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Technical Paper

Strain Rate Effect on Martensitic Transformation in a TRIP Steel Containing Carbide-Free Bainite

Adiabatic heating during plastic straining can slow the diffusionless shear transformation of austenite to martensite in steels that exhibit transformation induced plasticity (TRIP). However, the extent to which the transformation is affected over a strain rate range of relevance to automotive stamping and vehicle impact events is unclear for most third-generation advanced high strength TRIP steels. In this study, an 1180MPa minimum tensile strength TRIP steel with carbide-free bainite is evaluated by measuring the variation of retained austenite volume fraction (RAVF) in fractured tensile specimens with position and strain. This requires a combination of servo-hydraulic load frame instrumented with high speed stereo digital image correlation for measurement of strains and ex-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction for determination of RAVF in fractured tensile specimens.
Technical Paper

Scavenge Ports Ooptimization of a 2-Stroke Opposed Piston Diesel Engine

This work reports a CFD study on a 2-stroke (2-S) opposed piston high speed direct injection (HSDI) Diesel engine. The engine main features (bore, stroke, port timings, et cetera) are defined in a previous stage of the project, while the current analysis is focused on the assembly made up of scavenge ports, manifold and cylinder. The first step of the study consists in the construction of a parametric mesh on a simplified geometry. Two geometric parameters and three different operating conditions are considered. A CFD-3D simulation by using a customized version of the KIVA-4 code is performed on a set of 243 different cases, sweeping all the most interesting combinations of geometric parameters and operating conditions. The post-processing of this huge amount of data allow us to define the most effective geometric configuration, named baseline.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number-based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample-handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark-ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion.
Technical Paper

Particulate Characteristics for Varying Engine Operation in a Gasoline Spark Ignited, Direct Injection Engine

The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of particulate sizing and number count from a spark-ignited, direct-injection (SIDI) engine at different operating conditions. The engine is a 549 [cc] single-cylinder, four-valve engine with a flat-top piston, fueled by Tier II EEE. A baseline engine operating condition, with a low number of particulates, was established and repeatability at this condition was ascertained. This baseline condition is specified as 2000 rpm, 320 kPa IMEP, 280 [°bTDC] end of injection (EOI), and 25 [°bTDC] ignition timing. The particle size distributions were recorded for particle sizes between 7 and 289 [nm]. The baseline particle size distribution was relatively flat, around 1E6 [dN/dlogDp], for particle diameters between 7 and 100 [nm], before dropping off to decreasing numbers at larger diameters. Distributions resulting from a matrix of different engine conditions were recorded.
Journal Article

On Designing Software Architectures for Next-Generation Multi-Core ECUs

Multi-core systems are promising a cost-effective solution for (1) advanced vehicle features requiring dramatically more software and hence an order of magnitude more processing power, (2) redundancy and mixed-IP, mixed-ASIL isolation required for ISO 26262 functional safety, and (3) integration of previously separate ECUs and evolving embedded software business models requiring separation of different software parts. In this context, designing, optimizing and verifying the mapping and scheduling of software functions onto multiple processing cores becomes key. This paper describes several multi-core task design and scheduling design options, including function-to-task mapping, task-to-core allocation (both static and dynamic), and associated scheduling policies such as rate-monotonic, criticality-aware priority assignment, period transformation, hierarchical partition scheduling, and dynamic global scheduling.
Technical Paper

Measured and LES Motored-Flow Kinetic Energy Evolution in the TCC-III Engine

A primary goal of large eddy simulation, LES, is to capture in-cylinder cycle-to-cycle variability, CCV. This is a first step to assess the efficacy of 35 consecutive computed motored cycles to capture the kinetic energy in the TCC-III engine. This includes both the intra-cycle production and dissipation as well as the kinetic energy CCV. The approach is to sample and compare the simulated three-dimensional velocity equivalently to the available two-component two-dimensional PIV velocity measurements. The volume-averaged scale-resolved kinetic energy from the LES is sampled in three slabs, which are volumes equal to the two axial and one azimuthal PIV fields-of-view and laser sheet thickness. Prior to the comparison, the effects of sampling a cutting plane versus a slab and slabs of different thicknesses are assessed. The effects of sampling only two components and three discrete planar regions is assessed.
Technical Paper

