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Technical Paper

Vibration Comfort Control for HEV Based on Machine Learning

2014-06-30
2014-01-2091
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with a power-split system offer a variety of possibilities in reduction of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. Power-split systems use a planetary gear sets to create a strong mechanical coupling between the internal combustion engine, the generator and the electric motor. This concept offers rather low oscillations and therefore passive damping components are not needed. Nevertheless, during acceleration or because of external disturbances, oscillations which are mostly influenced by the ICE, can still occur which leads to a drivability and performance downgrade. This paper proposes a design of an active damping control system which uses the electric motor to suppress those oscillations instead of handling them within the ICE control unit. The control algorithm is implemented as part of an existing hybrid controller without any additional hardware introduced.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Limits of Efficiency Enhancement of Small Displacement Single-Cylinder Engines

2015-11-17
2015-32-0817
Millions of small displacement single-cylinder engines are used for the propulsion of scooters, motorcycles, small boats and others. These SI-engines represent the basis of an affordable mobility in many countries, but at the same time their efficiency is quite low. Today, the limited fossil fuel resources and the anthropogenic climate require a sustainable development of combustion engines, the reduction of fuel consumption being an important factor. A variety of different strategies (turbo-charging, cylinder deactivation, direct injection, etc.) are investigated here to increase the efficiency of multi-cylinder engines. In the case of small displacement single-cylinder engines, other strategies are required because of their special design and the high pressure on costs. In the context of this paper different layout parameters which have an influence on the working process are investigated, with the aim of increasing the efficiency of small displacement single-cylinder engines.
Technical Paper

The Potential of New Vehicle Concepts For Transport Optimization and GHG Emission Reduction in Urban Areas

2014-04-01
2014-01-1005
Increasing urbanization, the growing degree of motorization and traffic performance in urban areas and environmental aspects like greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are the motivation for a detailed analysis of personal individual mobility in urban areas, which is presented in this study. In the first step, the publication examines a study of market potential of new small and lightweight vehicle concepts. A mobility inquiry conducted in a mid-sized European city enables an estimation of the potential user groups for alternative vehicle concepts for individual urban traffic. In a second step, the CO2 reduction potential of urban car concepts is simulated for a generic vehicle fleet. This fleet consists of conventional vehicles of various classes (subcompact, compact, mid-sized …) as well as new lightweight urban car concepts. A novel vehicle concept for urban transportation will be presented as well.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) in Automotive Software Quality Management

2016-04-05
2016-01-0046
A steady increasing share and complexity of automotive software is a huge challenge for quality management during software development and in-use phases. In cases of faults occurring in customer’s use, warranty leads to product recalls which are typically associated with high costs. To avoid software faults efficiently, quality management and enhanced development processes have to be realized by the introduction of specific analysis methods and Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) to enable objective quality evaluations as soon as possible during product development process. The paper introduces an application of specific analysis methods by using KPIs and discusses their potential for automotive software quality improvement. Target is to support quality evaluation and risk-analysis for the release process of automotive software.
Technical Paper

The Patch-Transfer-Function (PTF) Method Applied to Numerical Models of Trim Materials Including Poro-Elastic Layers

2018-06-13
2018-01-1569
In automotive industry, acoustic trim materials are widely used in order to reach passenger comfort targets. The dynamic behavior of the poro-elastic materials is typically modelled by the Biot theory, which however leads to expensive numerical finite element calculations. One way to deal with it is to use the Patch-Transfer-Function (PTF) sub-structuring method, which couples subdomains at their interfaces through impedance relations. This was done already for systems including locally reacting poro-elastic materials. In this paper, a methodology is presented allowing to numerically assess the PTF impedance matrices of non-locally reacting trim materials using the Biot based poro-elastic model solved by the finite element method (FEM). Simplifications of the trim impedance matrices are introduced resulting in considerable calculation cost reductions. The associated prediction errors are discussed by means of a numerical case study.
Technical Paper

