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Journal Article

Vehicle Integration Factors Affecting Brake Caliper Drag

Disc brakes operate with very close proximity of the brake pads and the brake rotor, with as little as a tenth of a millimeter of movement of the pads required to bring them into full contact with the rotor to generate braking torque. It is usual for a disc brake to operate with some amount of residual drag in the fully released state, signifying constant contact between the pads and the rotor. With this contact, every miniscule movement of the rotor pushes against the brake pads and changes the forces between them. Sustained loads on the brake corner, and maneuvers such as cornering, can both produce rotor movement relative to the caliper, which can push it steadily against one or both of the brake pads. This can greatly increase the residual force in the caliper, and increase drag. This dependence of drag behavior on the movement of the brake rotor creates some vehicle-dependent behavior.
Technical Paper

Utilizing a Tracked 3-Dimensional Acoustic Probe in the Development of an Automotive Front-of-Dash

During the development of an automotive acoustic package, valuable information can be gained by visualizing the acoustic energy flow through the Front-of-Dash (FOD) when a sound source is placed in the engine compartment. Two of the commonly used methods for generating the visual map of the acoustic field include Sound Intensity measurements and array technologies. An alternative method is to use a tracked 3-dimensional acoustic probe to scan and visualize the FOD in real-time when the sound source is injecting noise into the engine compartment. The scan is used to focus the development of the FOD acoustic package on the weakest areas by identifying acoustic leaks and locations with low Transmission Loss. This paper provides a brief discussion of the capabilities of the tracked 3-D acoustic probe, and presents examples of the implementation of the probe during the development of the FOD acoustic package for two mid-sized sedans.
Technical Paper

Traditional and Electronic Solutions to Mitigate Electrified Vehicle Driveline Noises

Hybrid powertrain vehicles inherently create discontinuous sounds during operation. The discontinuous noise created from the electrical motors during transition states are undesirable since they can create tones that do not correlate with the dynamics of the vehicle. The audible level of these motor whines and discontinuous tones can be reduced via common noise abatement techniques or reducing the amount of regeneration braking. One electronic solution which does not affect mass or fuel economy is Masking Sound Enhancement (MSE). MSE is an algorithm that uses the infotainment system to mask the naturally occurring discontinuous hybrid drive unit and driveline tones. MSE enables a variety of benefits, such as more aggressive regenerative braking strategies which yield higher levels of fuel economy and results in a more pleasing interior vehicle powertrain sound. This paper will discuss the techniques and signals used to implement MSE in a hybrid powertrain equipped vehicle.
Technical Paper

SAE Low-Frequency Brake Noise Test Procedure

This paper presents the work of the SAE Brake NVH Standards Committee in developing a draft Low-Frequency Brake Noise Test Procedure. The goal of the procedure is to be able to accurately measure noise issues in the frequency range below 900 Hz using a conventional shaft brake noise dynamometer. The tests conducted while evaluating alternative test protocols will be discussed and examined in detail. The unique issues encountered in developing a suitable test procedure for low-frequency noise will be discussed, and the results of tests using both shaft brake dynamometers and chassis dynamometers will be described. The current draft procedure incorporating the knowledge gained from this development effort will be described in detail and conclusions as to its applicability will also be presented
Journal Article

Revised ISO 10844 Test Surface: Technical Principles

ISO has revised the 10844 International Standard for test surfaces used in measurement of exterior vehicle and tire noise emission. The revision has a goal to reduce the track to track sound level variation presently observed by 50%, without changing the mean value. ISO has incorporated improved texture measurement procedures, improved acoustic absorption measurement procedures, and has added measurement procedures for track roughness. In addition, specifications for texture, absorption, roughness, planarity, and asphalt mix were revised or added to recognize improved technical methods and to achieve the goal of variation reduction. The specification development was supported by a construction program where four candidate ISO 10844 tracks were constructed in Japan, France, and the US to verify the technical principles and to validate construction process capability. This paper will address the technical changes and reasons for these changes in the revised ISO 10844.
Technical Paper