Limitations of Sector Mesh Geometry and Initial Conditions to Model Flow and Mixture Formation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

Sector mesh modeling is the dominant computational approach for combustion system design optimization. The aim of this work is to quantify the errors descending from the sector mesh approach through three geometric modeling approaches to an optical diesel engine. A full engine geometry mesh is created, including valves and intake and exhaust ports and runners, and a full-cycle flow simulation is performed until fired TDC. Next, an axisymmetric sector cylinder mesh is initialized with homogeneous bulk in-cylinder initial conditions initialized from the full-cycle simulation. Finally, a 360-degree azimuthal mesh of the cylinder is initialized with flow and thermodynamics fields at IVC mapped from the full engine geometry using a conservative interpolation approach. A study of the in-cylinder flow features until TDC showed that the geometric features on the cylinder head (valve tilt and protrusion into the combustion chamber, valve recesses) have a large impact on flow complexity.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Studies of Bowl Geometry Impacts on Thermal Efficiency in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

In light- and medium-duty diesel engines, piston bowl shape influences thermal efficiency, either due to changes in wall heat loss or to changes in the heat release rate. The relative contributions of these two factors are not clearly described in the literature. In this work, two production piston bowls are adapted for use in a single cylinder research engine: a conventional, re-entrant piston, and a stepped-lip piston. An injection timing sweep is performed at constant load with each piston, and heat release analyses provide information about thermal efficiency, wall heat loss, and the degree of constant volume combustion. Zero-dimensional thermodynamic simulations provide further insight and support for the experimental results. The effect of bowl geometry on wall heat loss depends on injection timing, but changes in wall heat loss cannot explain changes in efficiency.
Journal Article

Characterization of Caliper Piston Material Stiffness and Damping

The brake caliper piston plays a key role in caliper function, taking significant responsibility for qualities such as fluid consumption, insulation of the brake fluid from heat, seal rollback function, and brake torque variation sensitivity to disc thickness variation. It operates in a strenuous environment, being routinely subjected to high stresses and elevated temperatures. Given all of the demands on this safety-critical component (strength, stiffness, wear resistance, stable friction against rubber, thermal stability, machinability, manageable thermal conductivity, and more), there are actually relatively few engineering materials suitable for use as a caliper piston, and designs tend to be limited to steel, aluminum, and engineered plastics (phenolic composites). The lattermost - phenolic composites - has been of especial interest recently due to mass savings and possible reduction in brake corner judder sensitivity to disc thickness variation.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of Oil/Gas Flow in Piston Ring-Pack

The oil consumption and blow-by are complex phenomena that need to be minimized to meet the ever changing modern emission standards. Oil flows from the sump to the combustion chamber and the blow-by gases flow from the combustion chamber to the crank case. There are several piston rings on the piston, which form a ring-pack. The ring pack has to be efficiently designed to minimize the oil consumption and blow-by. Since it is difficult and extremely costly to conduct experiments on every series of engines to check for the blow-by and oil consumption, a CFD analysis can be performed on the ring pack to study the blow-by and oil-consumption characteristics. In the CFD analysis described here, the region considered is between the compression chamber and the skirt, between the piston (including the rings) and the cylinder liner. The 3D CFD analysis was conducted for the engine running conditions of 5000 rpm and load of 13.5 kPa, for a 2.4L gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

Bowl Geometry Effects on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Diesel piston bowl geometry can affect turbulent mixing and therefore it impacts heat-release rates, thermal efficiency, and soot emissions. The focus of this work is on the effects of bowl geometry and injection timing on turbulent flow structure. This computational study compares engine behavior with two pistons representing competing approaches to combustion chamber design: a conventional, re-entrant piston bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed for a part-load, conventional diesel combustion operating point with a pilot-main injection strategy under non-combusting conditions. Two injection timings are simulated based on experimental findings: an injection timing for which the stepped-lip piston enables significant efficiency and emissions benefits, and an injection timing with diminished benefits compared to the conventional, re-entrant piston.
Technical Paper

