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Technical Paper

Virtual Traffic Simulator for Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0676
Connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies promise a substantial decrease in traffic accidents and traffic jams, and bring new opportunities for improving vehicle’s fuel economy. However, testing autonomous vehicles in a real world traffic environment is costly, and covering all corner cases is nearly impossible. Furthermore, it is very challenging to create a controlled real traffic environment that vehicle tests can be conducted repeatedly and compared fairly. With the capability of allowing testing more scenarios than those that would be possible with real world testing, simulations are deemed safer, more efficient, and more cost-effective. In this work, a full-scale simulation platform was developed to simulate the infrastructure, traffic, vehicle, powertrain, and their interactions. It is used as an effective tool to facilitate control algorithm development for improving CAV’s fuel economy in real world driving scenarios.
Journal Article

Vehicle Integration Factors Affecting Brake Caliper Drag

2012-09-17
2012-01-1830
Disc brakes operate with very close proximity of the brake pads and the brake rotor, with as little as a tenth of a millimeter of movement of the pads required to bring them into full contact with the rotor to generate braking torque. It is usual for a disc brake to operate with some amount of residual drag in the fully released state, signifying constant contact between the pads and the rotor. With this contact, every miniscule movement of the rotor pushes against the brake pads and changes the forces between them. Sustained loads on the brake corner, and maneuvers such as cornering, can both produce rotor movement relative to the caliper, which can push it steadily against one or both of the brake pads. This can greatly increase the residual force in the caliper, and increase drag. This dependence of drag behavior on the movement of the brake rotor creates some vehicle-dependent behavior.
Technical Paper

Varying the Polyurethane Foam Ratio for Better Acoustic Performance and Mass Savings

2011-05-17
2011-01-1736
Flexible molded polyurethane foams are widely used in automotive industry. As porous-elastic materials, they can be used as decoupler layers in conventional sound insulation constructions or as sound absorbers in vehicle trim parts. Flexible molded polyurethane foams are produced by reacting of liquid Isocyanate (Iso) with a liquid Polyol blend, catalysts, and other additives. Their acoustic performance can be changed by varying the mixing ratio, the weight proportion of two components: Iso and Polyol. Consequently, the sound insertion loss (IL) of barrier/foam constructions and acoustic absorption of a single foam layer will vary. In this paper, based on one industry standard flexible molded polyurethane foam process, the relationship between foam mixing ratio and foam acoustic performance is studied in terms of IL and sound absorption test results.
Technical Paper

Validating Prototype Connected Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications in Real- World Settings

2018-04-03
2018-01-0025
This paper summarizes the validation of prototype vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications based on Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in the United States under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). After consideration of a number of V2I safety applications, Red Light Violation Warning (RLVW), Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure Warning (RSZW/LC) were developed, validated and demonstrated using seven different vehicles (six passenger vehicles and one Class 8 truck) leveraging DSRC-based messages from a Road Side Unit (RSU). The developed V2I safety applications were validated for more than 20 distinct scenarios and over 100 test runs using both light- and heavy-duty vehicles over a period of seven months. Subsequently, additional on-road testing of CSW on public roads and RSZW/LC in live work zones were conducted in Southeast Michigan.
Technical Paper

Utilizing a Tracked 3-Dimensional Acoustic Probe in the Development of an Automotive Front-of-Dash

2017-06-05
2017-01-1869
During the development of an automotive acoustic package, valuable information can be gained by visualizing the acoustic energy flow through the Front-of-Dash (FOD) when a sound source is placed in the engine compartment. Two of the commonly used methods for generating the visual map of the acoustic field include Sound Intensity measurements and array technologies. An alternative method is to use a tracked 3-dimensional acoustic probe to scan and visualize the FOD in real-time when the sound source is injecting noise into the engine compartment. The scan is used to focus the development of the FOD acoustic package on the weakest areas by identifying acoustic leaks and locations with low Transmission Loss. This paper provides a brief discussion of the capabilities of the tracked 3-D acoustic probe, and presents examples of the implementation of the probe during the development of the FOD acoustic package for two mid-sized sedans.
Journal Article