Technologies to Achieve Future Emission Legislations with Two Stroke Motorcycles

2018-10-30
2018-32-0042
Increasingly stringent emission regulations force manufacturers of two wheelers to develop low emission motorcycle concepts. Especially for small two-stroke engines with symmetrical port timing structure, causing high HC-emissions due to scavenge losses, this is a challenging demand that can only be met with alternative mixture formation strategies and by intensifying the use of modern development tools. Changing from EU4 to EU5, emission legislation will not only have an impact on the improvement of internal combustion but will also drastically change the after-treatment system. Nowadays, small two-stroke engines make use of a simple carburetor for external mixture preparation. The cylinders are scavenged by air/fuel mixtures. Equipped with exhaust gas after-treatment systems, such as secondary air with two or three catalytic converters, the emission limits for EURO 4 homologation can be achieved with carbureted engines.
Technical Paper

System Design Model for Parallel Hybrid Powertrains using Design of Experiments

2018-04-03
2018-01-0417
The paper focuses on an optimization methodology, which uses Design of Experiments (DoE) methods to define component parameters of parallel hybrid powertrains such as number of gears, transmission spread, gear ratios, progression factor, electric motor power, electric motor nominal speed, battery voltage and cell capacity. Target is to find the optimal configuration based on specific customer targets (e.g. fuel consumption, performance targets). In the method developed here, the hybrid drive train configuration and the combustion engine are considered as fixed components. The introduced methodology is able to reduce development time and to increase output quality of the early system definition phase. The output parameters are used as a first hint for subsequently performed detailed component development. The methodology integrates existing software tools like AVL CRUISE [5] and AVL CAMEO [1].
Journal Article

Sulfur Poisoning of a NOx Storage Catalyst - A Comprehensive Modelling Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0964
This paper describes the development of a 0-D-sulfur poisoning model for a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). The model was developed and calibrated using findings and data obtained from a passenger car diesel engine used on testbed. Based on an empirical approach, the developed model is able to predict not only the lower sulfur adsorption with increasing temperature and therefore the higher SOx (SO2 and SO3) slip after NSC, but also the sulfur saturation with increasing sulfur loading, resulting in a decrease of the sulfur adsorption rate with ongoing sulfation. Furthermore, the 0-D sulfur poisoning model was integrated into an existing 1-D NOx storage catalyst kinetic model. The combination of the two models results in an “EAS Model” (exhaust aftertreatment system) able to predict the deterioration of NOx-storage in a NSC with increasing sulfation level, exhibiting higher NOx-emissions after the NSC once it is poisoned.
Technical Paper

Study of Possible Range Extender Concepts with Respect to Future Emission Limits

2010-09-28
2010-32-0129
The future exhaust emission legislation limits and the procedures for running the test cycles will have an important influence on future range extender concepts. Due to the special steady state operation strategy of the range extender engines, it is possible to create a simple methodology for comparing engine test bench emissions with the emission limits of exhaust gas legislations. Therefore the energy demand of a predefined vehicle was simulated with PHEM, a longitudinal dynamic simulation tool. According to that, the influence of different exhaust gas after treatment systems and preheating options on the tolerated raw emission concentration will be analyzed. With this information, a few chosen range extender engine concepts will be compared concerning their suitability for future exhaust emission legislations. The selection of the range extender concepts was carried out with the methotology of a value benefit analysis.
Technical Paper

Strategies for Emission Reduction on Small Capacity Two-Wheelers with Regard to Future Legislative Limits

2014-11-11
2014-32-0031
Looking at upcoming emission legislations for two-wheelers, it is quite obvious that the fulfilment of these targets will become one of the biggest challenges within the engine development process. The gradual harmonization of emission limits for two-wheelers with existing automotive standards will subsequently lead to new approaches regarding mixture preparation and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Referring to these future scenarios, a state-of-the-art in development of catalytic converters for two- or three-wheeler applications should be presented. After choosing a suitable test carrier, which has already been equipped with EFI components including an oxygen sensor for λ=1 operation mode, a basic injection system calibration was used to optimize the combustion process. Based on this setup, a variable exhaust system was manufactured to be able to integrate different catalyst configurations.
Technical Paper

