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Technical Paper

Technologies to Achieve Future Emission Legislations with Two Stroke Motorcycles

2018-10-30
2018-32-0042
Increasingly stringent emission regulations force manufacturers of two wheelers to develop low emission motorcycle concepts. Especially for small two-stroke engines with symmetrical port timing structure, causing high HC-emissions due to scavenge losses, this is a challenging demand that can only be met with alternative mixture formation strategies and by intensifying the use of modern development tools. Changing from EU4 to EU5, emission legislation will not only have an impact on the improvement of internal combustion but will also drastically change the after-treatment system. Nowadays, small two-stroke engines make use of a simple carburetor for external mixture preparation. The cylinders are scavenged by air/fuel mixtures. Equipped with exhaust gas after-treatment systems, such as secondary air with two or three catalytic converters, the emission limits for EURO 4 homologation can be achieved with carbureted engines.
Technical Paper

Strategies for Emission Reduction on Small Capacity Two-Wheelers with Regard to Future Legislative Limits

2014-11-11
2014-32-0031
Looking at upcoming emission legislations for two-wheelers, it is quite obvious that the fulfilment of these targets will become one of the biggest challenges within the engine development process. The gradual harmonization of emission limits for two-wheelers with existing automotive standards will subsequently lead to new approaches regarding mixture preparation and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Referring to these future scenarios, a state-of-the-art in development of catalytic converters for two- or three-wheeler applications should be presented. After choosing a suitable test carrier, which has already been equipped with EFI components including an oxygen sensor for λ=1 operation mode, a basic injection system calibration was used to optimize the combustion process. Based on this setup, a variable exhaust system was manufactured to be able to integrate different catalyst configurations.
Journal Article

Simulation of the Dynamical Behavior of Elastic Multi-Body Systems with Bolted, Rough Contact Interfaces

2010-06-09
2010-01-1422
For many technical applications it is necessary to avoid or to reduce vibrations. Factors benefiting from vibration reduction are for example the durability of the application, which is increased, as well as cost expenses and the level of noise, which are both decreased. Rough, bolted interfaces are common in most machines and can be used as damping devices with some effort. Perhaps in future such contact surfaces could be used as damping devices at the interfaces of an automotive engine or exhaust system. Nevertheless it is difficult to predict the effect of a change in contact interface parameters on the dynamic behavior of the entire mechanical system. Therefore a method for calculating the steady state behavior of elastic multi-body systems was developed. The basis of this method is a finite element model of each contacting unit. On each model a modal reduction is applied in order to reduce the degrees of freedom.
Journal Article

Reed Valve CFD Simulation of a 2-Stroke Engine Using a 2D Model Including the Complete Engine Geometry

2010-09-28
2010-32-0015
CFD has been widely used to predict the flow behavior inside 2-stroke engines over the past twenty years. Usually a mass flow profile or a simple 0D model is used for the inlet boundary condition, which replaces the complete intake geometry, such as reed valve, throttle, and air box geometries. For a CFD simulation which takes into account the exact reed valve geometry, a simulation of all above mentioned domains is required, as these domains are coupled together and thus interact. As the high speed of the engine affects the opening dynamic and closure of the reed valve, the transient data from the crank case volume and the section upstream the reed valve have an important influence on the reed petal dynamic and therewith on the sucked fresh air mass of the engine. This paper covers a methodology for the transient CFD simulation of the reed petals of a 2-stroke engine by using a 2D model.
Technical Paper

Optimization Approach to Handle Global CO2 Fleet Emission Standards

2016-04-05
2016-01-0904
A worldwide decrease of legal limits for CO2 emissions and fuel economy led to stronger efforts for achieving the required reductions. The task is to evaluate technologies for CO2 reduction and to define a combination of such measures to ensure the targets. The challenge therefor is to find the optimal combination with respect to minimal costs. Individual vehicles as well as the whole fleet have to be considered in the cost analysis - which raises the complexity. Hereby, the focus of this work is the consideration and improvement of a new model series against the background of a fleet and the selection of measures. The ratio between the costs and the effect of the measures can be different for the each vehicle configuration. Also, the determination of targets depends whether a fleet or an individual vehicle is selected and has impact on the selection and optimization process of those measures.
Technical Paper