Truck Utility & Functionality in the GM 2-Mode Hybrid

2010-04-12
2010-01-0826
The present production General Motors 2-Mode Hybrid system for full-size SUVs and pickup trucks integrates truck utility functions with a full hybrid system. The 2-mode hybrid system incorporates two electro-mechanical power-split operating modes with four fixed-gear ratios. The combination provides fuel savings from electric assist, regenerative braking and low-speed electric vehicle operation. The combination of two power-split modes reduces the amount of mechanical power that is converted to electric power for continuously variable transmission operation, meeting the utility required for SUVs and trucks. This paper describes how fuel economy functionality was blended with full-size truck utility functions. Truck functions described include: Manual Range Select, Cruise Control, 4WD-Low and continuous high load operation.
Technical Paper

Traditional and Electronic Solutions to Mitigate Electrified Vehicle Driveline Noises

2017-06-05
2017-01-1755
Hybrid powertrain vehicles inherently create discontinuous sounds during operation. The discontinuous noise created from the electrical motors during transition states are undesirable since they can create tones that do not correlate with the dynamics of the vehicle. The audible level of these motor whines and discontinuous tones can be reduced via common noise abatement techniques or reducing the amount of regeneration braking. One electronic solution which does not affect mass or fuel economy is Masking Sound Enhancement (MSE). MSE is an algorithm that uses the infotainment system to mask the naturally occurring discontinuous hybrid drive unit and driveline tones. MSE enables a variety of benefits, such as more aggressive regenerative braking strategies which yield higher levels of fuel economy and results in a more pleasing interior vehicle powertrain sound. This paper will discuss the techniques and signals used to implement MSE in a hybrid powertrain equipped vehicle.
Technical Paper

Studies on Drivers’ Driving Styles Based on Inverse Reinforcement Learning

2018-04-03
2018-01-0612
Although advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have been widely introduced in automotive industry to enhance driving safety and comfort, and to reduce drivers’ driving burden, they do not in general reflect different drivers’ driving styles or customized with individual personalities. This can be important to comfort and enjoyable driving experience, and to improved market acceptance. However, it is challenging to understand and further identify drivers’ driving styles due to large number and great variations of driving population. Previous research has mainly adopted physical approaches in modeling drivers’ driving behavior, which however are often very much limited, if not impossible, in capturing human drivers’ driving characteristics. This paper proposes a reinforcement learning based approach, in which the driving styles are formulated through drivers’ learning processes from interaction with surrounding environment.
Technical Paper

SAE Low-Frequency Brake Noise Test Procedure

2010-10-10
2010-01-1696
This paper presents the work of the SAE Brake NVH Standards Committee in developing a draft Low-Frequency Brake Noise Test Procedure. The goal of the procedure is to be able to accurately measure noise issues in the frequency range below 900 Hz using a conventional shaft brake noise dynamometer. The tests conducted while evaluating alternative test protocols will be discussed and examined in detail. The unique issues encountered in developing a suitable test procedure for low-frequency noise will be discussed, and the results of tests using both shaft brake dynamometers and chassis dynamometers will be described. The current draft procedure incorporating the knowledge gained from this development effort will be described in detail and conclusions as to its applicability will also be presented
Journal Article

Revised ISO 10844 Test Surface: Technical Principles

2011-05-17
2011-01-1607
ISO has revised the 10844 International Standard for test surfaces used in measurement of exterior vehicle and tire noise emission. The revision has a goal to reduce the track to track sound level variation presently observed by 50%, without changing the mean value. ISO has incorporated improved texture measurement procedures, improved acoustic absorption measurement procedures, and has added measurement procedures for track roughness. In addition, specifications for texture, absorption, roughness, planarity, and asphalt mix were revised or added to recognize improved technical methods and to achieve the goal of variation reduction. The specification development was supported by a construction program where four candidate ISO 10844 tracks were constructed in Japan, France, and the US to verify the technical principles and to validate construction process capability. This paper will address the technical changes and reasons for these changes in the revised ISO 10844.
Technical Paper

