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Technical Paper

Virtual Simulating of Residual Stresses in Aluminum Wheel Designs

The current study shows interesting results obtained by a new virtual approaching for evaluating the final stresses presented in automotive components during its application in vehicle which suggests product engineers a new tool for measuring the residual stresses in casting. As part of this proposal, an automotive as-cast aluminum wheel belong to current production was evaluated in accordance with data acquired in its manufacturing process. At that step, it was taking into account the real information of casting process parameters and the metallurgic results obtained in laboratorial tests such as, metallographic, chemical and mechanical tests. FEA (Finite Element Analysis) on simulation of wheel loading stress was made regarding those preliminary data obtained in CRSFEA simulation (cast residual stress finite element analysis) as entered parameters.
Technical Paper

Using Spherical Beamforming to Evaluate Wind Noise Paths

Microphone array based techniques have a growing range of applications in the vehicle development process. This paper evaluates the use of Spherical Beamforming (SB) to investigate the transmission of wind-generated noise into the passenger cabin, as one of the alternative ways to perform in-vehicle troubleshooting and design optimization. On track measurements at dominant wind noise conditions are taken with the spherical microphone array positioned at the front passenger head location. Experimental diligence and careful processing necessary to enable concise conclusions are briefly described. The application of Spherical Harmonics Angularly Resolved Pressure (SHARP) and the Filter-And-Sum (FAS) algorithms is compared. Data analysis variables, run-to-run repeatability and system capability to identify design modifications are studied.
Technical Paper

The Use of Piezoelectric Resonators to Enhance Sound Insulation in a Vehicle Panel

The control of noise and vibrations using conventional damping materials is typically associated to mass penalties in a vehicle. A lightweight alternative employs piezoceramic materials connected in series to a resistor and an inductor (R-L circuit) to perform as mechanical vibration absorber, called piezoelectric resonator. In this paper, piezoelectric resonators are designed to attenuate vibration in a vehicle panel. The choice of design parameters, such as correct placement for the piezoelectric patches and the optimal electrical circuit values, is assisted by Finite Element simulation (FE) and theoretical analysis. Measurements of Sound Transmission Loss (STL) and modal analyses are conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed technique when compared to a conventional damping material.
Technical Paper

Powder Metallurgy Application in Automotive Components - Valve Seat Inserts

This work presents aspects related to research and development of high-speed steels for valve seat inserts application. Five series of materials were evaluated: high speed steel M3/2 infiltrated with copper during sintering; high speed steel M3/2 with Cu3P addition; high speed steel M3/2 with Cu3P addition and further copper infiltrated during sintering; high speed steel M3/2 mixed with iron powder; high speed steel M3/2 mixed with iron powder and niobium carbide. The physical and mechanical properties of the evaluated high-speed steels are presented in terms of densification, hardness, and radial mechanical strength. These properties are compared according to the materials processing and heat treatment.
Technical Paper

Methodology for the Analysis of Virtual Deformation of Flexible Elements Associated with the Engine Displacement

Through computational dynamic simulations is possible to achieve high reliability index in the development of automotive components, thereby enabling the reduction of cost and time of a product development with considerable gain in quality. This work suggests the validation of a methodology for simulation where is possible to improve the confidence level for design flexible components, such Heater and Cooling hoses that are under dynamic engine action, in relation to the physical model. Known the difficulty in predicting non-linear mathematical relationship deformation under effect of forces and moments, was established a study based on experimental measurements where were used as input parameters to simulate the dynamic behavior of flexible components, in this case, coolant hoses.
Technical Paper

Materials Selection for Biodiesel Application Wiring Harness Insulation Materials Testing

The development of fuel systems components are becoming challenging with the increasing use of Biofuels like Biodiesels and Ethanol around the world. Biodiesels are one of the most challenging fuels, once they can have multiple sources, which influences its characteristics, mainly the oxidization stability and peroxide levels. As the fuel characteristics changes along the time, the correct materials selection during the development phase is very important for the fuel system performance during the vehicle lifetime. One of the components most affected by the Biodiesel is the in tank fuel pump system. During the vehicle lifetime, it is exposed to all sorts of fuel and its contaminants and exposed to system stress factors like temperature and voltage variation. The wires insulation in the fuel pump systems are one of the most affected components.
Technical Paper

Loads Reduction on PWT Mounts System Applying “Frequency Sweep Virtual Analysis” to Identify Resonance Mode

This Paper presents the “Frequency Sweep Virtual Analysis” as a tool to help to define the best powertrain mount concept in order to identify the resonance mode frequency on Powertrain System. Applying this method, we can identify proposals to reduce loads in the Powertrain system due the resonance mode and consequently minimize possibility of exceeding material strength. The “Frequency Sweep Virtual Analysis” drives the powertrain mounts design to avoid running many Road Load Data Acquisitions (RLDA) in a trial-and-error process (Cost reduction and timing savings).
Technical Paper

