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Technical Paper

Virtual Traffic Simulator for Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0676
Connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies promise a substantial decrease in traffic accidents and traffic jams, and bring new opportunities for improving vehicle’s fuel economy. However, testing autonomous vehicles in a real world traffic environment is costly, and covering all corner cases is nearly impossible. Furthermore, it is very challenging to create a controlled real traffic environment that vehicle tests can be conducted repeatedly and compared fairly. With the capability of allowing testing more scenarios than those that would be possible with real world testing, simulations are deemed safer, more efficient, and more cost-effective. In this work, a full-scale simulation platform was developed to simulate the infrastructure, traffic, vehicle, powertrain, and their interactions. It is used as an effective tool to facilitate control algorithm development for improving CAV’s fuel economy in real world driving scenarios.
Journal Article

Vehicle Integration Factors Affecting Brake Caliper Drag

2012-09-17
2012-01-1830
Disc brakes operate with very close proximity of the brake pads and the brake rotor, with as little as a tenth of a millimeter of movement of the pads required to bring them into full contact with the rotor to generate braking torque. It is usual for a disc brake to operate with some amount of residual drag in the fully released state, signifying constant contact between the pads and the rotor. With this contact, every miniscule movement of the rotor pushes against the brake pads and changes the forces between them. Sustained loads on the brake corner, and maneuvers such as cornering, can both produce rotor movement relative to the caliper, which can push it steadily against one or both of the brake pads. This can greatly increase the residual force in the caliper, and increase drag. This dependence of drag behavior on the movement of the brake rotor creates some vehicle-dependent behavior.
Technical Paper

Validating Prototype Connected Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications in Real- World Settings

2018-04-03
2018-01-0025
This paper summarizes the validation of prototype vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications based on Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in the United States under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). After consideration of a number of V2I safety applications, Red Light Violation Warning (RLVW), Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure Warning (RSZW/LC) were developed, validated and demonstrated using seven different vehicles (six passenger vehicles and one Class 8 truck) leveraging DSRC-based messages from a Road Side Unit (RSU). The developed V2I safety applications were validated for more than 20 distinct scenarios and over 100 test runs using both light- and heavy-duty vehicles over a period of seven months. Subsequently, additional on-road testing of CSW on public roads and RSZW/LC in live work zones were conducted in Southeast Michigan.
Journal Article

Truck Utility & Functionality in the GM 2-Mode Hybrid

2010-04-12
2010-01-0826
The present production General Motors 2-Mode Hybrid system for full-size SUVs and pickup trucks integrates truck utility functions with a full hybrid system. The 2-mode hybrid system incorporates two electro-mechanical power-split operating modes with four fixed-gear ratios. The combination provides fuel savings from electric assist, regenerative braking and low-speed electric vehicle operation. The combination of two power-split modes reduces the amount of mechanical power that is converted to electric power for continuously variable transmission operation, meeting the utility required for SUVs and trucks. This paper describes how fuel economy functionality was blended with full-size truck utility functions. Truck functions described include: Manual Range Select, Cruise Control, 4WD-Low and continuous high load operation.
Technical Paper

Traditional and Electronic Solutions to Mitigate Electrified Vehicle Driveline Noises

2017-06-05
2017-01-1755
Hybrid powertrain vehicles inherently create discontinuous sounds during operation. The discontinuous noise created from the electrical motors during transition states are undesirable since they can create tones that do not correlate with the dynamics of the vehicle. The audible level of these motor whines and discontinuous tones can be reduced via common noise abatement techniques or reducing the amount of regeneration braking. One electronic solution which does not affect mass or fuel economy is Masking Sound Enhancement (MSE). MSE is an algorithm that uses the infotainment system to mask the naturally occurring discontinuous hybrid drive unit and driveline tones. MSE enables a variety of benefits, such as more aggressive regenerative braking strategies which yield higher levels of fuel economy and results in a more pleasing interior vehicle powertrain sound. This paper will discuss the techniques and signals used to implement MSE in a hybrid powertrain equipped vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Wheel Assembly Non Uniformity on Disc Brake Lateral Runout

