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Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions Evaluation of Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI), State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, Aromatics and FAME)

2007-10-29
2007-01-4082
In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs.
Technical Paper

Truck Braking Standards and Regulations in Japan

1989-02-01
890867
This paper introduces the Japanese standards and regulations of automobiles with brakes as the central subject and clarifies the difference from those of Europe and USA by comparison. Further, this paper describes not only the application status of the standards and regulations in Japan but also the features of structure and performance of Japanese trucks that are designed and produced under such standards and regulations. It can be said that the Japanese trucks are comparatively simple in structure but are in a level equal to or higher than European and USA automobiles in respect of performance. Also in respect of the international harmonization, the internationalization of standards is being conducted in Japan on the basis of ISO and the internationalization for regulations is considered to be under preparation.
Technical Paper

The Study of Particle Number Reduction Using After-Treatment Systems for a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-1423
To reduce ultra fine particle number concentration from a heavy-duty diesel engine, the effects of diesel fuel property and after-treatment systems were studied. The reduction of ultra fine particle number concentration over steady state mode using an 8 liter turbocharged and after-cooled diesel engine was evaluated. PM size distribution was measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The evaluation used a commercially available current diesel fuel (Sulfur Content: 0.0036 wt%), high sulfur diesel fuel (Sulfur Content: 0.046 wt%) and low sulfur diesel fuel (Sulfur Content: 0.007 wt%). The after-treatment systems were an oxidation catalyst, a wire-mesh type DPF (Diesel Particle Filter) and a wall-flow type catalyzed DPF. The results show that fine particle number concentration is reduced with a low sulfur fuel, an oxidation catalyst, a wire-mesh type DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) and wall flow type catalyzed DPF, respectively.
Technical Paper

The Study of NOx and PM Reduction Using Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction System for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1576
To reduce NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine, the effects of urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were studied. Proto type urea SCR system was composed of NO oxidation catalyst, SCR catalyst and ammonia (NH3) reduction catalyst. The NOx reduction performance of urea SCR system was improved by a new zeolite type catalyst and mixer for urea distribution at the steady state operating conditions. NOx and PM reduction performance of the urea SCR system with DPF was evaluated over JE05 mode of Japan. The NOx reduction efficiency of the urea SCR catalyst system was 72% at JE05 mode. The PM reduction efficiency of the urea SCR catalyst system with DPF was 93% at JE05 mode. Several kinds of un-regulated matters were detected including NH3 and N2O leak from the exhaust gas. It is necessary to have further study for detailed measurements for un-regulated emissions from urea solution.
Technical Paper

The Study of NOx Reduction Using Plasma-assisted SCR System for a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0310
To reduce NOx emissions from a heavy-duty engine at low exhaust temperature conditions, the plasma-assisted SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system was evaluated. The plasma-assisted SCR system is mainly composed of an ammonia gas supply system and a plasma reactor including a pellet type SCR catalyst. The preliminary test with simulated gases of diesel exhaust showed an improvement in the NOx reduction performance by means of the plasma-assisted SCR system, even below 150°C conditions. Furthermore, NOx reduction ratio was improved up to 77% at 110°C with increase in the catalyst volume. Also NOx emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine over the transient test mode in Japan (JE05) were reduced by the plasma-assisted SCR system. However, unregulated emissions, e.g., aldehydes, were increased with the plasma environment. This paper reports the advantages and disadvantages of the plasma-assisted SCR system for a heavy-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Study on Exterior Idling Sound Quality Evaluation Method for Diesel Engine Trucks

1999-05-17
1999-01-1739
In diesel engine trucks, the sound quality improvement as well as the noise level reduction is demanded because of their annoying exterior noise. The semantic differential method was applied to evaluate the sound quality of trucks. In order to improve the analytical accuracy, subjects who can evaluate the characteristics of sound quality were statistically selected among all the subjects. Comfortability and powerfulness were extracted as the principal components by using the data of the selected subjects. It has been clarified that the comfortability strongly relates to high frequency element ratio, high frequency level, etc. The powerfulness strongly relates to the Zwicker loudness.
Technical Paper

