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Technical Paper

Technologies to Achieve Future Emission Legislations with Two Stroke Motorcycles

Increasingly stringent emission regulations force manufacturers of two wheelers to develop low emission motorcycle concepts. Especially for small two-stroke engines with symmetrical port timing structure, causing high HC-emissions due to scavenge losses, this is a challenging demand that can only be met with alternative mixture formation strategies and by intensifying the use of modern development tools. Changing from EU4 to EU5, emission legislation will not only have an impact on the improvement of internal combustion but will also drastically change the after-treatment system. Nowadays, small two-stroke engines make use of a simple carburetor for external mixture preparation. The cylinders are scavenged by air/fuel mixtures. Equipped with exhaust gas after-treatment systems, such as secondary air with two or three catalytic converters, the emission limits for EURO 4 homologation can be achieved with carbureted engines.
Technical Paper

Layout and Development of a 300 cm3 High Performance 2S-LPDI Engine

In consideration of the fact that in extreme Enduro competitions two-stroke motorcycles are still dominating, the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz University of Technology, with a long tradition in two-stroke technology, has developed a new 300 cm3 two-stroke motorcycle engine. The 2-stroke LPDI (Low Pressure Direct Injection) technology was originally developed for the 50 cm3 Scooter and moped market in Europe. In 50 cm3 applications the LPDI technology fulfils the EURO 4 emission standard (2017) [1]. In a next step the LPDI technology was applied to a 250 cm3 Enduro engine demonstrator vehicle. Based on the results of the demonstrator, a complete new high performance 300 cm3 engine was developed. The development of this new engine will be described in this publication. Some interesting aspects of the layout with 3D-CFD methods and also 1D-CFD simulation to optimize the exhaust system by DoE methods are discussed in the paper.
Technical Paper

Application of Low Pressure Direct Injection and Semi-Direct Injection to a Small Capacity Two-Stroke Engine

Based on the fundamental analysis of the two-stroke process (SETC 2005-32-0098) and the development of a stratified scavenged small capacity two-stroke engine (SETC 2006-32-0065), a further approach to achieve low emissions in this engine category is the main subject of this publication. The principles of the system are described by design activities, results of the 3D-CFD simulation and the visualization of the spray in the cylinder. The benefit of this system on exhaust emissions is demonstrated by engine test bench as well as chassis dynamometer results. The achievable reduction of exhaust emissions, especially with an applied oxidation catalytic converter, is remarkable and the potential to fulfill future emission limits has already been demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Air Cooled 50cm3 Scooter Euro 4 Application of the Two-Stroke LPDI Technology

The Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz University of Technology, has presented several applications of its 2-stroke LPDI (low pressure direct injection) technology in the previous years ([1], [2], [3]). In order to improve the competitiveness of the 2-stroke LPDI technology, an air cooled 50cm3 scooter application has been developed. All previous applications have been liquid cooled. This air cooled application demonstrates the EURO 4 (2017) ability of the technology and shows that the 2S-LPDI technology can also be applied to low cost air-cooled engines. Hence, the complete scooter and moped fleet can be equipped with this technology in order to fulfil both the emission standards and the COP (conformity of production) requirements of Euro 4 emission stage. The paper presents the Euro 4 Scooter results and describes the efficient conversion process of the existing carburetor engine to the LPDI version.