Size distribution of particulate matter~Results from roadside measurements

2001-09-23
2001-24-0078
Measurements of ultrafine particles (diameter < 300 nm) and total suspended particulates (TSP) were performed in 2 tunnels (Lundby, Gothenborg, S, and Plabutsch, Graz, A). The measurements in the Lundby tunnel were performed directly in the tunnel tube at the roadside whereas the measurements at the Plabutsch tunnel took place at the top of a 90 m high ventilation shaft. There was good correlation for all diameters (7.91 nm - 300 nm) between ultrafine particles and TSP for the measurements at the Lundby tunnel. At the Plabutsch site a correlation between ultrafine particles and TSP was detected only for particles > 35 nm. The maximum of the particle size distribution function for Lundby was at 30 nm and for the Plabutsch tunnel at 80 nm.
Journal Article

Simulation of the Dynamical Behavior of Elastic Multi-Body Systems with Bolted, Rough Contact Interfaces

2010-06-09
2010-01-1422
For many technical applications it is necessary to avoid or to reduce vibrations. Factors benefiting from vibration reduction are for example the durability of the application, which is increased, as well as cost expenses and the level of noise, which are both decreased. Rough, bolted interfaces are common in most machines and can be used as damping devices with some effort. Perhaps in future such contact surfaces could be used as damping devices at the interfaces of an automotive engine or exhaust system. Nevertheless it is difficult to predict the effect of a change in contact interface parameters on the dynamic behavior of the entire mechanical system. Therefore a method for calculating the steady state behavior of elastic multi-body systems was developed. The basis of this method is a finite element model of each contacting unit. On each model a modal reduction is applied in order to reduce the degrees of freedom.
Technical Paper

Robot-Based Fast Charging of Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0869
Automated, conductive charging systems enable both, the transmission of high charging power for long electric driving distances as well as comfortable and safe charging processes. Especially by the use of heavy and unhandy cables for fast charging, these systems offer user friendly vehicle charging - in particularly in combination with autonomously driving and parking vehicles. This paper deals with the definition of requirements for automated conductive charging stations with standard charging connectors and vehicle inlets and the development of a fully-automated charging robot for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. In cooperation with the project partners BMW AG, MAGNA Steyr Engineering, KEBA AG and the Institute of Automotive Engineering at Graz University of Technology, the development and implementation of the prototype took place in the course of a governmental funded research project titled “Comfortable Mobility by Technology Integration (KoMoT)”.
Technical Paper

Results, Assessment and Legislative Relevance of RDE and Fuel Consumption Measurements of Two-Wheeler-Applications

2017-11-05
2017-32-0042
The reduction of environmentally harmful gases and the ambitions to reduce the exploitation of fossil resources lead to stricter legislation for all mobile sources. Legislative development significantly affected improvements in emissions and fuel consumptions over the last years, mainly measured under laboratory conditions. But real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and it is already well known that these values considerably differ from officially published figures [1]. There are regulated emissions by the European Commission by means of real driving scenarios for passenger cars. A methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is therefore well approved for automotive applications but was not adapted for two-wheeler-applications yet [2]. Hence measurements have been performed on-road and on chassis dynamometer for motorcycles with the state of the art RDE measurement equipment to be prepared for possible future legislation.
Journal Article

Reed Valve CFD Simulation of a 2-Stroke Engine Using a 2D Model Including the Complete Engine Geometry

2010-09-28
2010-32-0015
CFD has been widely used to predict the flow behavior inside 2-stroke engines over the past twenty years. Usually a mass flow profile or a simple 0D model is used for the inlet boundary condition, which replaces the complete intake geometry, such as reed valve, throttle, and air box geometries. For a CFD simulation which takes into account the exact reed valve geometry, a simulation of all above mentioned domains is required, as these domains are coupled together and thus interact. As the high speed of the engine affects the opening dynamic and closure of the reed valve, the transient data from the crank case volume and the section upstream the reed valve have an important influence on the reed petal dynamic and therewith on the sucked fresh air mass of the engine. This paper covers a methodology for the transient CFD simulation of the reed petals of a 2-stroke engine by using a 2D model.
Technical Paper

