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Technical Paper

Vibration Comfort Control for HEV Based on Machine Learning

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with a power-split system offer a variety of possibilities in reduction of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. Power-split systems use a planetary gear sets to create a strong mechanical coupling between the internal combustion engine, the generator and the electric motor. This concept offers rather low oscillations and therefore passive damping components are not needed. Nevertheless, during acceleration or because of external disturbances, oscillations which are mostly influenced by the ICE, can still occur which leads to a drivability and performance downgrade. This paper proposes a design of an active damping control system which uses the electric motor to suppress those oscillations instead of handling them within the ICE control unit. The control algorithm is implemented as part of an existing hybrid controller without any additional hardware introduced.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Loss Analysis of a High Power Motorcycle Engine with Focus on Alcohol Blended Fuels

The development of future internal combustion engines and fuels is influenced by decreasing energy resources, restriction of emission legislation and increasing environmental awareness of humanity itself. Alternative renewable fuels have, in dependency on their physical and chemical properties, on the production process and on the raw material, the potential to contribute a better well-to-wheel-CO2-emission-balance in automotive and nonautomotive applications. The focus of this research is the usage of alcohol fuels, like ethanol and 2-butanol, in motorcycle high power engines. The different propulsion systems and operation scenarios of motorcycle applications in comparison to automobile applications raise the need for specific research in this area.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Limits of Efficiency Enhancement of Small Displacement Single-Cylinder Engines

Millions of small displacement single-cylinder engines are used for the propulsion of scooters, motorcycles, small boats and others. These SI-engines represent the basis of an affordable mobility in many countries, but at the same time their efficiency is quite low. Today, the limited fossil fuel resources and the anthropogenic climate require a sustainable development of combustion engines, the reduction of fuel consumption being an important factor. A variety of different strategies (turbo-charging, cylinder deactivation, direct injection, etc.) are investigated here to increase the efficiency of multi-cylinder engines. In the case of small displacement single-cylinder engines, other strategies are required because of their special design and the high pressure on costs. In the context of this paper different layout parameters which have an influence on the working process are investigated, with the aim of increasing the efficiency of small displacement single-cylinder engines.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines in a Future Mobility Scenario

Focus is pointed on the highly favorable physical properties of hydrogen (H2) with regard to its combustion characteristics in internal combustion engines. Thereby it will be shown in how far the performance of next generation hydrogen engines can be improved by implementing a direct fuel injection system instead of the conventional port injection approach. Results from numerical as well as from experimental investigations will be used to clearly give a vision of the overall future potential of hydrogen for combustion engines in comparison to fuel cell systems.
Journal Article

The Potential of 3D-CAD Based Process – Optimization in the Automotive Concept Phase

The time reduction of the vehicle design and creation process is an important key to reduce development costs. Modern CAD systems offer a wide range of possibilities, not only in the standard field of mechanical design, but also in terms of creating advanced control mechanisms concerning part and assembly structures. Integrated design strategies include miscellaneous scripting and programming possibilities as well as implemented functions. An efficient application of these features can help to decrease the development time and to manage the growing functional complexity of automotive engineering processes. Continuously increasing product variants and functionalities call for design strategies and methods, which are capable to handle a quick data control and data transfer supporting an efficient geometry creation and evaluation.
Technical Paper

The Patch-Transfer-Function (PTF) Method Applied to Numerical Models of Trim Materials Including Poro-Elastic Layers

In automotive industry, acoustic trim materials are widely used in order to reach passenger comfort targets. The dynamic behavior of the poro-elastic materials is typically modelled by the Biot theory, which however leads to expensive numerical finite element calculations. One way to deal with it is to use the Patch-Transfer-Function (PTF) sub-structuring method, which couples subdomains at their interfaces through impedance relations. This was done already for systems including locally reacting poro-elastic materials. In this paper, a methodology is presented allowing to numerically assess the PTF impedance matrices of non-locally reacting trim materials using the Biot based poro-elastic model solved by the finite element method (FEM). Simplifications of the trim impedance matrices are introduced resulting in considerable calculation cost reductions. The associated prediction errors are discussed by means of a numerical case study.
Technical Paper

Technologies to Achieve Future Emission Legislations with Two Stroke Motorcycles

Increasingly stringent emission regulations force manufacturers of two wheelers to develop low emission motorcycle concepts. Especially for small two-stroke engines with symmetrical port timing structure, causing high HC-emissions due to scavenge losses, this is a challenging demand that can only be met with alternative mixture formation strategies and by intensifying the use of modern development tools. Changing from EU4 to EU5, emission legislation will not only have an impact on the improvement of internal combustion but will also drastically change the after-treatment system. Nowadays, small two-stroke engines make use of a simple carburetor for external mixture preparation. The cylinders are scavenged by air/fuel mixtures. Equipped with exhaust gas after-treatment systems, such as secondary air with two or three catalytic converters, the emission limits for EURO 4 homologation can be achieved with carbureted engines.
Technical Paper

Systematic Experimental Creep Groan Characterization Using a Suspension and Brake Test Rig