NVH Development of EU5 2.0L and 2.2L Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0932
There is higher and higher demand by customers for vehicles with the maximum level of comfort, this aspect being a target to be achieved together with the general trend to increase performance and also with the necessity to reduce engine out emissions to satisfy the new environmental regulations. GMDAT has recently developed new EU5 2.0 and 2.2 liter L4-cylinder turbocharged Diesel engines that, to address customer demands, have improved power, lower exhaust gas emissions and NVH performance aligned to best in class in its segment. With the final aim of making this engine best in class from an NVH perspective, the NVH development has been executed in a very structured way, going through target setting and deployment, concept and design, combustion and mechanical development through computational analysis first and subsequently experimental tests.
Technical Paper

NVH Design, Analysis and Optimization of Chevrolet Bolt Battery Electric Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0994
A multi-stage system level method is used to design, optimize and enhance electric motor NVH performance of General Motors’ Chevrolet Bolt battery electric vehicle (BEV). First, the rotor EM (electromagnetic) design optimizes magnet placement between adjacent poles asymmetrically, along with a pair of small slots stamped near the rotor outer surface to lower torque ripple and radial force. The size and placement of stator slot openings under each pole are optimized to lower torque ripple and radial force. Next, motor stator level FE (Finite Element) analysis and modal test correlation are performed to benchmark the orthotropic stator material properties and accurately predict modal results within 7% error below 2 kHz. Furthermore, tangential and radial EM forces are applied on motor-in-fixture subsystem FE model, which predicts surface vibration and pseudo sound power on the motor housing.
Technical Paper

Multi-Physics Based System Model for Early Stage Hybrid/Electric Vehicle HV Battery Design

2017-01-10
2017-26-0095
Vehicle electrification is driven globally due to the increased concerns on carbon emissions. But the challenges in customer acceptance remains esp. in relation to vehicle costs. Virtual simulations can help in cutting down product development cost and enable faster launch of new vehicles. An early stage system model based design iterations can help in cutting down the product development costs and building more robust products. In the current paper, we develop and analyze a battery pack system model for early phase design. We extend a previously developed system model to include critical physics like sub-component level multiphysics for electrical joint integrity. Also, we demonstrate an integration of 3D FEM & system model for improving the accuracy of joint temperature predictions during charging and/or discharging. A typical High Voltage (HV) battery system comprises of battery modules (Li-ion cells, cooling channels, structural frames, interconnect boards) and HV bus bars.
Technical Paper

Modified Experimental Approach to Investigate Coefficient of Friction and Wear under Lubricated Fretting Condition by Utilizing SRV Test Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0835
Fretting is an important phenomenon that happens in many mechanical parts. It is the main reason in deadly failures in automobiles, airliners, and turbine engines. The damage is noticed between two surfaces clamped together by bolts or rivets that are nominally at rest, but have a small amplitude oscillation because of vibration or local cyclic loading. Fretting damage can be divided into two types. The first type is the fretting fatigue damage where a crack would initiate and propagate at specific location at the interface of the mating surfaces. Cracks usually initiate in the material with lower strength because of the local cyclic loading conditions which eventually lead to full failure. The second type is the fretting wear damage because of external vibration. Researchers have investigated this phenomenon by theoretical modeling and experimental approaches. Although a lot of research has been done on fretting damage, some of the parameters have not been well studied.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Stiffness and Damping Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

2011-05-17
2011-01-1628
Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR), a copolymer of butadiene and styrene, is widely used in the automotive industry due to its high durability and resistance to abrasion, oils and oxidation. Some of the common applications include tires, vibration isolators, and gaskets, among others. This paper characterizes the dynamic behavior of SBR and discusses the suitability of a visco-elastic model of elastomers, known as the Kelvin model, from a mathematical and physical point of view. An optimization algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of the Kelvin model. The resulting model was shown to produce reasonable approximations of measured dynamic stiffness. The model was also used to calculate the self heating of the elastomer due to energy dissipation by the viscous damping components in the model. Developing such a predictive capability is essential in understanding the dynamic behavior of elastomers considering that their dynamic stiffness can in general depend on temperature.
Technical Paper