NVH Design, Analysis and Optimization of Chevrolet Bolt Battery Electric Vehicle

A multi-stage system level method is used to design, optimize and enhance electric motor NVH performance of General Motors’ Chevrolet Bolt battery electric vehicle (BEV). First, the rotor EM (electromagnetic) design optimizes magnet placement between adjacent poles asymmetrically, along with a pair of small slots stamped near the rotor outer surface to lower torque ripple and radial force. The size and placement of stator slot openings under each pole are optimized to lower torque ripple and radial force. Next, motor stator level FE (Finite Element) analysis and modal test correlation are performed to benchmark the orthotropic stator material properties and accurately predict modal results within 7% error below 2 kHz. Furthermore, tangential and radial EM forces are applied on motor-in-fixture subsystem FE model, which predicts surface vibration and pseudo sound power on the motor housing.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Stiffness and Damping Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR), a copolymer of butadiene and styrene, is widely used in the automotive industry due to its high durability and resistance to abrasion, oils and oxidation. Some of the common applications include tires, vibration isolators, and gaskets, among others. This paper characterizes the dynamic behavior of SBR and discusses the suitability of a visco-elastic model of elastomers, known as the Kelvin model, from a mathematical and physical point of view. An optimization algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of the Kelvin model. The resulting model was shown to produce reasonable approximations of measured dynamic stiffness. The model was also used to calculate the self heating of the elastomer due to energy dissipation by the viscous damping components in the model. Developing such a predictive capability is essential in understanding the dynamic behavior of elastomers considering that their dynamic stiffness can in general depend on temperature.
Technical Paper

Modeling Response Time of Next Generation Electric Brake Boosters

In the course of this paper, a model suitable for studying the performance - in terms of response time, current draw, and peak pressure capacity - of an electric booster-based brake system is introduced. Some discussion about the need the model is attempting to fulfill and how it fits into the vehicle development process is offered, before explaining the model in full. The equations describing the physics of the model are presented, and an explanation of how the elements of the model are integrated together into an easy to use, fast-running spreadsheet environment is given. Case study examples, validating the model against physical test (hardware in the loop) test results are shown, followed by sensitivity studies testing how changing parameters such as caliper Pressure-Volume curves, hydraulic system flow characteristics, voltage supply, and temperature conditions affect performance.
Journal Article

Lockheed Martin Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Acoustic Upgrade

The Lockheed Martin Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) is a closed-return wind tunnel with two solid-wall test sections. This facility originally entered into service in 1967 for aerodynamic research of aircraft in low-speed and vertical/short take-off and landing (V/STOL) flight. Since this time, the client base has evolved to include a significant level of automotive aerodynamic testing, and the needs of the automotive clientele have progressed to include acoustic testing capability. The LSWT was therefore acoustically upgraded in 2016 to reduce background noise levels and to minimize acoustic reflections within the low-speed test section (LSTS). The acoustic upgrade involved detailed analysis, design, specification, and installation of acoustically treated wall surfaces and turning vanes in the circuit as well as low self-noise acoustic wall and ceiling treatment in the solid-wall LSTS.
Technical Paper

Initial Comparisons of Friction Stir Spot Welding and Self Piercing Riveting of Ultra-Thin Steel Sheet

Due to the limitations on resistance spot welding of ultra-thin steel sheet (thicknesses below 0.5 mm) in high-volume automotive manufacturing, a comparison of friction stir spot welding and self-piercing riveting was performed to determine which process may be more amenable to enabling assembly of ultra-thin steel sheet. Statistical comparisons between mechanical properties of lap-shear tensile and T-peel were made in sheet thickness below 0.5 mm and for dissimilar thickness combinations. An evaluation of energy to fracture, fracture mechanisms, and joint consistency is presented.
Technical Paper