2011-09-18
2011-01-2378
The importance of achieving good (low) assembled lateral runout of the brake disc is well recognized in the industry - it is a critical feature for avoiding issues such as wear-induced disc thickness variation and vibration/shudder during braking. Significant efforts and expense has been invested by the industry into reducing disc brake lateral runout. However, wheel assemblies also have some inherent runout, which in turn cause cyclical forces to act on the brake corner during vehicle movement. Despite the stiffness of the wheel bearing (which aligns the brake disc with the caliper and knuckle), these “tire non-uniformity” forces can be sufficient to promote deflection of the assembly that is appreciable compared to typical disc lateral runout tolerances. This paper covers measurements of this phenomenon on three different vehicles (compact, mid-size, and large cars), under a variety of operating conditions such as speed, wheel assembly runout, and wheel assembly balance.
Journal Article

Sizing Next Generation High Performance Brake Systems with Copper Free Linings

2017-09-17
2017-01-2532
The high performance brake systems of today are usually in a delicate balance - walking the fine line between being overpowered by some of the most potent powertrains, some of the grippiest tires, and some of the most demanding race tracks that the automotive world has ever seen - and saddling the vehicle with excess kilograms of unsprung mass with oversized brakes, forcing significant compromises in drivability with oversized tires and wheels. Brake system design for high performance vehicles has often relied on a very deep understanding of friction material performance (friction, wear, and compressibility) in race track conditions, with sufficient knowledge to enable this razor’s edge design.
Technical Paper

SAE Low-Frequency Brake Noise Test Procedure

2010-10-10
2010-01-1696
This paper presents the work of the SAE Brake NVH Standards Committee in developing a draft Low-Frequency Brake Noise Test Procedure. The goal of the procedure is to be able to accurately measure noise issues in the frequency range below 900 Hz using a conventional shaft brake noise dynamometer. The tests conducted while evaluating alternative test protocols will be discussed and examined in detail. The unique issues encountered in developing a suitable test procedure for low-frequency noise will be discussed, and the results of tests using both shaft brake dynamometers and chassis dynamometers will be described. The current draft procedure incorporating the knowledge gained from this development effort will be described in detail and conclusions as to its applicability will also be presented
Technical Paper

NVH Design, Analysis and Optimization of Chevrolet Bolt Battery Electric Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0994
A multi-stage system level method is used to design, optimize and enhance electric motor NVH performance of General Motors’ Chevrolet Bolt battery electric vehicle (BEV). First, the rotor EM (electromagnetic) design optimizes magnet placement between adjacent poles asymmetrically, along with a pair of small slots stamped near the rotor outer surface to lower torque ripple and radial force. The size and placement of stator slot openings under each pole are optimized to lower torque ripple and radial force. Next, motor stator level FE (Finite Element) analysis and modal test correlation are performed to benchmark the orthotropic stator material properties and accurately predict modal results within 7% error below 2 kHz. Furthermore, tangential and radial EM forces are applied on motor-in-fixture subsystem FE model, which predicts surface vibration and pseudo sound power on the motor housing.
Technical Paper

Multi-Physics Based System Model for Early Stage Hybrid/Electric Vehicle HV Battery Design

2017-01-10
2017-26-0095
Vehicle electrification is driven globally due to the increased concerns on carbon emissions. But the challenges in customer acceptance remains esp. in relation to vehicle costs. Virtual simulations can help in cutting down product development cost and enable faster launch of new vehicles. An early stage system model based design iterations can help in cutting down the product development costs and building more robust products. In the current paper, we develop and analyze a battery pack system model for early phase design. We extend a previously developed system model to include critical physics like sub-component level multiphysics for electrical joint integrity. Also, we demonstrate an integration of 3D FEM & system model for improving the accuracy of joint temperature predictions during charging and/or discharging. A typical High Voltage (HV) battery system comprises of battery modules (Li-ion cells, cooling channels, structural frames, interconnect boards) and HV bus bars.
Technical Paper

