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Technical Paper

Yaw Effects on the Narrowband Spectra Above a Delta Wing in Turbulent Flow

2016-09-20
2016-01-2056
Combat aircraft maneuvering at high angles of attack or in landing approach are likely to encounter conditions where the flow over the swept wings is yawed. This paper examines the effect of yaw on the spectra of turbulence above and aft of the wing, in the region where fins and control surfaces are located. Prior work has shown the occurrence of narrowband velocity fluctuations in this region for most combat aircraft models, including those with twin fins. Fin vibration and damage has been traced to excitation by such narrowband fluctuations. The narrowband fluctuations themselves have been traced to the wing surface. The issue in this paper is the effect of yaw on these fluctuations, as well as on the aerodynamic loads on a wing, without including the perturbations due to the airframe.
Technical Paper

Viable Designs Through a Joint Probabilistic Estimation Technique

1999-10-19
1999-01-5623
A key issue in complex systems design is measuring the ‘goodness’ of a design, i.e. finding a criterion through which a particular design is determined to be the ‘best’. Traditional choices in aerospace systems design, such as performance, cost, revenue, reliability, and safety, individually fail to fully capture the life cycle characteristics of the system. Furthermore, current multi-criteria optimization approaches, addressing this problem, rely on deterministic, thus, complete and known information about the system and the environment it is exposed to. In many cases, this information is not be available at the conceptual or preliminary design phases. Hence, critical decisions made in these phases have to draw from only incomplete or uncertain knowledge. One modeling option is to treat this incomplete information probabilistically, accounting for the fact that certain values may be prominent, while the actual value during operation is unknown.
Technical Paper

Tradeoff Study of High Altitude Solar Reflector Concepts

2017-09-19
2017-01-2143
A direct solution to Global Warming would be to reflect a part of sunlight back into Space. A system tradeoff study is being developed with three of the concepts that are being evaluated as long-endurance high-altitude reflectors. The first concept is a high aspect ratio solar powered flying wing towing reflector sheets. This concept is named “Flying Carpet”. Second is a centrifugally stretched high altitude solar reflector (CSHASR). The CSHASR has 4 rotors made of reflector sheets with a hub stretching to 60 percent of the radius, held together by an ultralight quad-rotor structure. Each rotor is powered by a solar-electric motor. A variation on this concept, forced by nighttime descent rate concerns, is powered by tip-mounted solar panels and propellers with some battery storage augmenting rotational inertia as well as energy storage. The third concept is an Aerostatically Balanced Reflector (ABR) sheet, held up by hydrogen balloons.
Technical Paper

Towards Electric Aircraft: Progress under the NASA URETI for Aeropropulsion and Power Technology

2006-11-07
2006-01-3097
The environmental impact of aircraft, specifically in the areas of noise and NOx emissions, has been a growing community concern. Coupled with the increasing cost and diminishing supply of traditional fossil fuels, these concerns have fueled substantial interest in the research and development of alternative power sources for aircraft. In 2003, NASA and the Department of Defense awarded a five year research cooperative agreement to a team of researchers from three different universities to address the design and analysis of revolutionary aeropropulsion technologies.
Journal Article

Time-Varying Loads of Co-Axial Rotor Blade Crossings

2017-09-19
2017-01-2024
The blade crossing event of a coaxial counter-rotating rotor is a potential source of noise and impulsive blade loads. Blade crossings occur many times during each rotor revolution. In previous research by the authors, this phenomenon was analyzed by simulating two airfoils passing each other at specified speeds and vertical separation distances, using the compressible Navier-Stokes solver OVERFLOW. The simulations explored mutual aerodynamic interactions associated with thickness, circulation, and compressibility effects. Results revealed the complex nature of the aerodynamic impulses generated by upper/lower airfoil interactions. In this paper, the coaxial rotor system is simulated using two trains of airfoils, vertically offset, and traveling in opposite directions. The simulation represents multiple blade crossings in a rotor revolution by specifying horizontal distances between each airfoil in the train based on the circumferential distance between blade tips.
Technical Paper

The Successful Personal Air Vehicle: Business Case Risk Reduction

2006-08-30
2006-01-2431
The development of a universal personal air vehicle has been the dream of aeronautical visionaries since before the time of the Wright brothers' first flight. Through fits and starts the modern general aviation market developed both before and after the Second World War. However, the true personal airplane, one that rivals the automobile, has never emerged. There are a multitude of reasons for this; however, it is not possible to identify any single cause as the key component. Instead it is the complex interaction of regulations, market size, and technical and program risk. This paper shows that in the current environment there are few truly technical barriers to the development of a low-cost personal air vehicle. Instead, the market, regulatory, and program issues have come to dominate the problem. This means that the current impediment to the development of personal air vehicles is essentially an issue of finding a means to “close the business case.”
Technical Paper

