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Technical Paper

V/STOL Performance, Stability and Control Requirements from an Operations Analysis Viewpoint

1965-02-01
650195
This paper considers performance, stability, and control requirements in terms of their influence on the mission effectiveness and program cost of V/STOL weapon systems; hence, their cost-effectiveness. Performance, stability, and control are among the characteristics that determine the size, weight, and complexity of an aircraft, and ultimately, therefore, its cost. These factors also affect mission effectiveness by their influence upon the availability and survivability of the aircraft and accuracy of its weapons. “Operations Analysis” techniques are required for combining these interrelated factors to evaluate cost-effectiveness. An application is presented for an armed tactical support V/STOL aircraft. Three types are compared: pure helicopter, compound helicopter, and tilt wing.
Technical Paper

The World-Wide Search and Retrieval Problem - Factors Involved in the Selection of a Rescue/Retrieval Aircraft

1961-01-01
610095
Future retrieval requirements for aircraft, missiles, and returning space vehicles have been matched against possible future retrieval systems to determine the most effective and flexible solution in terms of technical feasibility and economics. It has been found that primary vehicle requirements can be met using existing transport aircraft and a VTOL, possibly a retrieval adaptation of the planned Tri-Service VTOL transport. Great economies can be realized if “line” techniques for pick-up of objects by conventional aircraft in flight can be further developed. Long range amphibious aircraft and surface ships, some of the latter with hydrofoil capability, would provide the necessary versatility to meet the variety of future retrieval requirements.
Technical Paper

Reliability Design Analysis for Space Systems

1967-02-01
670677
This paper presents a description of some of the problems encountered in the design of space systems and discusses some of the approaches, considerations, and analytic tools which may be useful in solving those problems. The techniques and problems to be discussed are; reliability estimation, weight-reliability tradeoffs, and spares and redundancy considerations. The analytic approaches discussed are meant to be representative of the types of analysis available and are used to illustrate some of the techniques which have been satisfactorily used on space programs.
Technical Paper

Problems of Environmental Testing of Orbital and Space Vehicle Structures

1966-02-01
660682
Problems in environmental testing of orbiting and space vehicle structures are primarily caused by the limitations of the ground test facilities in providing adequate simulation of the operational environment. This paper will give an account of the specialized environmental simulation techniques developed and the analysis methods used to supplement the facility capabilities for the environmental test program of the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM).
Technical Paper

Optimizing Exhaust — Nozzle/Airframe Thrust Minus Drag

1968-04-29
680294
This paper discusses exhaust nozzle performance, the interaction of exhaust nozzle and airframe, and the need for considering the effect of interactions when estimating overall performance. New performance parameters such as interference drag and equivalent thrust are introduced to account for these interactions. These parameters can be used to provide a consistent semi-empirical approach to optimizing exhaust nozzle/airframe performance and to measure achievements during the optimization process. Emphirical correlations based on the new parameters are displayed for several exhaust nozzle/aircraft combinations.
Technical Paper

Metallurgical and Production Developments of Cryogenic Quenching

1969-02-01
690343
Cryogenic quenching (“cryoquenching”) is a Grumman-patented process whereby the substitution of liquid nitrogen for water as the quenching medium during the heat treat cycle produces distortion-free parts. The process has been a Grumman production capability since 1963, and has increased from an annual rate of 25,000 parts to the present pace of more than 300,000 parts per year. Cryoquenching is now saving thousands of man-hours in the aerospace industry and has substantially increased the tool life of drop hammer dies, form dies, and press blocks. When fully optimized, the process will ultimately lead to an automated heat treating operation, with high quality hardware, manufactured at minimum cost, as the end product.
Technical Paper

Ideas, Integrated Design and Analysis System

1968-02-01
680728
IDEAS (Integrated Design and Analysis System) is a new approach directed toward the rapid definition of design loading conditions and internal structural element loads needed for the sizing and analysis of the primary structure of an entire aircraft. It is an integrated collection of many different kinds of computer programs and formalized calculations which are performed in particular sequence. Complete integration is of prime significance. Output data from any one kind of computer program is in the precise format required as input for subsequently used programs of the system. System capability is sufficiently broad to provide state-of-the-art analysis procedures for both variable-sweep supersonic aircraft and fixed-wing subsonic aircraft. It treats all applicable flight maneuvers, landing and catapult conditions, taxiing conditions, gust and flutter analyses.
Technical Paper

