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Technical Paper

The Development of the Wiped-Film Rotating-Disk Evaporator for the Reclamation of Water at Microgravity

2002-07-15
2002-01-2397
This project is a Phase III SBIR contract between NASA and Water Reuse Technology (WRT). It covers the redesign, modification, and construction of the Wiped-Film Rotating-Disk (WFRD) evaporator for use in microgravity and its integration into a Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) system. VPCAR is a water processor technology for long duration space exploration applications. The system is designed as an engineering development unit specifically aimed at being integrated into NASA Johnson Space Center's Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Test Complex (BIO-Plex). The WFRD evaporator and the compressor are being designed and built by WRT. The balance of the VPCAR system and the integrated package are being designed and built by Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International, Inc. (HSSSI) under a subcontract with WRT. This paper provides a description of the VPCAR technology and the advances that are being incorporated into the unit.
Technical Paper

The Development of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) Engineering Development Unit

2004-07-19
2004-01-2495
This paper presents the results of a program to develop the next generation Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) system. VPCAR is a spacecraft water recycling system designed by NASA and constructed by Water Reuse Technology Inc. The technology has been identified by NASA to be the next generation water recycling system [1]. It is designed specifically for a Mars transit vehicle mission. This paper provides a description of the process and an evaluation of the performance of the new system. The equivalent system mass (ESM) is calculated and compared to the existing state-of-the art. A description of the contracting mechanism used to construct the new system is also provided.
Technical Paper

Testing and Development of New Catalysts for Vapor Phase Ammonia Oxidation

2003-07-07
2003-01-2502
Catalytic oxidation is an effective means of controlling the build up of ammonia and other trace gas contaminants within closed spaces. However, it sometimes leads to the formation of noxious gases that need to be removed in post-treatment systems. In addition, ammonia removal is an issue when regeneration of water from wastewater is considered since ammonia is a byproduct of urea decomposition. For example, the VPCAR (Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction) advanced water processor system includes an oxidation reactor for the destruction of ammonia and of other volatile organics that are not separated out in the evaporator due to their volatility. The oxidation of ammonia may produce nitrogen, nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and water vapor. The Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) for NO and NO2 are respectively 4.5 and 0.5 ppm whereas the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for N2O is 25 ppm.
Technical Paper

Status of the Orion Environmental Control and Life Support Architecture

2008-06-29
2008-01-2085
In 2007, the architecture of the Orion Environmental Control and Life Support System went through a major reassessment driven by overall vehicle weight considerations. The changes were initiated with the challenge to switch from a two fault tolerant based configuration to one that is one fault tolerant. This paper describes this design evolution.
Technical Paper

Status of ISS Oxygen Generation and Water Processor Assemblies

2003-07-07
2003-01-2691
Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International, Inc. (HSSSI) is under contract to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to develop a Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) for the international Space Station (ISS). The WPA produces potable quality water from humidity condensate, carbon dioxide reduction water, water obtained from fuel cells, reclaimed urine distillate, hand wash and oral hygiene waste waters. The Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) electrolyzes potable water from the Water Recovery System (WRS) to provide gaseous oxygen to the Space Station module atmosphere. The OGA produces oxygen for metabolic consumption by crew and biological specimens. The OGA also replenishes oxygen lost by experiment ingestion, airlock depressurization, CO2 venting, and leakage. As a byproduct, gaseous hydrogen is generated. The hydrogen will be supplied at a specified pressure range to support future utilization.
Technical Paper

Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System Coolant Loops

2003-07-07
2003-01-2568
The International Space Station (ISS) IATCS (Internal Active Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that use an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide was used initially as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms in the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing has demonstrated that the silver salt is rapidly depleted and not effective as a long-term biocide. Efforts are now underway to select an alternate biocide for the IATCS coolant loop with greatly improved performance. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to select several candidates for test trials.
Technical Paper

Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System Coolant - Phase II

2004-07-19
2004-01-2472
The ISS (International Space Station) ITCS (Internal Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that utilize an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide had previously been utilized as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms within the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing demonstrated that the silver salt was rapidly depleted, and did not act as an effective long-term biocide. Efforts to select an optimal alternate biocide for the ITCS coolant application have been underway and are now in the final stages. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to down-select to several candidates for test trials and was reported on previously.
Technical Paper

Sabatier CO2 Reduction System Design Status

2002-07-15
2002-01-2531
Carbon dioxide reduction in a closed loop life support system recovers water from otherwise waste carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Incorporation of a carbon dioxide reduction assembly (CRA) into the International Space Station life support system frees up thousands of pounds of payload capacity in the supporting Space Shuttle that would otherwise be required to transport water. Achievement of this water recovery goal requires coordination of the CRA design to work within the existing framework of the interface systems that are either already on orbit or well advanced in their development; namely, the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) and Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack is in its final design phase and is scarred to accept later installation of the CRA.
Technical Paper