Identification of Organic Acids in Used Engine Oil Residues by Pyrolysis-Comprehensive 2D Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

The amount of acidic material in used engine oil is considered an indicator of the remaining useful life of the oil. Total acid number, determined by titration, is the most widely accepted method for determining acidic content but the method is not capable of speciation of individual acids. In this work, high molecular weight residue was isolated from used engine oil by dialysis in heptane. This residue was then analyzed using pyrolysis-comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Carboxylic acids from C2-C18 were identified in the samples with acetic acid found to be the most abundant. This identification provides new information that may be used to improve the current acid detection methodologies for used engine oils.
Technical Paper

Hydraulically Damped Rubber Body Mounts with High Lateral Rate for Improved Vehicle Noise, Vibration and Ride Qualities

In today's competitive market, noise and vibration are among the most important parameters that impact the success of a vehicle. In body-on-frame construction vehicles, elastomeric body mounts play a major role in isolating the passenger compartment from road noise, harshness, shake, and other vibrations in the chassis as well as improving ride quality across a wide frequency range. This paper describes the work carried out to design a fluid filled mount with high lateral stiffness that can alter the perceived Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance of current production body-on-frame trucks. It was found that the quietness and ride qualities can be significantly improved by positioning the glycol-filled mounts at the anti-node of the frame first vertical bending mode; under the C-pillar intersection with the frame. The performance of mounts in this area is known to be critical to ride quality.
Journal Article

General Motors’ New Reduced Scale Wind Tunnel Center

The General Motors Reduced Scale Wind Tunnel Facility, which came into operation in the fall of 2015, is a new state-of-the-art scale model aerodynamic test facility that expands GM’s test capabilities. The new facility also increases GM’s aerodynamic testing through-put and provides the resources needed to achieve the growing demand for higher fuel economy requirements for next generation of vehicles. The wind tunnel was designed for a nominal model scale of 40%. The nozzle and test section were sized to keep wind tunnel interference effects to a minimum. Flow quality and other wind tunnel performance parameters are on par with or better than the latest industry standards. A 5-belt system with a long center belt and boundary layer suction and blowing system are used to model underbody flow conditions. An overhead probe traverse system is installed in the test section along with a model positioning robot used to move the model in an out of the test section.
Technical Paper

Experimental GT-POWER Correlation Techniques and Best Practices Low Frequency Acoustic Modeling of the Intake System of a Turbocharged Engine

As regulations become increasingly stringent and customer expectations of vehicle refinement increase, the accurate control and prediction of induction system airborne acoustics are a critical factor in creating a vehicle that wins in the marketplace. The goal of this project was to improve the predicative accuracy of a 1-D GT-power engine and induction model and to update internal best practices for modeling. The paper will explore the details of an induction focused correlation project that was performed on a spark ignition turbocharged inline four-cylinder engine. This paper and SAE paper “Experimental GT-POWER Correlation Techniques and Best Practices” share similar abstracts and introductions; however, they were split for readability and to keep the focus on a single a single subsystem. This paper compares 1D GT-Power engine air induction system (AIS) sound predictions with chassis dyno experimental measurements during a fixed gear, full-load speed sweep.
Technical Paper

Determining the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Benefit of an Adaptive Cruise Control System Using Real-World Driving Data

Adaptive cruise control is an advanced vehicle technology that is unique in its ability to govern vehicle behavior for extended periods of distance and time. As opposed to standard cruise control, adaptive cruise control can remain active through moderate to heavy traffic congestion, and can more effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Its ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is derived primarily from two physical phenomena: platooning and controlled acceleration. Platooning refers to reductions in aerodynamic drag resulting from opportunistic following distances from the vehicle ahead, and controlled acceleration refers to the ability of adaptive cruise control to accelerate the vehicle in an energy efficient manner. This research calculates the measured greenhouse gas emissions benefit of adaptive cruise control on a fleet of 51 vehicles over 62 days and 199,300 miles.
Technical Paper