Gulfstream II Aerodynamic Design

1967-02-01
670242
The Gulfstream II business jet is a low wing aircraft of moderate sweep featuring a T-tail arrangement and two aft-mounted turbofan engines. The paper outlines aerodynamic development of the configuration and control system, highlighting significant design decisions and aerodynamic characteristics with appropriate experimental data including force, pressure, and flow visualization results. Aerodynamic design considerations included: wing optimization to meet the requirements of high and low speed performance and a pitch-down stall break at all flight conditions while providing adequate fuel volume; nacelle-pylon-wing relationship for optimum drag, engine characteristics, and airplane balance; and an empennage arrangement providing satisfactory stability and control at all conceivable flight conditions. The Gulfstream II configuration provides strong aerodynamic resistance to inadvertent secondary stall entry and more than adequate recovery capability.
Technical Paper

Design, Fabrication, and Cost Relationships of Titanium Sheet Structures

1966-02-01
660327
A description of the design and fabrication cost relationships of formed titanium sheet structures is given. Emphasis is placed on the potential advantages of implementing an advanced hot forming concept and related equipment. The use of this concept and/or equipment will insure quality products at minimum cost by extending current design and fabrication limitations and reducing the number of tools, parts, assembly operations, and assembly fit-up time normally required for structural assembly.
Technical Paper

Design and Fabrication of a Pressurized Boron Composite Wing Box

1968-02-01
680314
The paper describes the development of the design and the fabrication procedures required to replace an existing aluminum section of wing structure with a part made of boron-epoxy. The wing box extension was selected as a significant aircraft demonstration component for boron-epoxy because it incorporates many of the problems associated with aircraft structures such as access covers, control surface mountings, contoured surfaces, and fuel pressurization; and because of the variety of loads and environmental conditions involved. Although the existing aluminum design is unpressurized, the demonstration component has been designed to include a pressurized cell in order to demonstrate the feasibility of building an integral fuel tank. Representative test data and specimens, design allowable philosophy used, and specific weight-strength comparisons with typical aircraft materials are presented. Process techniques used in boron laminate fabrication are discussed.
Technical Paper

Astronaut Part Task Trainers

1964-01-01
640493
Part task trainers are an integral and important group of training devices now being used in the manned space programs. These devices are used to train the astronauts in discrete portions of a flight profile. It may operate one day as a rendezvous trainer and the next as a lunar landing trainer. The device consists of a computer complex, simulated cabin interior, external out-the-window display, and an instructor's complex. Arriving at a design philosophy requires a good working knowledge of the purpose of this type of trainer and the state of the art of various electronic, optical, and mechanical devices required by the trainer. Selecting the computer and optical systems is a difficult task requiring many compromises and trade-offs to arrive at the best and most economical system possible.
Technical Paper

Applications for Flow Forming

1964-01-01
640202
The illustrated examples of cost reductions are from actual jobs that have been, or are, in production at the author's company. The actual examples are compared to estimated alternate methods. Emphasis is placed on the possible reductions in tooling, material, direct labor, and weight. Cost reduction techniques through the utilization of the work-hardening incurred when flow-forming are also discussed.
Technical Paper

An Experience Report: Step Stress Testing to Failure for Reliability Analysis of Electronic Equipment

1964-01-01
640604
This paper presents the results of a planned program to investigate step-stress-to-failure testing as a technique for design improvement and reliability evaluation of electronic equipment. The test philosophy is presented along with a discussion of the test set-up, method of data analysis, implications from test results, and advantages over present failure rate type testing. The implications and recommendations made are based on an actual test-to-failure performed on an item of modular electronic equipment.
Technical Paper

A Systems Approach to Space Support

1966-02-01
660688
A procedure is outlined which identifies the influencing factor which must be considered when formulating a space support plan. The plan is described as the “top document” used by both management and customer to guide the support aspects of a program. A systems approach to arrive at the Support Plan is presented along with examples of analysis techniques used to perform system trade-offs.
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