Modified Experimental Approach to Investigate Coefficient of Friction and Wear under Lubricated Fretting Condition by Utilizing SRV Test Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0835
Fretting is an important phenomenon that happens in many mechanical parts. It is the main reason in deadly failures in automobiles, airliners, and turbine engines. The damage is noticed between two surfaces clamped together by bolts or rivets that are nominally at rest, but have a small amplitude oscillation because of vibration or local cyclic loading. Fretting damage can be divided into two types. The first type is the fretting fatigue damage where a crack would initiate and propagate at specific location at the interface of the mating surfaces. Cracks usually initiate in the material with lower strength because of the local cyclic loading conditions which eventually lead to full failure. The second type is the fretting wear damage because of external vibration. Researchers have investigated this phenomenon by theoretical modeling and experimental approaches. Although a lot of research has been done on fretting damage, some of the parameters have not been well studied.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Stiffness and Damping Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

2011-05-17
2011-01-1628
Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR), a copolymer of butadiene and styrene, is widely used in the automotive industry due to its high durability and resistance to abrasion, oils and oxidation. Some of the common applications include tires, vibration isolators, and gaskets, among others. This paper characterizes the dynamic behavior of SBR and discusses the suitability of a visco-elastic model of elastomers, known as the Kelvin model, from a mathematical and physical point of view. An optimization algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of the Kelvin model. The resulting model was shown to produce reasonable approximations of measured dynamic stiffness. The model was also used to calculate the self heating of the elastomer due to energy dissipation by the viscous damping components in the model. Developing such a predictive capability is essential in understanding the dynamic behavior of elastomers considering that their dynamic stiffness can in general depend on temperature.
Technical Paper

Modeling Response Time of Next Generation Electric Brake Boosters

2018-10-05
2018-01-1871
In the course of this paper, a model suitable for studying the performance - in terms of response time, current draw, and peak pressure capacity - of an electric booster-based brake system is introduced. Some discussion about the need the model is attempting to fulfill and how it fits into the vehicle development process is offered, before explaining the model in full. The equations describing the physics of the model are presented, and an explanation of how the elements of the model are integrated together into an easy to use, fast-running spreadsheet environment is given. Case study examples, validating the model against physical test (hardware in the loop) test results are shown, followed by sensitivity studies testing how changing parameters such as caliper Pressure-Volume curves, hydraulic system flow characteristics, voltage supply, and temperature conditions affect performance.
Technical Paper

Modeling Articulated Brake Component Wear to Assist with Routing Decisions

2018-10-05
2018-01-1890
Very few activities the brake engineer engages in can induce as much vexation as trying to find a satisfying routing for the flexible brake components such as hoses, wheel speed sensors, and electric parking brake cables. Ever increasing wheel end content, ever decreasing space, more complex suspensions, and bulkier (but lighter weight) suspension components provide quite the morass through which the components must be routed through. When routing is finalized - and free of any major issues - there frequently remains some combinations of articulation position and component tolerances that allow a light “friendly” touch between components (such as a sensor wire and a surface of a bracket or strut tube), or near misses where clearance exists but raises “what if” questions around what would happen if the tolerances would stack up slightly differently on another vehicle.
Technical Paper

Machine Learning considerations in the context of Automotive Functional Safety Requirements for Autonomous Vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2519
We are currently in the age of developing Autonomous Vehicles (AV). Never before in history, the environment has been as conducive as today for these developments to come together to deliver a mass produced autonomous car for use by general public on the roads. Several enhancements in hardware, software, standards and even business models are paving the way for rapid development of AVs, bringing them closer to production reality. Safety is an indispensable consideration when it comes to transportation products, and ground vehicle development is no different. We have several established standards. When it comes to Autonomous Vehicle development, an important consideration is ISO 26262 for, Automotive Functional Safety. Going from generic frameworks such as Failure Mode and Effects Analyses (FMEA) and Hazard and operability study (HAZOP) to Functional Safety, Safety of Intended Functionality, and Automotive Safety Integrity Levels specific is a natural progression.
Journal Article