Study of 2-LEG NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst System for HD Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0211
A 2-LEG NOx Storage-Reduction (NSR) catalyst system is one of potential after-treatment technology to meet stringent NOx and PM emissions standards as Post New Long Term (Japanese 2009 regulation) and US'10. Concerning NOx reduction using NSR catalyst, a secondary fuel injection is necessary to make fuel-rich exhaust condition during the NOx reduction, and causes its fuel penalty. Since fuel injected in the high-temperature (∼250 degrees Celsius) exhaust instantly reacts with oxygen in common diesel exhaust, the proportion of fuel consumption to reduce the NOx stored on NSR catalyst is relatively small. A 2-LEG NSR catalyst system has the decreasing exhaust flow mechanism during NOx reduction, and the potential to improve the NOx reduction and fuel penalty. Therefore, this paper studies the 2-LEG NSR catalyst system. The after-treatment system consists of NSR catalysts, a secondary fuel injection system, flow controlled valves and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF).
Technical Paper

Sound Quality of Audible Warning Devices

1993-05-01
931346
A large-size truck is equipped with a variety of audible warning devices. These warning devices are grouped into three categories by their usage, i.e., malfunction type, proximity type and attention type. The sound characteristics of warning sound that are investigated for each type are signal envelope, fundamental frequency and the number of harmonics. Many sounds are synthesized with nine fundamental frequencies, ten or fewer harmonics and two signal envelopes. With volume fixed, these sounds are evaluated using an unpleasantness rating scale, and the functional impression of these sound is also chosen. From the results, the range of fundamental frequencies, the number of harmonics and the shapes of signal envelopes for preferable sound quality are determined.
Technical Paper

Ride Comfort Evaluation of Horizontal Vibration in Tractor-Trailer Considering Human Body Motion of Driver

2013-04-08
2013-01-0992
In a tractor-trailer, ride comfort affected by horizontal human body motions, so called “wavy” and “shaky” feelings, is at issue. Insight about “wavy” and “shaky” feelings which is important for efficient vehicle development is not enough. Experiments using 6-axis motion generator and motion capture and inverse-analysis using multi-body human model indicated the characteristics of each feeling. Motion observation and transfer function indicated that while a bad subjective score of “wavy” feeling corresponds to same-phase roll motion of chest and pelvis up to 0.7Hz, “shaky” correlates to an antiphase of them around 2Hz. By multiple regression, dominant vibration components of the human body and the vehicle to subjective evaluation of the feelings above were identified. Explanatory variables for the “wavy” feeling are roll rate and lateral jerk and those for the “shaky” are lateral acceleration and longitudinal acceleration.
Technical Paper

R&D and Analysis of Energy Consumption Improvement Factor for Advanced Clean Energy HEVs

2005-10-24
2005-01-3828
Ultra-low energy consumption and ultra-low emission vehicle technologies have been developed by combining petroleum-alternative clean energy with a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system. Their component technologies cover a wide range of vehicle types, such as passenger cars, delivery trucks, and city buses, adsorbed natural gas (ANG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and dimethyl ether (DME) as fuels, series (S-HEV) and series/parallel (SP-HEV) for hybrid types, and as energy storage systems (ESSs), flywheel batteries (FWBs), capacitors, and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. Evaluation tests confirmed that the energy consumption of the developed vehicles is 1/2 of that of conventional diesel vehicles, and the exhaust emission levels are comparable to Japan's ultra-low emission vehicle (J-ULEV) level.
Technical Paper

New Medium Duty Truck Model “HINO FA14 Series” for the U.S. Market

1988-10-01
881852
Hino Motors is about to launch a new truck model FA as a family product of the model FB class 5 category trucks which have been sold since 1986, Model FA, a class 3 category cab-over-engine truck has a GVW of 13,500 Lbs. and is powered by a 3.8 liter direct injection turbocharged diesel engine which produces 125 HP in conformity with federal exhaust gas emission regulations for 50 states. The new truck was designed and developed to satisfy several principal design objectives such as excellent maneuverability, driving comfort, superior fuel economy as well as sufficient reliability and durability within the simplest possible structure. This paper describes its design objectives, features focusing on cab and engine and technologies devoted to the development.
Technical Paper