Real World Operation of a Standard Lawn Mower Engine from a Scientific Perspective

2013-10-15
2013-32-9124
This paper introduces a research project on a spark ignition engine used in non-road applications. The aim is to illustrate the present situation as basis for comparison and to identify possible improvement potential in terms of performance, efficiency or exhaust and noise emissions. The study is carried out in two steps. First a standard walk-behind lawn mower is equipped with measuring instrumentation for recording the cutting forces and the engine variables during real world operation. The tests are carried out on three different lawn types and two different blade types are investigated. Consequently, in a second step the engine is analysed on the engine test bench in stationary and transient operating mode. A complete engine mapping is done regarding all relevant variables. Additionally to the outdoor tests, fuel consumption and engine out emissions are measured on the engine dynamometer. The recorded data enables a detailed analysis of the engine behaviour.
Technical Paper

Practicability and Influencing Factors of a Lean Burn Mode for Two-Stroke Engines in Hand-Held Powertools

2017-11-05
2017-32-0043
For many applications, such as scooters, hand-held power tools and many off-road vehicles, two-stroke engines are used as a preferred propulsion unit. These engines convince by a good power to weight ratio, a high durability and low maintenance technology and are therefore the first choice in this field of application. In general, already much development effort has been expended to improve those systems. However, an increasing environmental awareness, the protection of health and the shortage of fossil resources are the driving factors to further enhance the internal combustion process of those adapted two-stroke engines. The current focus here is on the reduction of emissions and fuel consumption with an at least constant power output. An approach to address an improvement of engine efficiency can be covered by applying a lean combustion burn mode.
Technical Paper

Potential of E85 Direct Injection for Passenger Car Application

2010-10-25
2010-01-2086
This paper presents an analysis of the potential of E85 (a mixture of 85 % (bio)ethanol and 15 % gasoline) as a fuel for spark-ignition (SI) direct-injection internal combustion engines. This involves investigation of not only application to downsizing concepts with high specific power but also behavior relating to emissions and efficiency at both part and full load. Measurements while running on gasoline were used for comparison purposes. The first stage involved analysis using 1D simulation of two different downsizing concepts with regard to turbocharging potential and performance. Following this, various influential parameters such as injector position, injection pressure, compression ratio, degree of turbocharging etc. were investigated on a single cylinder research engine. In the case of high pressure direct injection, particulate emissions also play an important role, so particulate count and particulate size distribution were also studied in detail.
Technical Paper

Overview of Different Gas Exchange Concepts for Two-Stroke Engines

2018-10-30
2018-32-0041
The concept of a loop scavenged two-stroke engine, controlling the intake and exhaust port by the moving piston, is a proven way to realize a simple and cheap combustion engine. But without any additional control elements for the gas exchange this concept quickly reaches its limits for current emission regulations. In order to fulfil more stringent emission and fuel consumption limits with a two-stroke engine, one of the most important measures is to avoid scavenging losses of fuel and oil. Additionally, it is necessary to follow a lambda = 1 concept for a 3-way exhaust gas after-treatment. Therefore, using internal mixture preparation systems in combination with different concepts to control the gas exchange process, the two-stroke engine could become a choice for automotive applications, especially as a Range Extender in a Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV).
Technical Paper

Optimization Approach to Handle Global CO2 Fleet Emission Standards

2016-04-05
2016-01-0904
A worldwide decrease of legal limits for CO2 emissions and fuel economy led to stronger efforts for achieving the required reductions. The task is to evaluate technologies for CO2 reduction and to define a combination of such measures to ensure the targets. The challenge therefor is to find the optimal combination with respect to minimal costs. Individual vehicles as well as the whole fleet have to be considered in the cost analysis - which raises the complexity. Hereby, the focus of this work is the consideration and improvement of a new model series against the background of a fleet and the selection of measures. The ratio between the costs and the effect of the measures can be different for the each vehicle configuration. Also, the determination of targets depends whether a fleet or an individual vehicle is selected and has impact on the selection and optimization process of those measures.
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