Modeling of the System Level Electric Drive using Efficiency Maps Obtained by Simulation Methods

2014-04-01
2014-01-1875
This work presents a physical model that calculates the efficiency maps of the inverter-fed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) drive. The corresponding electrical machine and its controller are implemented based on the two-phase (d-q) equivalent circuits that take into account the copper loss as well as the iron loss of the PMSM. A control strategy that optimizes the machine efficiency is applied in the controller to maximize the possible output torque. In addition, the model applies an analytical method to predict the losses of the voltage source inverter. Consequently, the efficiency maps within the entire operating region of the PMSM drive can be derived from the simulation results, and they are used to represent electric drives in the system simulation model of electric vehicles (EVs).
Technical Paper

Measuring System Approach to Analyze Brake Squeal Triggering Mechanism

2011-09-18
2011-01-2359
There are several different possibilities to analyze a squealing brake system. The present paper introduces a complex measuring system which is mounted on a complete vehicle axle at a test rig. This system was developed because the previously performed state-of-the-art tests did not allow any insights in the squeal triggering mechanisms. First of all, a frequency analysis was performed. Thereby the main vibrating parts and the directions of the oscillation could be determined during a squeal event. The second was a modal analysis of the vehicle axle, which was necessary to get further insights into the system as well as to verify an existing Finite Element Method model. Through these tests, however, it was not possible to get any insight into the contact area, and therefore it was impossible to determine the squeal triggering mechanism. Because of this limitation, special guide pins were developed, which are able to measure the vibrating friction force.
Journal Article

Mass Balancing Measures of a Linkage-Based Extended Expansion Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0096
The enhancement of efficiency will play a more and more important role in the development of future (small) internal combustion engines. In recent years, the Atkinson (or Extended Expansion) cycle, realized over the crank drive, attracted increasing attention. Several OEMs have investigated this efficiency-increasing principle in the whole range from small engines up to automotive engines until now. In prior publications, the authors outlined the remarkable efficiency potentials of an Extended Expansion (EE) cycle. However, for an internal combustion engine, a smooth running performance as well as low vibrations and noise emissions are relevant aspects. This is especially true for an Extended Expansion engine realized over the crank drive. Therefore, design measures concerning friction and NVH need to be taken to enable possible series production status. Basically, these measures strongly depend on the reduction of the free mass forces and moments.
Technical Paper

Layout and Development of a 300 cm3 High Performance 2S-LPDI Engine

2015-11-17
2015-32-0832
In consideration of the fact that in extreme Enduro competitions two-stroke motorcycles are still dominating, the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz University of Technology, with a long tradition in two-stroke technology, has developed a new 300 cm3 two-stroke motorcycle engine. The 2-stroke LPDI (Low Pressure Direct Injection) technology was originally developed for the 50 cm3 Scooter and moped market in Europe. In 50 cm3 applications the LPDI technology fulfils the EURO 4 emission standard (2017) [1]. In a next step the LPDI technology was applied to a 250 cm3 Enduro engine demonstrator vehicle. Based on the results of the demonstrator, a complete new high performance 300 cm3 engine was developed. The development of this new engine will be described in this publication. Some interesting aspects of the layout with 3D-CFD methods and also 1D-CFD simulation to optimize the exhaust system by DoE methods are discussed in the paper.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Lean NOx Trap (LNT) Regeneration Strategies for Diesel Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0124
To minimize nitrogen oxide (NOx) as well as carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions to fulfil the new European real driving emissions (RDE) legislation, the LNT operation strategy - especially for DeNOx events (rich mode) - has to be optimized. On one hand the DeNOx purges should be long enough to fully regenerate the lean NOx trap, on the other hand the purges should be as short as possible to reduce the fuel consumption penalty from rich mode. Fundamental experiments have been conducted on a synthetic-gas-test-bench, purposely designed to test LNT catalysts. This methodology allowed to remove NOx from the gasfeed after the lean storage phase. The actually reduced amount of NOx could be easily calculated from the NOx storage before a regeneration event minus the NOx that was desorbed during the DeNOx event and afterwards thermally desorbed NOx.
Technical Paper