Influence of residual stresses in aluminum wheel design

The current study shows important results obtained by a new technique of residual stress virtual evaluation in automotive components for improving the development and quality of new products, aiming the structural performance, mass and cost reductions. The approaching those virtual results were adjusted by metallurgic data obtained in metallography, mechanical and chemical analysis. As part of this proposal, an automotive aluminum wheel belong to current production was evaluated in accordance with data acquired in the wheel manufacturing process. It was taking in account the real information of casting process parameters and the metallurgic information obtained in laboratorial tests. In this work, the results show that product residual stresses shall be considerate and evaluated during design phases as improving proposal, new technical concerns and quality improving.
Technical Paper

Influence of Spot Welding Parameters on Al-Si Coated 22MnB5 for Automotive Application

The application of press hardening steels (PHS) Al-Si coating has been increasing in body in white vehicles as an approach to meet the demands of safety and CO2 reduction regulations. The vehicle structures with PHS largely depend on the integrity and the mechanical performance of the spots weld. During the spot welding process, intermetallic phase may appear in function of the chemical composition of the steel and coating. One of these intermetallics is the Fe-Al phase which brittleness decreases the strength of the weld joint. In this study, resistance spot welding (RSW) experiments were performed in order to evaluate the influence of the welding parameters of single-lap joints PHS - 22MnB5 steel grade.
Technical Paper

Garage Shift Calibration for Automatic Transmission in Front Wheel Drive Powertrains

In order to illustrate the constant development of the automatic transmission controls area, this paper describes how the garage shift calibration works in vehicles with transverse front wheel drive powertrains. A garage shift (GS) is the turbine speed transient commanded by the shift lever movement from Park to Drive or Reverse, from Neutral to Drive or Reverse, from Drive to Reverse, from Reverse to Drive, or from Drive or Reverse to Neutral [1]. A usual metric to verify the garage shift comfort is the data acquisition of the fore-aft acceleration on the seat track, but also the shift time should be considered, as well as the clutch energy and the repeatability of the shift feeling for different temperatures and engine idle speed levels. This paper demonstrates the transmission calibration strategies to determine a sensitive and a non-sensitive garage shift and its interactions with the engine calibration.
Technical Paper

Front of Dash Pass-Through Design Optimization

Product Design is a process of creating new product by an organization or business entity for its customer. Being part of a stage in a product life cycle, it is very important that the highest level of effort is being put in the stage. The Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology consists of a collection of tools, needs-gathering, engineering, statistical methods, and best practices that find use in product development. DFSS has the objective of determining the needs of customers and the business, and driving those needs into the product solution so created. In this paper the DFSS methodology is employed to develop the optimal solution to enhance sound transmission loss in a vehicle front of dash pass-through. An integrated approach using acoustic holography and beamforming Noise Source Identification (NSI) techniques is presented as a manner to improve sound insulation during vehicle development.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life of Stabilizer Bars and Specimens for Two Microstructural Conditions: Pearlitic and Martensitic

The current study proposes to approach the fatigue behavior of stabilizer bars and specimens manufactured in quenched / tempered and as-received SAE5160 steels with and without a surface micro-notch. Some S-N specimens and stabilizer bars were shot-peened to improve the fatigue strength due to creation of compressive surface residue stresses and by surface plastic strain and others samples received a surface micro-notch of 0.3 mm depth introduced by EDM process. The crack growth evaluation at micro-notch was made comparatively with da/dN-ΔK curves in CT specimens. The proposed experimental study consists of comparative analysis of da/dN-ΔK and S-N curves, fractographic and, metallographic analysis, stabilizer bar bench tests, and after that, it is intended to show the relevant aspects of two microstructural classes currently specified for stabilizer bars, the beneficial effects obtained by shot peening and the bad influences of surface micro-notches.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Aluminum Wheels with Focus on Specification Materials and Manufacturing

The growing need to avoid failures in vehicle components have become the methods of quality control of manufacturing processes more efficient and accurate, especially in safety components like automotive wheels. The aim of this work is examines the efficiency of aluminum-silicon specifications related to wheel quality for avoiding the poor results obtained in impact and fatigue tests as result of improper settings in the chemical composition and manufacture process. It is evaluated mainly the content of magnesium in aluminum alloys and certified the correct degree of silicon modification in the microstructure on the performance of these wheels. The test results indicate that even with the chemical composition parameters specified by the standard, the technical validation of the product may not be adequate.
Technical Paper

EMC simulations - Application of simple antenna models to represent electromagnetic generators in vehicles