Rotary Drum Separator and Pump for the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction System

2005-07-11
2005-01-2863
A trade study conducted in 2001 selected a rotary disk separator as the best candidate to meet the requirements for an International Space Station (ISS) Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA). The selected technology must provide micro-gravity gas/liquid separation and pump the liquid from 69 kPa (10 psia) at the gas/liquid interface to 124 kPa (18 psia) at the wastewater bus storage tank. The rotary disk concept, which has pedigree in other systems currently being built for installation on the ISS, failed to achieve the required pumping head within the allotted power. The separator discussed in this paper is a new design that was tested to determine compliance with performance requirements in the CRA. The drum separator and pump (DSP) design is similar to the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA) Rotary Separator Accumulator (RSA) in that it has a rotating assembly inside a stationary housing driven by a integral internal motor[1].
Technical Paper

Requirements and Potential for Enhanced EVA Information Interfaces

2003-07-07
2003-01-2413
NASA has long recognized the advantages of providing improved information interfaces to EVA astronauts and has pursued this goal through a number of development programs over the past decade. None of these activities or parallel efforts in industry and academia has so far resulted in the development of an operational system to replace or augment the current extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) Display and Controls Module (DCM) display and cuff checklist. Recent advances in display, communications, and information processing technologies offer exciting new opportunities for EVA information interfaces that can better serve the needs of a variety of NASA missions. Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI) has been collaborating with Simon Fraser University and others on the NASA Haughton Mars Project and with researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boeing, and Symbol Technologies in investigating these possibilities.
Technical Paper

Performance of WPA Conductivity Sensor During Two-Phase Fluid Flow in Microgravity

2003-07-07
2003-01-2693
The Conductivity Sensor designed for use in the Node 3 Water Processor Assembly (WPA) was based on the existing Space Shuttle application for the fuel cell water system. However, engineering analysis has determined that this sensor design is potentially sensitive to two- phase fluid flow (gas/liquid) in microgravity. The source for this sensitivity is the fact that free gas will become lodged between the sensor probe and the wall of the housing without the aid of buoyancy in 1-g. Once gas becomes lodged in the housing, the measured conductivity will be offset based on the volume of occluded gas. A development conductivity sensor was flown on the NASA Microgravity Plane (KC-135) to measure the offset, which was determined to range between 0 and 50%. This range approximates the offset experienced in 1-g gas sensitivity testing.
Technical Paper

Performance Testing of a New Membrane Evaporator for the Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporator System (TIMES) Water Processor

2002-07-15
2002-01-2525
The TIMES system was evaluated to determine its ability to process reverse osmosis (RO) brine as one of the Advanced Water Processor steps. Since preliminary testing performed in 1998 showed that the membrane typically used in the process (Nafion 117) offered a very poor ammonia rejection, a search for an alternate membrane exhibiting high ammonia rejection capability was initiated under NASA-JSC funding. This investigation has resulted in the selection of a PolyVinylAlcohol (PVA) composite membrane as a replacement. When processing RO brine and untreated human urine as feeds, the Pervap 2201 membrane showed a 96% ammonia rejection over a large range of ammonia concentration. The water permeation rates in both laboratory-scale and pilot scale testings were also similar to the Nafion. The water permeance of the Pervap 2201 was approximately 7.5 kg/h/m2/atm (1.1 lb/h/m2/psi).
Technical Paper

Performance Characteristics of a High Intensity Cryogenic Flow Boiler

2003-07-07
2003-01-2507
Hamilton Sundstrand has been working on the development of a new cryogenic flow boiler based on its patented compact, high-intensity cooler (CHIC) technology intended to provide low weight and volume and overcome freezing problems associated with cryogen use in EVA spacesuit cooling. Tests of the prototype device resulting from that effort have now been completed. The test data demonstrate that the design is extremely resistant to freezing the heat transport fluid as anticipated. Highly effective heat transfer is achieved in a compact device combining the functions of several conventional heat exchangers. This novel heat exchanger, a “normal flow” layered impingement arrangement should provide a very compact solution to any heat transfer applications where the cold fluid operates below the warm fluid's freezing point. Test results are generally consistent with design analyses for the prototype.
Technical Paper

Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger

2002-07-15
2002-01-2415
This paper describes the New Shuttle Orbiter's Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger (HX) and associated MPLM cooling system. Heat Exchanger (HX) design and system performance characteristics of the system are presented.
Technical Paper