Vehicle road tests are meaningful for investigations of creep groan noise. However, problems in reproducing experiments and partly subjective evaluations may lead to imprecise conclusions. This work proposes an experimental test and evaluation procedure which provides a precise and objective assessment of creep groan. It is based on systematic corner test rig experiments and an innovative characterization method. The exemplary setup under investigation consisted of a complete front wheel suspension and brake system including all relevant components. The wheel has been driven by the test rig’s drum against a brake torque. The main parameters within a test matrix were brake pressure and drum velocity. Both have been varied stepwise to scan the relevant operating range of the automobile corner system for potential creep groan noise. Additionally, the experiments were extended to high brake pressures, where creep groan cannot be observed under road test conditions.
Technical Paper

System Design Model for Parallel Hybrid Powertrains using Design of Experiments

The paper focuses on an optimization methodology, which uses Design of Experiments (DoE) methods to define component parameters of parallel hybrid powertrains such as number of gears, transmission spread, gear ratios, progression factor, electric motor power, electric motor nominal speed, battery voltage and cell capacity. Target is to find the optimal configuration based on specific customer targets (e.g. fuel consumption, performance targets). In the method developed here, the hybrid drive train configuration and the combustion engine are considered as fixed components. The introduced methodology is able to reduce development time and to increase output quality of the early system definition phase. The output parameters are used as a first hint for subsequently performed detailed component development. The methodology integrates existing software tools like AVL CRUISE [5] and AVL CAMEO [1].
Journal Article

Sulfur Poisoning of a NOx Storage Catalyst - A Comprehensive Modelling Approach

This paper describes the development of a 0-D-sulfur poisoning model for a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). The model was developed and calibrated using findings and data obtained from a passenger car diesel engine used on testbed. Based on an empirical approach, the developed model is able to predict not only the lower sulfur adsorption with increasing temperature and therefore the higher SOx (SO2 and SO3) slip after NSC, but also the sulfur saturation with increasing sulfur loading, resulting in a decrease of the sulfur adsorption rate with ongoing sulfation. Furthermore, the 0-D sulfur poisoning model was integrated into an existing 1-D NOx storage catalyst kinetic model. The combination of the two models results in an “EAS Model” (exhaust aftertreatment system) able to predict the deterioration of NOx-storage in a NSC with increasing sulfation level, exhibiting higher NOx-emissions after the NSC once it is poisoned.
Technical Paper

Study of Possible Range Extender Concepts with Respect to Future Emission Limits

The future exhaust emission legislation limits and the procedures for running the test cycles will have an important influence on future range extender concepts. Due to the special steady state operation strategy of the range extender engines, it is possible to create a simple methodology for comparing engine test bench emissions with the emission limits of exhaust gas legislations. Therefore the energy demand of a predefined vehicle was simulated with PHEM, a longitudinal dynamic simulation tool. According to that, the influence of different exhaust gas after treatment systems and preheating options on the tolerated raw emission concentration will be analyzed. With this information, a few chosen range extender engine concepts will be compared concerning their suitability for future exhaust emission legislations. The selection of the range extender concepts was carried out with the methotology of a value benefit analysis.
Technical Paper

Strategies for Emission Reduction on Small Capacity Two-Wheelers with Regard to Future Legislative Limits

Looking at upcoming emission legislations for two-wheelers, it is quite obvious that the fulfilment of these targets will become one of the biggest challenges within the engine development process. The gradual harmonization of emission limits for two-wheelers with existing automotive standards will subsequently lead to new approaches regarding mixture preparation and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Referring to these future scenarios, a state-of-the-art in development of catalytic converters for two- or three-wheeler applications should be presented. After choosing a suitable test carrier, which has already been equipped with EFI components including an oxygen sensor for λ=1 operation mode, a basic injection system calibration was used to optimize the combustion process. Based on this setup, a variable exhaust system was manufactured to be able to integrate different catalyst configurations.
Technical Paper

Simulation-Based Control of Transient SCE Operation

It is critical for gas and dual fuel engines to have improved transient characteristics in order that they can successfully compete with diesel engines. Testing of transient behavior as well as of different control strategies for the multi-cylinder engine (MCE) should already be done on the single cylinder engine (SCE) test bed during the development process. This paper presents tools and algorithms that simulate transient MCE behavior on a SCE test bed. A methodology that includes both simulation and measurements is developed for a large two-stage turbocharged gas engine. Simple and fast models and algorithms are created that are able to provide the boundary conditions (e.g., boost pressure and exhaust back pressure) of a multi-cylinder engine in transient operation in real-time for use on the SCE test bed. The main models of the methodology are discussed in detail.
Journal Article

Simulation of the Dynamical Behavior of Elastic Multi-Body Systems with Bolted, Rough Contact Interfaces

For many technical applications it is necessary to avoid or to reduce vibrations. Factors benefiting from vibration reduction are for example the durability of the application, which is increased, as well as cost expenses and the level of noise, which are both decreased. Rough, bolted interfaces are common in most machines and can be used as damping devices with some effort. Perhaps in future such contact surfaces could be used as damping devices at the interfaces of an automotive engine or exhaust system. Nevertheless it is difficult to predict the effect of a change in contact interface parameters on the dynamic behavior of the entire mechanical system. Therefore a method for calculating the steady state behavior of elastic multi-body systems was developed. The basis of this method is a finite element model of each contacting unit. On each model a modal reduction is applied in order to reduce the degrees of freedom.
Journal Article

