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Journal Article

Reed Valve CFD Simulation of a 2-Stroke Engine Using a 2D Model Including the Complete Engine Geometry

2010-09-28
2010-32-0015
CFD has been widely used to predict the flow behavior inside 2-stroke engines over the past twenty years. Usually a mass flow profile or a simple 0D model is used for the inlet boundary condition, which replaces the complete intake geometry, such as reed valve, throttle, and air box geometries. For a CFD simulation which takes into account the exact reed valve geometry, a simulation of all above mentioned domains is required, as these domains are coupled together and thus interact. As the high speed of the engine affects the opening dynamic and closure of the reed valve, the transient data from the crank case volume and the section upstream the reed valve have an important influence on the reed petal dynamic and therewith on the sucked fresh air mass of the engine. This paper covers a methodology for the transient CFD simulation of the reed petals of a 2-stroke engine by using a 2D model.
Journal Article

Mass Balancing Measures of a Linkage-Based Extended Expansion Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0096
The enhancement of efficiency will play a more and more important role in the development of future (small) internal combustion engines. In recent years, the Atkinson (or Extended Expansion) cycle, realized over the crank drive, attracted increasing attention. Several OEMs have investigated this efficiency-increasing principle in the whole range from small engines up to automotive engines until now. In prior publications, the authors outlined the remarkable efficiency potentials of an Extended Expansion (EE) cycle. However, for an internal combustion engine, a smooth running performance as well as low vibrations and noise emissions are relevant aspects. This is especially true for an Extended Expansion engine realized over the crank drive. Therefore, design measures concerning friction and NVH need to be taken to enable possible series production status. Basically, these measures strongly depend on the reduction of the free mass forces and moments.
Technical Paper

Expansion to Higher Efficiency - Investigations of the Atkinson Cycle in Small Combustion Engines

2012-10-23
2012-32-0059
Small combustion engines can be found in various applications in daily use (e.g. as propulsion of boats, scooters, motorbikes, power-tools, mobile power units, etc.) and have predominated these markets for a long time. Today some upcoming competitive technologies in the field of electrification can be observed and have already shown great technical advances. Therefore, small combustion engines have to keep their present advantages while concurrently minimizing their disadvantages in order to remain the predominant technology in the future. Whereas large combustion engines are most efficient thermal engines, small engines still suffer from significantly lower efficiencies caused by a disadvantageous surface to volume ratio. Thus, the enhancement of efficiency will play a key role in the development of future small combustion engines. One promising possibility to improve efficiency is the use of a longer expansion than compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Expansion to Higher Efficiency - Experimental Investigations of the Atkinson Cycle in Small Combustion Engines

2015-11-17
2015-32-0809
The enhancement of efficiency will play a more and more important role in the development of future (small) internal combustion engines. In recent years, the Atkinson cycle, realized over the crank drive, has attracted increasing attention. Several OEMs have been doing investigations on this efficiency-increasing principle with in the whole range from small engines up to automotive ones. In previous publications, the authors stated that an indicated efficiency of up to 48% could be reached with an Atkinson cycle-based engine. However, these studies are based on 1D-CFD simulation. To verify the promising simulation results, a prototype engine, based on the Atkinson principle, was designed and experimentally tested. The aim of the present study is to evaluate and validate the (indicated) engine efficiency gained by experimental tests compared to the predicted simulation results. In order to investigate part load behavior, several valve timing strategies were also developed and tested.
Technical Paper

Big Data-Based Driving Pattern Clustering and Evaluation in Combination with Driving Circumstances

2018-04-03
2018-01-1087
Car driver’s behavior and its influence on driving characteristics play an increasing role in the development of modern vehicles, e.g. in view of efficient powertrain control and implementation of driving assistance functions. In addition, knowledge about actual driving style can provide feedback to the driver and support efficient driving or even safety-related measures. Driving patterns are caused not only by the driver, but also influenced by road characteristics, environmental boundary conditions and other traffic participants. Thus, it is necessary to take the driving circumstances into account, when driving patterns are studied. This work proposes a methodology to cluster and evaluate driving patterns under consideration of vehicle-related parameters (e.g. acceleration and jerk) in combination with additional influencing factors, e.g. road style and inclination. Firstly, segmentation of the trip in distance series is performed to generate micro cycles.
Technical Paper

A Versatile Approach for an ISO26262 Compliant Hardware-Software Interface Definition with Model-Based Development

2015-04-14
2015-01-0148
Increasing demands for safety, security, and certifiability of embedded automotive systems require additional development effort to generate the required evidences that the developed system can be trusted for the application and environment it is intended for. Safety standards such as ISO 26262 for road vehicles have been established to provide guidance during the development of safety-critical systems. The challenge in this context is to provide evidence of consistency, correctness, and completeness of system specifications over different work-products. One of these required work-products is the hardware-software interface (HSI) definition. This work-product is especially important since it defines the interfaces between different technologies. Model-based development (MBD) is a promising approach to support the description of the system under development in a more structured way, thus improving resulting consistency.
Technical Paper

A Demonstration of Emissions' Behaviour of Various Handheld Engines Including Investigations on Particulate Matter

2013-10-15
2013-32-9130
To get an overview of the emission situation in the field of small non-road mobile machinery powered by various types of SI engines, the Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst (AECC), together with the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics (IVT) of Graz University of Technology, conducted a customized test program. The main goal for this campaign was to derive information regarding the emissions of regulated gaseous components (following European Directive 97/68/EC) as well as particulate matter. With regard to the big variety of different engines that are available on the European and North-American market, the most representative ones had to be chosen. This resulted in a pool of test devices to cover different engine working principles (2-Stroke and 4-Stroke), technological standards (low-cost and professional tools) and different emissions control strategies (advanced combustion and exhaust gas aftertreatment).
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