The Implementation of a Conceptual Aerospace Systems Design and Analysis Toolkit

1999-10-19
1999-01-5639
The Conceptual Aerospace Systems Design and Analysis Toolkit (CASDAT) provides a baseline assessment capability for the Air Force Research Laboratory. The historical development of CASDAT is of benefit to the design research community because considerable effort was expended in the classification of the analysis tools. Its implementation proves to also be of importance because of the definition of assessment use cases. As a result, CASDAT is compatible with accepted analysis tools and can be used with state-of-the-art assessment methods, including technology forecasting and probabilistic design.
Technical Paper

The Flying Carpet: Aerodynamic High-Altitude Solar Reflector Design Study

2017-09-19
2017-01-2026
Our concept studies indicate that a set of reflectors floated in the upper atmosphere can efficiently reduce radiant forcing into the atmosphere. The cost of reducing the radiant forcing sufficiently to reverse the current rate of Global Warming, is well within reach of global financial resources. This paper summarizes the overall concept and focuses on one of the reflector concepts, the Flying Carpet. The basic element of this reflector array is a rigidized reflector sheet towed behind and above a solar-powered, distributed electric-propelled flying wing. The vehicle rises above 30,480 m (100,000 ft) in the daytime by solar power. At night, the very low wing loading of the sheets enables the system to stay well above the controlled airspace ceiling of 18,288 m (60,000 ft). The concept study results are summarized before going into technical issues in implementation. Flag instability is studied in initial wind tunnel experiments.
Technical Paper

Test Results for a Fuel Cell-Powered Demonstration Aircraft

2006-11-07
2006-01-3092
A fuel cell powered airplane has been designed and constructed at the Georgia Insitute of Technology to develop an understanding of the design and implementation challenges of fuel cell-powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). A custom 448W net output proton exchange membrane fuel cell powerplant has been constructed and tested. A demonstrator aircraft was designed and built to accommodate this powerplant and the fuel cell powered aircraft has performed seven test flights to date. Test data show that the aircraft performance validates the models used for design and optimization and that the fuel cell aircraft is capable of longer endurance, higher performance test flights.
Journal Article

Technology Selection for Optimal Power Distribution Efficiency in a Turboelectric Propulsion System

2012-10-22
2012-01-2180
Turboelectric propulsion is a technology that can potentially reduce aircraft noise, increase fuel efficiency, and decrease harmful emissions. In a turbo-electric system, the propulsor (fans) is no longer connected to the turbine through a mechanical connection. Instead, a superconducting generator connected to a gas turbine produces electrical power which is delivered to distributed fans. This configuration can potentially decrease fuel burn by 10% [1]. One of the primary challenges in implementing turboelectric electric propulsion is designing the power distribution system to transmit power from the generator to the fans. The power distribution system is required to transmit 40 MW of power from the generator to the electrical loads on the aircraft. A conventional aircraft distribution cannot efficiently or reliably transmit this large amount of power; therefore, new power distribution technologies must be considered.
Technical Paper

Technology Impact Forecasting for a High Speed Civil Transport

1998-09-28
985547
This paper outlines a comprehensive, structured, and robust methodology for decision making in the early phases ofaircraft design. The proposed approach is referred to as the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) method. The seven-step process provides the decision maker/designer with an ability to easily assess and trade-off the impact of various technologies in the absence of sophisticated, time-consuming mathematical formulations. The method also provides a framework where technically feasible alternatives can be identified with accuracy and speed. This goal is achieved through the use of various probabilistic methods, such as Response Surface Methodology and Monte Carlo Simulations. Furthermore, structured and systematic techniques are utilized to identify possible concepts and evaluation criteria by which comparisons could be made.
Technical Paper

Technology Assessment of a Supersonic Business Jet

2005-10-03
2005-01-3393
This paper presents a quantitative process to track the progress of technology developments within NASA’s Vehicle Systems Program (VSP) as implemented on a Supersonic Business Jet (SBJ). The process, called the Technology Metric Assessment and Tracking (TMAT) process, accounts for the temporal aspects of technology development programs such that technology portfolio assessments, in the form of technological progress towards VSP sector goals, may be tracked and assessed. Progress tracking of internal research and development programs is an essential element to successful strategic endeavors and justification of the pursuit of capital projects [1].
Journal Article

Sustainable Manufacturing Analysis using an Activity Based Object Oriented Method

2009-11-10
2009-01-3229
This article begins by describing the need for a new method and tool for performing a sustainability assessment for manufacturing processes and systems. A brief literature survey is done to highlight the major existing methods and tools, their function, and their shortcomings. The article goes on to describe the general approach of the method before describing a computer aided tool that has been developed to implement the method. The article concludes with a walk through of a generic use case that describes where such a method would be useful and how such a tool would be implemented.
Technical Paper

Supersonic Business Jet Design and Requirements Exploration using Multiobjective Interactive Genetic Algorithms