How to Use PC-CRASH to Simulate Rollover Crashes

2004-03-08
2004-01-0341
Due to the increasing number of minivans and sport utility vehicles, rollovers have become more significant. As a result, various accident reconstruction programs have been developed to address this issue. To reconstruct rollover crashes, various requirements have to be fulfilled. These consist of: providing a simple method that is able to model three dimensional environments that often play a major role in rollovers. including suspension, tire and collision models must be provided. This is particularily important in the rollover initiation phase. including proper vehicle geometry and contact stiffness must be available. These are important for simulation of body contacts that affect the vehicle motion. This study focuses on one program, PC-CRASH. This program was developed to allow simulations of vehicle 3-dimensional movements before, during and after the impact. The study also discusses the physical background of the models, their capabilities as well as their limitations.
Technical Paper

Highly Dynamic Intake and Exhaust Back Pressure Control

2019-01-09
2019-26-0147
Measuring emissions of internal combustion engines-not only at steady-state conditions, but also with highly dynamic test cycles-is an important issue in modern engine development. Due to the fact that ambient conditions have an essential influence on power and emissions of internal combustion engines, test beds used for such measurements typically incorporate intake air and exhaust back pressure control for reasons of repeatability, accuracy and comparability. As test cycle dynamics get faster and legal pressure tolerances get narrower, pressure control becomes more demanding and simple PI control schemes are pushed to their limits; therefore, more sophisticated control schemes are necessary. In this paper, a linearised model is first derived and then used to both simplify and optimise PI controller tuning. This is done by means of frequency domain methods. Limitations to such controllers and possible approaches to overcome them are discussed.
Technical Paper

Expansion to Higher Efficiency - Experimental Investigations of the Atkinson Cycle in Small Combustion Engines

2015-11-17
2015-32-0809
The enhancement of efficiency will play a more and more important role in the development of future (small) internal combustion engines. In recent years, the Atkinson cycle, realized over the crank drive, has attracted increasing attention. Several OEMs have been doing investigations on this efficiency-increasing principle with in the whole range from small engines up to automotive ones. In previous publications, the authors stated that an indicated efficiency of up to 48% could be reached with an Atkinson cycle-based engine. However, these studies are based on 1D-CFD simulation. To verify the promising simulation results, a prototype engine, based on the Atkinson principle, was designed and experimentally tested. The aim of the present study is to evaluate and validate the (indicated) engine efficiency gained by experimental tests compared to the predicted simulation results. In order to investigate part load behavior, several valve timing strategies were also developed and tested.
Technical Paper

Exhaust System Simulation of a 2-Cylinder 2-Stroke Engine Including Heat Transfer Effects

2010-09-28
2010-32-0035
The exhaust system design has an important influence on the charge mass and the composition of the charge inside the cylinder, due to its gas dynamic behavior. Therefore the exhaust system determines the characteristics of the indicated mean effective pressure as well. The knowledge of the heat transfer and the post-combustion process of fuel losses inside the exhaust system are important for the thermodynamic analysis of the working process. However, the simulation of the heat transfer over the exhaust pipe wall is time consuming, due to the demand for a transient simulation of many revolutions until a cyclic steady condition is reached. Therefore, the exhaust pipe wall temperature is set to constant in the conventional CFD simulation of 2-stroke engines. This paper covers the discussion of a simulation strategy for the exhaust system of a 2-cylinder 2-stroke engine until cyclic steady condition including the heat transfer over the exhaust pipe wall.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Valve Train Variability in Diesel Engines

2015-09-06
2015-24-2532
The continuously decreasing emission limits lead to a growing importance of exhaust aftertreatment in Diesel engines. Hence, methods for achieving a rapid catalyst light-off after engine cold start and for maintaining the catalyst temperature during low load operation will become more and more necessary. The present work evaluates several valve timing strategies concerning their ability for doing so. For this purpose, simulations as well as experimental investigations were conducted. A special focus of simulation was on pointing out the relevance of exhaust temperature, mass flow and enthalpy for these thermomanagement tasks. An increase of exhaust temperature is beneficial for both catalyst heat-up and maintaining catalyst temperature. In case of the exhaust mass flow, high values are advantageous only in case of a catalyst heat-up process, while maintaining catalyst temperature is supported by a low mass flow.
Technical Paper