Damping Mass Effects on Panel Sound Transmission Loss

The primary function of damping treatment on a vibrating panel in a vehicle is to reduce vibration levels or radiated sound power by the dissipation of energy. However, in automotive applications the mass effects of damping materials should not be ignored, especially with regard to airborne noise performance. In this paper, a Finite Element-Statistical Energy Analysis (FE-SEA) hybrid analysis is used to evaluate the mass effects of applied damping materials on Sound Transmission Loss (STL). The analysis takes into consideration effects on both the elastic properties and modal mass of the panel. It is shown that while uniformly distributing the mass of the damping material over the panel generally over-estimate the mass effects on STL, an area weighting approach underestimates the effects. Results are confirmed by laboratory testing. A nomogram is generated to show the total effect of the mass of the damping material on STL.
Technical Paper

Crash-induced Loads in Liftgate Latching Systems

Automotive liftgate latches have been subject to regulation for minimum strength and inertial resistance requirements since the late 1990’s in the US and globally since the early 2000’s, possibly due to liftgate ejections stemming from the first generation Chrysler minivans which employed latches that were not originally designed with this hazard in mind. Side door latches have been regulated since the 1960’s, and the regulation of liftgate, or back door latches, have been based largely on side door requirements, with the exception of the orthogonal test requirement that is liftgate specific. Based on benchmarking tests of liftgate latches, most global OEM’s design their latches to exceed the minimum regulatory requirements. Presumably, this is based on the need to keep doors closed during crashes and specifically to do so when subjected to industry standard tests.
Technical Paper

Combined Drag and Cooling Optimization of a Car Vehicle with an Adjoint-Based Approach

The main objective of this work is to present an adjoint-based methodology to address combined optimization of drag force and cooling flow rate of an industrial vehicle. In order to cope with cooling effect, the volumetric flow rate is treated through a newly introduced cost function and the corresponding adjoint source term is derived. Also an alternative strategy is presented to tackle aerodynamic vehicle design improvement that relies on a so-called indirect force computation. The overall optimization is treated as a Multi-Objective problem and an original approach, called Optimize Both Favor One (OBFO), is introduced that allows selective emphasis on one or another objective without resorting to artificial cost function balancing. Finally, comparative results are presented to demonstrate the merit of the proposed methodology.
Journal Article

Characterization of Caliper Piston Material Stiffness and Damping

The brake caliper piston plays a key role in caliper function, taking significant responsibility for qualities such as fluid consumption, insulation of the brake fluid from heat, seal rollback function, and brake torque variation sensitivity to disc thickness variation. It operates in a strenuous environment, being routinely subjected to high stresses and elevated temperatures. Given all of the demands on this safety-critical component (strength, stiffness, wear resistance, stable friction against rubber, thermal stability, machinability, manageable thermal conductivity, and more), there are actually relatively few engineering materials suitable for use as a caliper piston, and designs tend to be limited to steel, aluminum, and engineered plastics (phenolic composites). The lattermost - phenolic composites - has been of especial interest recently due to mass savings and possible reduction in brake corner judder sensitivity to disc thickness variation.
Technical Paper

Cascaded Dual Extended Kalman Filter for Combined Vehicle State Estimation and Parameter Identification

This paper proposes a model-based “Cascaded Dual Extended Kalman Filter” (CDEKF) for combined vehicle state estimation, namely, tire vertical forces and parameter identification. A sensitivity analysis is first carried out to recognize the vehicle inertial parameters that have significant effects on tire normal forces. Next, the combined estimation process is separated in two components. The first component is designed to identify the vehicle mass and estimate the longitudinal forces while the second component identifies the location of center of gravity and estimates the tire normal forces. A Dual extended Kalman filter is designed for each component for combined state estimation and parameter identification. Simulation results verify that the proposed method can precisely estimate the tire normal forces and accurately identify the inertial parameters.