the risk of harm generally associated with this type of crash. Real world field performance was studied through an extensive six-state field analysis of recent model year (‘94+) vehicles. Of particular interest in this study was an efficacy analysis of the MVSS 214 dynamic side impact standard, which was phased-in starting with some 1994 model year passenger cars. Physical side impact crash testing of a 1997 passenger car was used to investigate the relationship of impacting mass, speed, geometric profile and stiffness on side impact intrusion and occupant injury.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Brake Performance Assessment Using Subsystem Testing and Modeling

2005-04-11
2005-01-0791
In recent years, the automotive industry has seen a rapid decrease in product development cycle time and a simultaneous increase in the variety of vehicles offered in the marketplace. These trends require a rigorous yet efficient systems engineering approach to the development of automotive braking systems. This paper provides an overview of an objective process for developing and predicting vehicle-level brake performance through an approach using both laboratory subsystem testing and math modeling.
Technical Paper

Validated Specification through Simulation for Complex Electronic Modules

2006-04-03
2006-01-0171
Consumer expectations for automated vehicle operations such as automatic locking, remote ignition control, navigation, and entertainment are primary drivers for the increasing complexity of embedded automotive electronics modules. The prevalent practice for procuring these modules is to develop a written behavioral specification that is then used by an outside supplier to build and test the module. Validation test plans are written separately based on an understanding of the requirements. The challenges posed by the current practice include the inability to completely specify the expected behavior in a timely manner, the need to balance the design between low cost and new features demanded by the customer, and ensuring that the product exactly implements the specified behavior. Moreover, vehicle manufacturers desire the ability to explore sensitivity of specifications by identifying constraints on the system and assessing the product for ease of implementation.
Technical Paper

Using a Co-simulation Framework to Enable Software-in-the-Loop Powertrain System Development

2009-04-20
2009-01-0520
The Advanced Engineering (AE) group within General Motors Powertrain (GMPT) develops next generation engines and transmissions for automotive and marine products. As a research organization, AE needs to prototype design ideas quickly and inexpensively. To this end, AE has embraced model-based development techniques and is currently investigating the benefits of software in-the-loop (SIL) testing. The underlying obstacle faced in developing a practical SIL system lays in the ability to integrate a plant model with sufficient fidelity together with target application software. ChiasTek worked with AE utilizing their CosiMate tool chain to eliminate these barriers and delivered a flexible SIL system simulation solution.
Technical Paper

Update on the Developments of the SAE J2334 Laboratory Cyclic Corrosion Test

2003-03-03
2003-01-1234
The Corrosion Task Force of the Automotive/Steel Partnership has developed the SAE J2334 cyclic laboratory test for evaluating the cosmetic corrosion resistance of auto body steel sheet. [Ref. 1] Since the publishing of this test in 1997, further work has improved the precision of J2334. In this paper, the results of this work along with the revisions to the J2334 test will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Tuning Guide for Deflected-Disc Suspension Dampers

2006-04-03
2006-01-1380
This paper presents an empirical-based model which explains the force-deflection characteristics of disc stacks commonly used in automotive suspension dampers. The model provides tools for comparing different disc stacks to understand their effect on damper performance. Load-deflection data is presented on a variety of discs and combinations of discs. The data is analyzed to show how the diameter, thickness and relative position of discs in a stack can affect the stack stiffness throughout the range of disc deflections. A model is developed to show how changes in the disc stack will affect damper performance at different velocities. An example is provided that shows predicted changes in disc stack force-deflection characteristics and the resulting changes in a damper force-velocity curve. Ride results are also presented that confirm the validity of the model.
Technical Paper

The USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project

2006-04-03
2006-01-0522
Over the past five years, the US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) has brought together representatives from DaimlerChrysler, General Motors, Ford Motor Company and over 40 other participant companies from the Mg casting industry to create and test a low-cost, Mg-alloy engine that would achieve a 15 - 20 % Mg component weight savings with no compromise in performance or durability. The block, oil pan, and front cover were redesigned to take advantage of the properties of both high-pressure die cast (HPDC) and sand cast Mg creep- resistant alloys. This paper describes the alloy selection process and the casting and testing of these new Mg-variant components. This paper will also examine the lessons learned and implications of this pre-competitive technology for future applications.
Technical Paper

The Steering Characterizing Functions (SCFs) and Their Use in Steering System Specification, Simulation, and Synthesis

2001-03-05
2001-01-1353
A set of functions for characterizing the mechanical properties of a steering “short gear” is described. They cover the kinematic, stiffness, assist, and friction performance of a power assisted (or manual) steering gear from the input shaft to the inner ends of the tie rods. Their use in describing the performance of a generalized steering gear is described. They have particular application to describing the steering feel performance of a vehicle. They can be used to specify the steering subsystem performance for desired steering feel for a given vehicle. They can also be used for experimental characterization of steering subsystems, can be used in vehicle dynamics simulations, and can be synthesized from a set of vehicle level performance targets. Along with their description, their use in simulation and methods to synthesize their values are described.
Technical Paper

The Next Generation Northstar DOHC 4.6L V8 Engine with Four-Cam Continuously Variable Valve Timing for Cadillac

2003-03-03
2003-01-0922
A new generation Northstar DOHC V8 engine has been developed for a new family of rear-wheel-drive (RWD) Cadillac vehicles. The new longitudinal engine architecture includes strategically selected technologies to enable a higher level of performance and refinement. These technologies include four-cam continuously variable valve timing, low restriction intake and exhaust manifolds and cylinder head ports, a steel crankshaft, electronic throttle control, and close-coupled catalysts. Additional design features beyond those required for RWD include optimized block ribbing, improved coolant flow, and a newly developed lubrication and ventilation system for high-speed operation and high lateral acceleration. This new design results in improved performance over the entire operating range, lower emissions, improved fuel economy, improved operating refinement, and reduced noise/vibration/harshness (NVH).
Technical Paper

The Effects of Friction on Bursting of Tubes in Corner Filling

2003-03-03
2003-01-0688
Corner filling is a benchmark experiment in tube hydroforming. It was designed to gain knowledge pertinent of this new fabrication process. The corner filling benchmark has been widely used in the automotive and steel industries. Common sense as well as physical tests suggests that friction is an important parameter that affects the deformation of the tube and the bursting of the tubes. However, numerical simulations have yet to verify this fact. In this paper, the stress/strain states in the tube were computed using a finite element model. The dependence of bursting on friction for corner filling was estimated by using the forming limit diagram and a tensile-based failure criterion.
Technical Paper

Tensile Deformation and Fracture of Press Hardened Boron Steel using Digital Image Correlation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0790
Tensile measurements and fracture surface analysis of low carbon heat-treated boron steel are reported. Tensile coupons were quasi-statically deformed to fracture in a miniature tensile testing stage with custom data acquisition software. Strain contours were computed via a digital image correlation method that allowed placement of a digital strain gage in the necking region. True stress-true strain data corresponding to the standard tensile testing method are presented for comparison with previous measurements. Fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy and the deformation mechanisms were identified.
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