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Journal Article

Wheel Bearing Brinelling and a Vehicle Curb Impact DOE to Understand Factors Affecting Bearing Loads

2017-09-17
2017-01-2526
As material cleanliness and bearing lubrication have improved, wheel bearings are experiencing less raceway spalling failures from rotating fatigue. Warranty part reviews have shown that two of the larger failure modes for wheel bearings are contaminant ingress and Brinell damage from curb and pothole impacts. Warranty has also shown that larger wheels have higher rates of Brinell warranty. This paper discusses the Brinell failure mode for bearings. It reviews a vehicle test used to evaluate Brinell performance for wheel bearings. The paper also discusses a design of experiments to study the effects of factors such as wheel size, vehicle loading and vehicle position versus the bearing load from a vehicle side impact to the wheel. As the trend in vehicle styling is moving to larger wheels and low profile tires, understanding the impact load can help properly size wheel bearings.
Journal Article

Vehicle Integration Factors Affecting Brake Caliper Drag

2012-09-17
2012-01-1830
Disc brakes operate with very close proximity of the brake pads and the brake rotor, with as little as a tenth of a millimeter of movement of the pads required to bring them into full contact with the rotor to generate braking torque. It is usual for a disc brake to operate with some amount of residual drag in the fully released state, signifying constant contact between the pads and the rotor. With this contact, every miniscule movement of the rotor pushes against the brake pads and changes the forces between them. Sustained loads on the brake corner, and maneuvers such as cornering, can both produce rotor movement relative to the caliper, which can push it steadily against one or both of the brake pads. This can greatly increase the residual force in the caliper, and increase drag. This dependence of drag behavior on the movement of the brake rotor creates some vehicle-dependent behavior.
Technical Paper

Thoracic Injury Risk Curves for Rib Deflections of the SID-IIs Build Level D

2016-11-07
2016-22-0016
Injury risk curves for SID-IIs thorax and abdomen rib deflections proposed for future NCAP side impact evaluations were developed from tests conducted with the SID-IIs FRG. Since the floating rib guide is known to reduce the magnitude of the peak rib deflections, injury risk curves developed from SID-IIs FRG data are not appropriate for use with SID-IIs build level D. PMHS injury data from three series of sled tests and one series of whole-body drop tests are paired with thoracic rib deflections from equivalent tests with SID-IIs build level D. Where possible, the rib deflections of SID-IIs build level D were scaled to adjust for differences in impact velocity between the PMHS and SID-IIs tests. Injury risk curves developed by the Mertz-Weber modified median rank method are presented and compared to risk curves developed by other parametric and non-parametric methods.
Technical Paper

Morphomics of the Talus

2016-11-07
2016-22-0011
Previous studies of frontal crash databases reported that ankle fractures are among the most common lower extremity fractures. While not generally life threatening, these injuries can be debilitating. Laboratory research into the mechanisms of ankle fractures has linked dorsiflexion with an increased risk of tibia and fibula malleolus fractures. However, talus fractures were not produced in the laboratory tests and appear to be caused by more complex loading of the joint. In this study, an analysis of the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the years 2004-2013 was conducted to investigate foot-ankle injury rates in front seat occupants involved in frontal impact crashes. A logistic regression model was developed indicating occupant weight, impact delta velocity and gender to be significant predictors of talus fracture (p<0.05).
Technical Paper

Modeling the Stiffness and Damping Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

2011-05-17
2011-01-1628
Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR), a copolymer of butadiene and styrene, is widely used in the automotive industry due to its high durability and resistance to abrasion, oils and oxidation. Some of the common applications include tires, vibration isolators, and gaskets, among others. This paper characterizes the dynamic behavior of SBR and discusses the suitability of a visco-elastic model of elastomers, known as the Kelvin model, from a mathematical and physical point of view. An optimization algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of the Kelvin model. The resulting model was shown to produce reasonable approximations of measured dynamic stiffness. The model was also used to calculate the self heating of the elastomer due to energy dissipation by the viscous damping components in the model. Developing such a predictive capability is essential in understanding the dynamic behavior of elastomers considering that their dynamic stiffness can in general depend on temperature.
Technical Paper

Modeling Response Time of Next Generation Electric Brake Boosters

2018-10-05
2018-01-1871
In the course of this paper, a model suitable for studying the performance - in terms of response time, current draw, and peak pressure capacity - of an electric booster-based brake system is introduced. Some discussion about the need the model is attempting to fulfill and how it fits into the vehicle development process is offered, before explaining the model in full. The equations describing the physics of the model are presented, and an explanation of how the elements of the model are integrated together into an easy to use, fast-running spreadsheet environment is given. Case study examples, validating the model against physical test (hardware in the loop) test results are shown, followed by sensitivity studies testing how changing parameters such as caliper Pressure-Volume curves, hydraulic system flow characteristics, voltage supply, and temperature conditions affect performance.
Journal Article