Liquid Cooling Garment Adaptation to Enhance Surgical Outcomes

2003-07-07
2003-01-2339
Hypothermia is a well documented problem for surgical patients and is historically addressed by the use of a variety of warming aids and devices applied to the patient before, during, and after surgery. Their effectiveness is limited in many surgeries by practical constraints of surgical access, and hypothermia remains a significant concern. Increasing the temperature of the operating room has been proposed as an alternative solution. However, operating room temperatures must be cool enough to limit thermal stress on the surgical team despite the heat transport barriers imposed by protective sterile garments. Space technology in the form of the liquid cooling garment worn by EVA astronauts answers this need. Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI) has been working with Hartford Hospital to adapt liquid cooling garment technology for use by surgical teams in order to allow them to work comfortably in warmer operating room environments.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Extravehicular Activity Requirements and Techniques at an Arctic Mars Analog Field Science Base

2001-07-09
2001-01-2199
Designing an EVA system for Mars’s exploration will require a thorough understanding of the mission. Data are available from NASA mission studies, preliminary EVA requirements document, and Apollo program experience. However, additional relevant field experience is required to complete the picture. NASA has addressed this through field tests using prototype EVA equipment and field science programs like the Haughton Mars Project on Devon Island. There, a group of scientists conducts scientific exploration in and around an impact crater in a polar desert similar to expected exploration sites on Mars. Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems Intl. (HSSSI) EVA system engineers participated in the summer 2000 field research program to gain firsthand knowledge of field science activities. By using a Mars EVA system mockup, they were also able to conduct experiments on EVA system impacts on field science tasks. This field experience and some of its results are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Waste Collector Subsystem Risk Mitigation Experiment Design Improvements

2002-07-15
2002-01-2304
The International Space Station Waste Collector Subsystem Risk Mitigation Experiment (ISS WCS RME) was flown as the primary (Shuttle) WCS on Space Shuttle flight STS-104 (ISS-7A) in July 2001, to validate new design enhancements. In general, the WCS is utilized for collecting, storing, and compacting fecal & associated personal hygiene waste, in a zero gravity environment. In addition, the WCS collects and transfers urine to the Shuttle waste storage tank. All functions are executed while controlling odors and providing crew comfort. The ISS WCS previously flew on three Shuttle flights as the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) WCS, as it was originally designed to support extended duration Space Shuttle flights up to 30 days in length. Soon after its third flight, the Space Shuttle Program decided to no longer require 30 day extended mission duration capability and provided the EDO WCS to the ISS Program.
Technical Paper

ISS IATCS Coolant Loop Biocide Implementation

2008-06-29
2008-01-2159
The proliferation and growth of microorganisms in the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) has been of significant concern since 2001. Initial testing and assessments of biocides to determine bacterial disinfection capability, material compatibility, stability (rate of oxidative degradation and identification of degradation products), solubility, application methodology, impact on coolant toxicity hazard level, and impact on environmental control and life support systems identified a prioritized list of acceptable biocidal agents including glutaraldehyde, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), and methyl isothiazolone. Glutaraldehyde at greater than 25 ppm was eliminated due to NASA concerns with safety and toxicity and methyl isothiazolone was eliminated from further consideration due to ineffectiveness against biofilms and toxicity at higher concentrations.
Technical Paper

Effects of Enhanced Pressure Suit Ankle Mobility on Locomotion on Uneven Terrain

2000-07-10
2000-01-2481
Previous studies have shown that a multi-axis ankle joint accommodating abduction and adduction as well as ankle flexion/extension and rotation could be practically incorporated into a pressure suit. Several candidate configurations were manufactured and the performance of the enhanced ankle joints evaluated. Experience has suggested that these enhancements could be of significant benefit for planetary exploration missions requiring extensive walking over uneven terrain. During 1999, prototype pressure suit boots incorporating a multi-axis ankle joint configuration were manufactured. Their effect on balance stability and locomotion capabilities across slopes and over uneven surfaces in a pressurized spacesuit were evaluated in a series of 1-g experiments. This paper describes the enhanced test boots, the test procedure, and the results. Design refinements and further testing are recommended.
Technical Paper

Development, Testing, and Packaging of a Redundant Regenerable Carbon Dioxide Removal System (RRCRS)

2002-07-15
2002-01-2530
Enhancements to the Regenerable Carbon Dioxide Removal System (RCRS) have undergone full-scale, pre-prototype development and testing to demonstrate a redundant system within the volume allotted for the RCRS on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The concept for a Redundant Regenerable Carbon Dioxide Removal System (RRCRS) utilizes the existing canister of the RCRS, but partitions it into two, independent, two-bed systems. This partitioning allows for two, fully capable RCRS units to be packaged within the original volume, thus reducing stowage volume and launch weight when compared to the flight RCRS plus the backup LiOH system. This paper presents the results of development and testing of a full-scale, pre-prototype RRCRS and includes an overview of the design concept for a redundant system that can be packaged within the existing envelope.
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