Lockheed Martin Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Acoustic Upgrade

2018-04-03
2018-01-0749
The Lockheed Martin Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) is a closed-return wind tunnel with two solid-wall test sections. This facility originally entered into service in 1967 for aerodynamic research of aircraft in low-speed and vertical/short take-off and landing (V/STOL) flight. Since this time, the client base has evolved to include a significant level of automotive aerodynamic testing, and the needs of the automotive clientele have progressed to include acoustic testing capability. The LSWT was therefore acoustically upgraded in 2016 to reduce background noise levels and to minimize acoustic reflections within the low-speed test section (LSTS). The acoustic upgrade involved detailed analysis, design, specification, and installation of acoustically treated wall surfaces and turning vanes in the circuit as well as low self-noise acoustic wall and ceiling treatment in the solid-wall LSTS.
Journal Article

Iterative Learning Algorithm Design for Variable Admittance Control Tuning of A Robotic Lift Assistant System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0288
The human-robot interaction (HRI) is involved in a lift assistant system of manufacturing assembly line. The admittance model is applied to control the end effector motion by sensing intention from force of applied by a human operator. The variable admittance including virtual damping and virtual mass can improve the performance of the systems. But the tuning process of variable admittance is un-convenient and challenging part during the real test for designers, while the offline simulation is lack of learning process and interaction with human operator. In this paper, the Iterative learning algorithm is proposed to emulate the human learning process and facilitate the variable admittance control design. The relationship between manipulate force and object moving speed is demonstrated from simulation data. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by comparing the simulation results between two admittance control strategies.
Technical Paper

Initial Comparisons of Friction Stir Spot Welding and Self Piercing Riveting of Ultra-Thin Steel Sheet

2018-04-03
2018-01-1236
Due to the limitations on resistance spot welding of ultra-thin steel sheet (thicknesses below 0.5 mm) in high-volume automotive manufacturing, a comparison of friction stir spot welding and self-piercing riveting was performed to determine which process may be more amenable to enabling assembly of ultra-thin steel sheet. Statistical comparisons between mechanical properties of lap-shear tensile and T-peel were made in sheet thickness below 0.5 mm and for dissimilar thickness combinations. An evaluation of energy to fracture, fracture mechanisms, and joint consistency is presented.
Technical Paper

Identification of Organic Acids in Used Engine Oil Residues by Pyrolysis-Comprehensive 2D Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

2016-10-17
2016-01-2274
The amount of acidic material in used engine oil is considered an indicator of the remaining useful life of the oil. Total acid number, determined by titration, is the most widely accepted method for determining acidic content but the method is not capable of speciation of individual acids. In this work, high molecular weight residue was isolated from used engine oil by dialysis in heptane. This residue was then analyzed using pyrolysis-comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Carboxylic acids from C2-C18 were identified in the samples with acetic acid found to be the most abundant. This identification provides new information that may be used to improve the current acid detection methodologies for used engine oils.
Technical Paper

IGBT Power Modules Evaluation for GM Electrified Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0460
GM has recently developed two types of plug-in electric vehicles. First is an extended range electric vehicle such as the Volt, and the second is a battery electric vehicle such as the Bolt. An overview, of traction inverter and power module used in GM battery electric vehicles, is presented. IGBT power modules are critical components used in traction inverters for driving GM Electrified Vehicles. IGBT power modules are also described in a benchmarking study using key metrics based on horizontal die configuration, layout and vertical thermal stack. Power Module evaluation test set up, procedure and instrumentation used in GM Power Module Lab, Pontiac, Michigan are described. GM Electrification development journey depends on IGBT power module passive test benches; turn on/off energy loss tester, thermal resistance tester, and slow/fast power cycles testers (fast junction temperature change, in seconds, and slow baseplate temperature change, in minutes).
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