Modeling Response Time of Next Generation Electric Brake Boosters

2018-10-05
2018-01-1871
In the course of this paper, a model suitable for studying the performance - in terms of response time, current draw, and peak pressure capacity - of an electric booster-based brake system is introduced. Some discussion about the need the model is attempting to fulfill and how it fits into the vehicle development process is offered, before explaining the model in full. The equations describing the physics of the model are presented, and an explanation of how the elements of the model are integrated together into an easy to use, fast-running spreadsheet environment is given. Case study examples, validating the model against physical test (hardware in the loop) test results are shown, followed by sensitivity studies testing how changing parameters such as caliper Pressure-Volume curves, hydraulic system flow characteristics, voltage supply, and temperature conditions affect performance.
Technical Paper

Machine Learning considerations in the context of Automotive Functional Safety Requirements for Autonomous Vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2519
We are currently in the age of developing Autonomous Vehicles (AV). Never before in history, the environment has been as conducive as today for these developments to come together to deliver a mass produced autonomous car for use by general public on the roads. Several enhancements in hardware, software, standards and even business models are paving the way for rapid development of AVs, bringing them closer to production reality. Safety is an indispensable consideration when it comes to transportation products, and ground vehicle development is no different. We have several established standards. When it comes to Autonomous Vehicle development, an important consideration is ISO 26262 for, Automotive Functional Safety. Going from generic frameworks such as Failure Mode and Effects Analyses (FMEA) and Hazard and operability study (HAZOP) to Functional Safety, Safety of Intended Functionality, and Automotive Safety Integrity Levels specific is a natural progression.
Journal Article

Lockheed Martin Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Acoustic Upgrade

2018-04-03
2018-01-0749
The Lockheed Martin Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) is a closed-return wind tunnel with two solid-wall test sections. This facility originally entered into service in 1967 for aerodynamic research of aircraft in low-speed and vertical/short take-off and landing (V/STOL) flight. Since this time, the client base has evolved to include a significant level of automotive aerodynamic testing, and the needs of the automotive clientele have progressed to include acoustic testing capability. The LSWT was therefore acoustically upgraded in 2016 to reduce background noise levels and to minimize acoustic reflections within the low-speed test section (LSTS). The acoustic upgrade involved detailed analysis, design, specification, and installation of acoustically treated wall surfaces and turning vanes in the circuit as well as low self-noise acoustic wall and ceiling treatment in the solid-wall LSTS.
Journal Article

Iterative Learning Algorithm Design for Variable Admittance Control Tuning of A Robotic Lift Assistant System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0288
The human-robot interaction (HRI) is involved in a lift assistant system of manufacturing assembly line. The admittance model is applied to control the end effector motion by sensing intention from force of applied by a human operator. The variable admittance including virtual damping and virtual mass can improve the performance of the systems. But the tuning process of variable admittance is un-convenient and challenging part during the real test for designers, while the offline simulation is lack of learning process and interaction with human operator. In this paper, the Iterative learning algorithm is proposed to emulate the human learning process and facilitate the variable admittance control design. The relationship between manipulate force and object moving speed is demonstrated from simulation data. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by comparing the simulation results between two admittance control strategies.
Technical Paper

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) Multi-Scale Model Development for Advanced High Strength Steels

2017-03-28
2017-01-0226
This paper presents development of a multi-scale material model for a 980 MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning heat treatment (QP980), based on integrated computational materials engineering principles (ICME Model). The model combines micro-scale material properties defined by the crystal plasticity theory with the macro-scale mechanical properties, such as flow curves under different loading paths. For an initial microstructure the flow curves of each of the constituent phases (ferrite, austenite, martensite) are computed based on the crystal plasticity theory and the crystal orientation distribution function. Phase properties are then used as an input to a state variable model that computes macro-scale flow curves while accounting for hardening caused by austenite transformation into martensite under different straining paths.
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