Reed Valve CFD Simulation of a 2-Stroke Engine Using a 2D Model Including the Complete Engine Geometry

CFD has been widely used to predict the flow behavior inside 2-stroke engines over the past twenty years. Usually a mass flow profile or a simple 0D model is used for the inlet boundary condition, which replaces the complete intake geometry, such as reed valve, throttle, and air box geometries. For a CFD simulation which takes into account the exact reed valve geometry, a simulation of all above mentioned domains is required, as these domains are coupled together and thus interact. As the high speed of the engine affects the opening dynamic and closure of the reed valve, the transient data from the crank case volume and the section upstream the reed valve have an important influence on the reed petal dynamic and therewith on the sucked fresh air mass of the engine. This paper covers a methodology for the transient CFD simulation of the reed petals of a 2-stroke engine by using a 2D model.
Technical Paper

Real World Operation of a Standard Lawn Mower Engine from a Scientific Perspective

This paper introduces a research project on a spark ignition engine used in non-road applications. The aim is to illustrate the present situation as basis for comparison and to identify possible improvement potential in terms of performance, efficiency or exhaust and noise emissions. The study is carried out in two steps. First a standard walk-behind lawn mower is equipped with measuring instrumentation for recording the cutting forces and the engine variables during real world operation. The tests are carried out on three different lawn types and two different blade types are investigated. Consequently, in a second step the engine is analysed on the engine test bench in stationary and transient operating mode. A complete engine mapping is done regarding all relevant variables. Additionally to the outdoor tests, fuel consumption and engine out emissions are measured on the engine dynamometer. The recorded data enables a detailed analysis of the engine behaviour.
Technical Paper

Practicability and Influencing Factors of a Lean Burn Mode for Two-Stroke Engines in Hand-Held Powertools

For many applications, such as scooters, hand-held power tools and many off-road vehicles, two-stroke engines are used as a preferred propulsion unit. These engines convince by a good power to weight ratio, a high durability and low maintenance technology and are therefore the first choice in this field of application. In general, already much development effort has been expended to improve those systems. However, an increasing environmental awareness, the protection of health and the shortage of fossil resources are the driving factors to further enhance the internal combustion process of those adapted two-stroke engines. The current focus here is on the reduction of emissions and fuel consumption with an at least constant power output. An approach to address an improvement of engine efficiency can be covered by applying a lean combustion burn mode.
Technical Paper

Potential of Synergies in a Vehicle for Variable Mixtures of CNG and Hydrogen

Synergies in infrastructure and customer acceptance can be achieved by running internal combustion engines on mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas. Alongside the bridging effect between natural gas and hydrogen, such mixing offers advantages in terms of reduced emissions and improvements to the combustion process. The wide ignition limits and high flame speed of hydrogen have as positive an impact on the combustion of H2NG mixture as does the higher energy density of natural gas on range. A bi-fuel gasoline-natural gas vehicle was adapted to operation with gasoline, natural gas, hydrogen and any H2NG mixtures. For that purpose, the intake manifold was replaced by an aluminum construction, the injectors were replaced and the ECU had to be adjusted. Essentially quality-controlled hydrogen operation was possible throughout the engine map.
Technical Paper

Potential of E85 Direct Injection for Passenger Car Application

This paper presents an analysis of the potential of E85 (a mixture of 85 % (bio)ethanol and 15 % gasoline) as a fuel for spark-ignition (SI) direct-injection internal combustion engines. This involves investigation of not only application to downsizing concepts with high specific power but also behavior relating to emissions and efficiency at both part and full load. Measurements while running on gasoline were used for comparison purposes. The first stage involved analysis using 1D simulation of two different downsizing concepts with regard to turbocharging potential and performance. Following this, various influential parameters such as injector position, injection pressure, compression ratio, degree of turbocharging etc. were investigated on a single cylinder research engine. In the case of high pressure direct injection, particulate emissions also play an important role, so particulate count and particulate size distribution were also studied in detail.
Technical Paper

Possibilities and Limits of 1D CFD Simulation Methodology for the Layout of 2-Stroke GDI Combustion System

The development process of 2-stroke engines is characterized by limited CFD investigations in combination with long-term development phases on the test bench with high prototype costs. To reduce the costs and to realize shorter development time together with a higher prediction quality of the engine potential, a higher implementation level of 1D and 3D simulation tools into the development process is necessary. This publication outlines the 1D simulation methods in the layout phase of GDI combustion processes of 2-stroke engine categories. By means of conceptual investigations, the demands, the potential and the limits of 1D CFD simulation methodology are defined. Using a comparison between 1D and 3D or 1D/3D coupled simulation methods the limits of solely 1D simulation are shown. For advanced simulation tasks with a higher demand for prediction quality, the entire engine is simulated in 1D, whereas special parts of the engine design are simulated in a 3D model.