Lockheed Martin Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Acoustic Upgrade

2018-04-03
2018-01-0749
The Lockheed Martin Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) is a closed-return wind tunnel with two solid-wall test sections. This facility originally entered into service in 1967 for aerodynamic research of aircraft in low-speed and vertical/short take-off and landing (V/STOL) flight. Since this time, the client base has evolved to include a significant level of automotive aerodynamic testing, and the needs of the automotive clientele have progressed to include acoustic testing capability. The LSWT was therefore acoustically upgraded in 2016 to reduce background noise levels and to minimize acoustic reflections within the low-speed test section (LSTS). The acoustic upgrade involved detailed analysis, design, specification, and installation of acoustically treated wall surfaces and turning vanes in the circuit as well as low self-noise acoustic wall and ceiling treatment in the solid-wall LSTS.
Technical Paper

Initial Comparisons of Friction Stir Spot Welding and Self Piercing Riveting of Ultra-Thin Steel Sheet

2018-04-03
2018-01-1236
Due to the limitations on resistance spot welding of ultra-thin steel sheet (thicknesses below 0.5 mm) in high-volume automotive manufacturing, a comparison of friction stir spot welding and self-piercing riveting was performed to determine which process may be more amenable to enabling assembly of ultra-thin steel sheet. Statistical comparisons between mechanical properties of lap-shear tensile and T-peel were made in sheet thickness below 0.5 mm and for dissimilar thickness combinations. An evaluation of energy to fracture, fracture mechanisms, and joint consistency is presented.
Technical Paper

Identification of Organic Acids in Used Engine Oil Residues by Pyrolysis-Comprehensive 2D Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

2016-10-17
2016-01-2274
The amount of acidic material in used engine oil is considered an indicator of the remaining useful life of the oil. Total acid number, determined by titration, is the most widely accepted method for determining acidic content but the method is not capable of speciation of individual acids. In this work, high molecular weight residue was isolated from used engine oil by dialysis in heptane. This residue was then analyzed using pyrolysis-comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Carboxylic acids from C2-C18 were identified in the samples with acetic acid found to be the most abundant. This identification provides new information that may be used to improve the current acid detection methodologies for used engine oils.
Journal Article

General Motors’ New Reduced Scale Wind Tunnel Center

2017-03-28
2017-01-1534
The General Motors Reduced Scale Wind Tunnel Facility, which came into operation in the fall of 2015, is a new state-of-the-art scale model aerodynamic test facility that expands GM’s test capabilities. The new facility also increases GM’s aerodynamic testing through-put and provides the resources needed to achieve the growing demand for higher fuel economy requirements for next generation of vehicles. The wind tunnel was designed for a nominal model scale of 40%. The nozzle and test section were sized to keep wind tunnel interference effects to a minimum. Flow quality and other wind tunnel performance parameters are on par with or better than the latest industry standards. A 5-belt system with a long center belt and boundary layer suction and blowing system are used to model underbody flow conditions. An overhead probe traverse system is installed in the test section along with a model positioning robot used to move the model in an out of the test section.
Technical Paper

Determining the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Benefit of an Adaptive Cruise Control System Using Real-World Driving Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0310
Adaptive cruise control is an advanced vehicle technology that is unique in its ability to govern vehicle behavior for extended periods of distance and time. As opposed to standard cruise control, adaptive cruise control can remain active through moderate to heavy traffic congestion, and can more effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Its ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is derived primarily from two physical phenomena: platooning and controlled acceleration. Platooning refers to reductions in aerodynamic drag resulting from opportunistic following distances from the vehicle ahead, and controlled acceleration refers to the ability of adaptive cruise control to accelerate the vehicle in an energy efficient manner. This research calculates the measured greenhouse gas emissions benefit of adaptive cruise control on a fleet of 51 vehicles over 62 days and 199,300 miles.
Technical Paper

Crash-induced Loads in Liftgate Latching Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-1333
Automotive liftgate latches have been subject to regulation for minimum strength and inertial resistance requirements since the late 1990’s in the US and globally since the early 2000’s, possibly due to liftgate ejections stemming from the first generation Chrysler minivans which employed latches that were not originally designed with this hazard in mind. Side door latches have been regulated since the 1960’s, and the regulation of liftgate, or back door latches, have been based largely on side door requirements, with the exception of the orthogonal test requirement that is liftgate specific. Based on benchmarking tests of liftgate latches, most global OEM’s design their latches to exceed the minimum regulatory requirements. Presumably, this is based on the need to keep doors closed during crashes and specifically to do so when subjected to industry standard tests.
Technical Paper