2005-10-03
2005-01-3398
Although market research has indicated that there is significant demand for a supersonic business aircraft, development of a feasible concept has proven difficult. Two factors contributing to this difficulty are the uncertain nature of the vehicle’s requirements and the fact that conventional design methods are inadequate to solve such non-traditional problems. This paper describes the application of a multiobjective genetic algorithm to the design space exploration of such a supersonic business jet. Results obtained using this method are presented, and give insight into the important decisions that must be made at the early stages of a design project.
Technical Paper

Slung Load Divergence Speed Predictions for Vehicle Shapes

2015-09-15
2015-01-2570
Loads slung under aircraft can go into divergent oscillations coupling multiple degrees of freedom. Predicting the highest safe flight speed for a vehicle-load combination is a critical challenge, both for military missions over hostile areas, and for evacuation/rescue operations. The primary difficulty was that of obtaining well-resolved airload maps covering the arbitrary attitudes that a slung load may take. High speed rotorcraft using tilting rotors and co-axial rotors can fly at speeds that imply high dynamic pressure, making aerodynamic loads significant even on very dense loads such as armored vehicles, artillery weapons, and ammunition. The Continuous Rotation method demonstrated in our prior work enables routine prediction of divergence speeds. We build on prior work to explore the prediction of divergence speed for practical configurations such as military vehicles, which often have complex bluff body shapes.
Technical Paper

Quiet, Clean, and Efficient, but Heavy - Concerns for Future Fuel Cell Powered Personal Air Vehicles

2006-08-30
2006-01-2436
Unfortunately, the promises of efficient, clean, quiet power that fuel cells offer are balanced by extremely low power densities and great infrastructure-related challenges. Studies by government and industry have investigated their feasibility for primary propulsion in light aircraft. These studies have produced mixed results but have tended to rely on integrating fuel cells into existing airframes, with respectably-performing light sport planes being turned into underpowered show planes with horribly compromised range and payload capabilities. Fuel cells today are in the earliest phases of technological development. As an aircraft propulsion system, they are as advanced as the Wright's reciprocating engine was a hundred years ago.
Technical Paper

Progress in Rotorcraft Icing Computational Tool Development

2015-06-15
2015-01-2088
The formation of ice over lifting surfaces can affect aerodynamic performance. In the case of helicopters, this loss in lift and the increase in sectional drag forces will have a dramatic effect on vehicle performance. The ability to predict ice accumulation and the resulting degradation in rotor performance is essential to determine the limitations of rotorcraft in icing encounters. The consequences of underestimating performance degradation can be serious and so it is important to produce accurate predictions, particularly for severe icing conditions. The simulation of rotorcraft ice accretion is a challenging multidisciplinary problem that until recently has lagged in development over its counterparts in the fixed wing community. But now, several approaches for the robust coupling of a computational fluid dynamics code, a rotorcraft structural dynamics code and an ice accretion code have been demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Analysis of an HSCT Modeled with an Equivalent Laminated Plate Wing

1997-10-01
975571
The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), a supersonic commercial transport currently under development, presents several challenges to traditional conceptual design. The current historical database used by many commercial transport design processes only include data for subsonic transports and therefore does not apply to innovative new configurations such as the HSCT. Therefore, physics-based, preliminary design tools must be used to model the characteristics of advanced aircraft in conceptual sizing routines. In addition, the evaluation of the aircraft design space often requires the analysis of many configurations in order to assess the impact of design constraints and determine the attainable range of system level metrics, a process which is very time consuming in both modeling and computer run time.
Technical Paper

Pressure Field Evolution on Rotor Blades at High Advance Ratio

2016-09-20
2016-01-2010
The design of advanced rotorcraft requires knowledge of the flowfield and loads on the rotor blade at extreme advance ratios (ratios of the forward flight speed to rotor tip speed). In this domain, strong vortices form below the rotor, and their evolution has a sharp influence on the aero-dynamics loads experienced by the rotor, particularly the loads experienced at pitch links. To understand the load distribution, the surface pressure distribution must be captured. This has posed a severe problem in wind tunnel experiments. In our experiments, a 2-bladed teetering rotor with collective and cyclic pitch controls is used in a low speed subsonic wind tunnel in reverse flow. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry is used to measure the three component spatial velocity field. Measurement accuracy is now adequate for velocity data, and can be converted to pressure both at and away from the blade surface.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Assessment of the Economic Viability of a Family of Very Large Transport Configurations

1996-10-01
965516
A family of Very Large Transport (VLT) concepts were studied as an implementation of the affordability aspects of the Robust Design Simulation (RDS) methodology which is based on the Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) initiative that is sweeping through industry. The VLT is envisioned to be a high capacity (600 to 1000 passengers), long range (∼7500 nm), subsonic transport. Various configurations with different levels of technology were compared, based on affordability issues, to a Boeing 747-400 which is a current high capacity, long range transport. The varying technology levels prompted a need for an integration of a sizing/synthesis (FLOPS) code with an economics package (ALCCA). The integration enables a direct evaluation of the added technology on a configuration economic viability.
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