Crankcase Supercharged Four Stroke Engine with Oil Separating System

2004-01-01
2004-01-2105
An efficient and economic method to increase the performance of four stroke engines can be accomplished by utilizing the crankcase supercharging method. The lubrication of the movable parts in the crankcase by mixing the intake air with lubricant leads to a high oil consumption and disadvantages in the emission characteristics. This paper describes parts of a research project with the goal to develop a supercharged four–stroke engine with a closed loop lubrication system for the crank train and the cylinder head. The thermodynamic layout and the development of an oil separating system have been carried out with the help of simulation tools and development work on a flow test bench.
Technical Paper

CFD Study of Spray Design for a GDI High Performance 2-Stroke Engine

2010-09-28
2010-32-0014
The advantages of 2-stroke engines, high power and low weight, are in conflict with their disadvantages, high emissions and bad fuel economy. As these disadvantages are caused by the scavenging process, a reason for the problem can be analyzed by using three dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation (3D CFD simulation). The scavenging losses can be dramatically reduced with a high pressure fuel injection strategy. The purpose of this strategy is to prevent a fuel concentration in the incoming charge and to reduce the fuel concentration inside the exhaust system. These advantages can only be successfully exploited with the application of an optimal injection strategy. This paper covers a spray study for a gasoline direct injection (GDI) high performance 2-stroke engine using the commercial CFD Code Fluent.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulation of a Real World High-Performance Two Stroke Engine with Use of a Multidimensional Coupling Methodology

2008-09-09
2008-32-0042
CFD simulation (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is a state of the art tool for the development of internal combustion engines, especially for internal mixture preparation, scavenging process and combustion. Simulation offers an array of information in the early development phase without the need of building a prototype engine. It shortens the development time, reduces the number of prototypes and therewith test bench costs. In previous investigations [SAE 2005-32-0099] and [SAE 2007-32-0030] a new coupling methodology which bases on the combination of three-dimensional (3D), one-dimensional (1D), and zero-dimensional (0D) CFD calculation has been presented. This methodology uses a new multidimensional interface technology and is able to handle 3D-0D, 3D-1D and 3D-3D connections. The special feature of this methodology is the capability of being placed on any position in the 3D CFD mesh.
Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network Based Predictive Real Drive Emission and Fuel Economy Simulation of Motorcycles

2018-10-30
2018-32-0030
As the number of different engine and vehicle concepts for powered-two wheelers is very high and will even rise with hybridization, the simulation of emissions and fuel consumption is indispensable for further development towards more environmentally friendly mobility. In this work, an adaptive artificial neural network based predictive model for emission and fuel consumption simulation of motorcycles operated in real world conditions is presented. The model is developed in Matlab and Simulink and is integrated into a longitudinal vehicle dynamic simulation whereby it is possible to simulate various and not yet measured test cycles. Subsequently, it is possible to predict real drive emissions RDE and on-road fuel consumption by a minimum of previous measurement effort.
Technical Paper

Application of Low Pressure Direct Injection and Semi-Direct Injection to a Small Capacity Two-Stroke Engine

2008-09-09
2008-32-0059
Based on the fundamental analysis of the two-stroke process (SETC 2005-32-0098) and the development of a stratified scavenged small capacity two-stroke engine (SETC 2006-32-0065), a further approach to achieve low emissions in this engine category is the main subject of this publication. The principles of the system are described by design activities, results of the 3D-CFD simulation and the visualization of the spray in the cylinder. The benefit of this system on exhaust emissions is demonstrated by engine test bench as well as chassis dynamometer results. The achievable reduction of exhaust emissions, especially with an applied oxidation catalytic converter, is remarkable and the potential to fulfill future emission limits has already been demonstrated.
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