Combined Drag and Cooling Optimization of a Car Vehicle with an Adjoint-Based Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-0721
The main objective of this work is to present an adjoint-based methodology to address combined optimization of drag force and cooling flow rate of an industrial vehicle. In order to cope with cooling effect, the volumetric flow rate is treated through a newly introduced cost function and the corresponding adjoint source term is derived. Also an alternative strategy is presented to tackle aerodynamic vehicle design improvement that relies on a so-called indirect force computation. The overall optimization is treated as a Multi-Objective problem and an original approach, called Optimize Both Favor One (OBFO), is introduced that allows selective emphasis on one or another objective without resorting to artificial cost function balancing. Finally, comparative results are presented to demonstrate the merit of the proposed methodology.
Technical Paper

Cascaded Dual Extended Kalman Filter for Combined Vehicle State Estimation and Parameter Identification

2013-04-08
2013-01-0691
This paper proposes a model-based “Cascaded Dual Extended Kalman Filter” (CDEKF) for combined vehicle state estimation, namely, tire vertical forces and parameter identification. A sensitivity analysis is first carried out to recognize the vehicle inertial parameters that have significant effects on tire normal forces. Next, the combined estimation process is separated in two components. The first component is designed to identify the vehicle mass and estimate the longitudinal forces while the second component identifies the location of center of gravity and estimates the tire normal forces. A Dual extended Kalman filter is designed for each component for combined state estimation and parameter identification. Simulation results verify that the proposed method can precisely estimate the tire normal forces and accurately identify the inertial parameters.
Journal Article

Brake System Performance at Higher Mileage

2017-09-17
2017-01-2502
The purchase of a new automobile is unquestionably a significant investment for most customers, and with this recognition, comes a correspondingly significant expectation for quality and reliability. Amongst automotive systems -when it comes to considerations of reliability - the brakes (perhaps along with the tires) occupy a rarified position of being located in a harsh environment, subjected to continuous wear throughout their use, and are critical to the safe performance of the vehicle. Maintenance of the brake system is therefore a fact of life for most drivers - something that almost everyone must do, yet given the potentially considerable expense, it is something that of great benefit to minimize.
Technical Paper

Brake System Design for Dedicated BEV Architectures

2018-10-05
2018-01-1870
As fossil fuels dwindle and more electric vehicles enter the market, there is an opportunity to reevaluate the standard brake system. This paper will discuss and compare the differences in brake system sizing between a non-regenerative braking internal combustion engine vehicle and a dedicated battery electric vehicle with regenerative braking. It will use a model derived from component dynamometer testing and vehicle test data of a mid-size production vehicle. The model will be modified for the mass and regenerative braking capabilities of a battery electric vehicle. The contribution of regenerative braking energy will be analyzed and compared to show its impact on component sizing, thermal sizing, and lining life. The detailed design study will calculate the parameters for caliper, rotor design, actuation, etc., that are optimized for 100% regen enabled vehicles.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical and Scaling Basis for Frontal and Side Impact Injury Assessment Reference Values

2016-11-07
2016-22-0018
In 1983, General Motors Corporation (GM) petitioned the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to allow the use of the biofidelic Hybrid III midsize adult male dummy as an alternate test device for FMVSS 208 compliance testing of frontal impact, passive restraint systems. To support their petition, GM made public to the international automotive community the limit values that they imposed on the Hybrid III measurements, which were called Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs). During the past 20 years, these IARVs have been updated based on relevant biomechanical studies that have been published and scaled to provide IARVs for the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies. Limit values have also been developed for the biofidelic side impact dummies, BioSID, ES-2 and SID-IIs.
Technical Paper

Age-Specific Injury Risk Curves for Distributed, Anterior Thoracic Loading of Various Sizes of Adults Based on Sternal Deflections

2016-11-07
2016-22-0001
Injury Risk Curves are developed from cadaver data for sternal deflections produced by anterior, distributed chest loads for a 25, 45, 55, 65 and 75 year-old Small Female, Mid-Size Male and Large Male based on the variations of bone strengths with age. These curves show that the risk of AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury increases with the age of the person. This observation is consistent with NASS data of frontal accidents which shows that older unbelted drivers have a higher risk of AIS ≥ 3 chest injury than younger drivers.
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