Nowadays, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) has taken an important role in automotive development. This is because the effects that EMC can cause in a vehicle or on the environment. All systems contained in a vehicle emit EMC, and can be influenced by it also. During the vehicle design phase some variables have to be considered and improved to make the vehicle to be electromagnetic compatible. We can list the vehicle systems as electromagnetic generators or victims, as below: Generators: Ignition GPS transmission system Mobile phone transmission system Electrical motors Radars Power modules Victims: Sensors Cables Control modules (BCM, ECM, etc.) An example of a complete system subject to the EM effects is the X-by-wire (or drive-by-wire) system, where mechanical systems are substituted by modules, cables, sensors, actuators. This system has to be designed considering electromagnetic compatibility.
Technical Paper

Dual Function Gasket Design

Vehicular manual transmissions systems often use a vent or breather to allow pressure control inside the main structure. This pressure variation comes along with differences caused by working temperature range. However along with air flow these vents may occasionally allow oil passage noticed by vehicle owner as a transmission leakage event. The more sophisticated the more expensive is the venting device which may contain membranes, labyrinths, baffles and other solutions to avoid leakage. The purpose of this paper is to present a simplified solution to avoid transmission fluid leakage by combining a regular sealing device (fiber concept gasket) and a baffle to avoid oil splash to reach the venting device. The proposed concept took into consideration a quick implementation aspect, low financial impact and less complexity to the overall current system modifying an existing component by adding secondary function instead of creating additional components.
Technical Paper

Control of Airborne Road Noise Using Sealers

Noise generated during tire/road interaction has significant impact on the acoustic comfort of a vehicle. One of the most common approaches to attenuate road noise levels consists on the addition of mass treatments to the vehicle panels. However, the acoustic performance of sealing elements is also relevant and has an important contribution to the noise transmission into the vehicle interior. In this paper the correct balance between the mass added to treat vehicle panels and sealing content is investigated. The procedure to quantify the critical road noise transmission paths consists of recording interior noise levels as applied treatment is removed from potential weak areas, such as wheelhouses, floor, doors and body pillars. It is observed that the noise propagation through body pillars has a direct influence on road noise levels.
Technical Paper

Carbon Canisters and the Evaporative Emission Level Tendency in Brazil for Passenger Cars

Carbon canisters are used in gasoline passenger vehicle and light duty truck applications. The component is part of the vehicle emission control system. Activated carbon (also known as charcoal) traps hydrocarbon vapors from the fuel tank and vapors created during the fuel tank refueling and venting events. Canister design, charcoal type and performance have been driven by evaporative emission regulations around the world, and evaporative emission requirements have enhanced through the years. The trend of evaporative emission requirements in Brazil indicates the use of improved carbon canisters in the near future. Carbon canisters are needed to store hydrocarbons that would otherwise pollute the environment. Wood based activated carbon is manufactured from sawdust, which is a renewable resource. The result is a healthier earth on which we live. Figure 1 illustrates the activation process of carbon. Figure 1 Activation process of carbon.
Technical Paper

Camshaft Hardened by Remelting Process - A New Alternative for Usage Combined with Roller Finger Follower

The current study has the proposal to approach the differences in dynamic behavior between camshaft manufactured in the traditional gray cast iron and an alloyed gray cast iron with the improvement on mechanical properties in order to stresses found on roller finger follower applied systems. The main objective of this paper is to show that camshaft made of modified gray cast iron and heat treated through the remelting process is still a good solution for application with roller finger followers systems which requires higher wear resistance standards. The proposed experimental study consists of comparative analysis of microstructure and hardness, dynamometers tests, dimensional measurements of camshafts, and after that, intends to show the higher performance of this manufacturing process in more severe applications of internal combustion engines.
Technical Paper

Brake Flexible Dynamic Analysis Attached to McPherson Suspension, Optimizing the Input Parameters in IPS Cable Simulation

The high level of reliability of virtual analysis for suspension system development should not be thinking only for comfort and performance purpose, considering the `growing number of failures due to the touch between components in dynamic condition. The study establishes a simple and optimized methodology, able to predict more accurately the flexible brake hose path subject to the steering motion and associates with the independent suspension course, aiming the best route in order to achieve a low cost and robust design. In turn, the flexible brake hose non-linear model invalidates the multibody study to get the best route. However, with the aid of motion making use of NX9 [1] CAD [2] software was prepared dynamic movement that subjects front independent suspension system that establishes a Cartesian routine that maps 977 points, much higher than 9 points from previous studies, comprising a more accurate path performed by the hose.
Technical Paper

Automotive Skin Panels Quality Improvement by Means of Finite Element Method

In the middle of the global competition, inside the automotive sector, the perceived quality of costumers, related to the beauty and harmony of the outer skin surfaces of motor vehicles, has become one of the main determinant factors in the purchase process decision. In general, the initial perceived quality of a car is determined by an appealing design of its body, the color and gloss of its paint, and also the manufacturing and assembly accuracy of the skin panels. The appealing design makes the skin panel even more complex and hard to produce with current metal forming technologies and the results are often small distortions on the outer surfaces about tens of microns and most of the times paint does not cover such imperfections. Despite the technological advances along the years, surface quality inspection was still being performed by manual and subjective evaluation by experts.