Benefits and Application Bandwidth of Phenolic Piston Material in Opposed Piston Calipers

The use of reinforced phenolic composite material in application to hydraulic pistons for brake calipers has been well established in the industry - for sliding calipers (and certain fixed calipers with high piston length to diameter ratios). For decades, customers have enjoyed lower brake fluid temperatures, mass savings, improved corrosion resistance, and smoother brake operation (less judder). However, some persistent concerns remain about the use of phenolic materials for opposed piston calipers. The present work explores two key questions about phenolic piston application in opposed piston calipers. Firstly, do opposed piston calipers see similar benefits? Do high performance aluminum bodied calipers, where the piston may no longer be a dominant heat flow path into the fluid (due to a large amount of conduction and cooling enabled by the housing), still enjoy fluid temperature reductions?
Technical Paper

Application of Suspend Mode to Automotive ECUs

To achieve high robustness and quality, automotive ECUs must initialize from low-power states as quickly as possible. However, microprocessor and memory advances have failed to keep pace with software image size growth in complex ECUs such as in Infotainment and Telematics. Loading the boot image from non-volatile storage to RAM and initializing the software can take a very long time to show the first screen and result in sluggish performance for a significant time thereafter which both degrade customer perceived quality. Designers of mobile devices such as portable phones, laptops, and tablets address this problem using Suspend mode whereby the main processor and peripheral devices are powered down during periods of inactivity, but memory contents are preserved by a small “self-refresh” current. When the device is turned back “on”, fully initialized memory content allows the system to initialize nearly instantaneously.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Hybrid Powertrain for Small and Medium Boats

Hybridization is a mainstream technology for automobiles, and its application is rapidly expanding in other fields. Marine propulsion is one such field that could benefit from electrification of the powertrain. In particular, for boats to sail in enclosed waterways, such as harbors, channels, lagoons, a pure electric mode would be highly desirable. The main challenge to accomplish hybridization is the additional weight of the electric components, in particular the batteries. The goal of this project is to replace a conventional 4-stroke turbocharged Diesel engine with a hybrid powertrain, without any penalty in terms of weight, overall dimensions, fuel efficiency, and pollutant emissions. This can be achieved by developing a new generation of 2-Stroke Diesel engines, and coupling them to a state-of-the art electric system. For the thermal units, two alternative designs without active valve train are considered: opposed piston and loop scavenged engines.
Journal Article

A Study of Piston Geometry Effects on Late-Stage Combustion in a Light-Duty Optical Diesel Engine Using Combustion Image Velocimetry

In light-duty direct-injection (DI) diesel engines, combustion chamber geometry influences the complex interactions between swirl and squish flows, spray-wall interactions, as well as late-cycle mixing. Because of these interactions, piston bowl geometry significantly affects fuel efficiency and emissions behavior. However, due to lack of reliable in-cylinder measurements, the mechanisms responsible for piston-induced changes in engine behavior are not well understood. Non-intrusive, in situ optical measurement techniques are necessary to provide a deeper understanding of the piston geometry effect on in-cylinder processes and to assist in the development of predictive engine simulation models. This study compares two substantially different piston bowls with geometries representative of existing technology: a conventional re-entrant bowl and a stepped-lip bowl. Both pistons are tested in a single-cylinder optical diesel engine under identical boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

A New Rotating Wedge Clutch Actuation System

Rotating clutches play an important role in automatic transmissions (AT), dual-clutch transmissions (DCT) and hybrid transmissions. It is very important to continually improve the transmission systems in the areas such as simplifying actuator designs, reducing cost and increasing controllability. A new concept of electrical motor driven actuation using a wedge mechanism, a wedge clutch, demonstrates potential benefits. This wedge clutch has the characteristics of good mechanical advantage, self-reinforcement, and faster and more precise controllability using electrical motor. In this paper, a new rotating wedge clutch is proposed. It presents a challenge since the motor actuator has to be stationary while the clutch piston is rotating. A new mechanism to connect the motor to the wedge piston, including dual-plane bearings and two mechanical ramp linkages, is studied. The design and verification of the physical structure of the actuator are discussed in detail in the paper.