Nano Particle Emission Evaluation of State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI) and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, FAME, Aromatics and Distillation)

2007-10-29
2007-01-4083
Newly designed laboratory measurement system, which reproduces particle number size distributions of both nuclei and accumulation mode particles in exhaust emissions, was developed. It enables continuous measurement of nano particle emissions in the size range between 5 and 1000 nm. Evaluations of particle number size distributions were conducted for diesel vehicles with a variety of emission aftertreatment devices and for gasoline vehicles with different combustion systems. For diesel vehicles, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (urea-SCR) system and catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) were evaluated. For gasoline vehicles, Lean-burn Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI), Stoichiometric DISI and Multi Point Injection (MPI) were evaluated. Japanese latest transient test cycles were used for the evaluation: JE05 mode driving cycle for heavy duty vehicles and JC08 mode driving cycle for light duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Van Type Truck Aerodynamics

1987-11-08
871237
To reduce the vehicle fuel consumption at high speed, it is very effective to minimize the aerodynamic resistance of the vehicle, which forms most of the vehicle running resistance at high speed. This paper presents a reduction of the aerodynamic resistance of van type truck through the wind tunnel tests using 1/5 scaled model. Firstly, the aerodynamically desirable cab shape for cargo type truck is investigated by changing main cab shape factors such as corner curvatures. Secondly, several effective attachments for Van type truck are investigated, and lastly, the effect of these aerodynamic improvements on the fuel consumption are clearified by vehicle running test.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Low-Temperature Performance of The NOx Reduction Efficiency on the Urea-SCR Catalysts

2013-04-08
2013-01-1076
Diesel engine has a good fuel economy and high durability and used widely for power source such as heavy duty in the world. On the other hand, it is required to reduce NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) and PM (Particulate Matter) emissions further from diesel exhaust gases to preserve atmosphere. The urea-SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system is the most promising measures to reduce NOx emissions. DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) system is commercialized for PM reduction. However, in case that a vehicle has a slow speed as an urban area driving, a diesel exhaust temperature is too low to activate SCR catalyst for NOx reduction in diesel emissions. Moreover, the diesel exhaust temperature becomes lower as a future engine has less fuel consumption. The purpose of this study is reduction of NOx emission from a heavy-duty diesel engine using the Urea SCR system at the low temperature.
Technical Paper

Impacts on Engine Oil Performance by the Use of Waste Cooking Oil as Diesel Fuel

2011-08-30
2011-01-2115
Technical impacts on engine oil performance by the use of waste cooking oil as bio-diesel fuel (BDF) are not well understood while the industry has made significant progress in studies on quality specifications and infrastructure. The authors, who consist of a consortium organized by Japan Lubricating Oil Society (JALOS), examined technical effects of waste cooking oil as BDF on engine oil performance such as wear and high temperature corrosion using vehicle fleets and bench tests to identify technical issues of engine oil meeting the use of BDF. The study brings fundamental information about technical impacts of BDF on engine oils.
Technical Paper

Impact of Oil-derived Sulfur and Phosphorus on Diesel NOx Storage Reduction Catalyst - JCAP II Oil WG Report

2006-10-16
2006-01-3312
Emission regulations for diesel-powered vehicles have been gradually tightening. Installation of after-treatment devices such as diesel particulate filters (DPF), NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalysts, and so on is indispensable to satisfy rigorous limits of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Japan Clean Air Program II Oil Working Group (JCAPII Oil WG) has been investigating the effect of engine oil on advanced diesel after-treatment devices. First of all, we researched the impact of oil-derived ash on continuous regeneration-type diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF), and already reported that the less sulfated ash in oil gave rise to lower pressure drop across CR-DPF [1]. In this paper, impact of oil-derived sulfur and phosphorus on NSR catalyst was investigated using a 4L direct injection common-rail diesel engine with turbo-intercooler. This engine equipped with NSR catalyst meets the Japanese new short-term emission regulations.
Technical Paper

Impact of Oil-derived Ash on Continuous Regeneration-type Diesel Particulate Filter - JCAPII Oil WG Report

2004-06-08
2004-01-1887
Impact of oil-derived ash on the pressure drop of continuous regeneration-type diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF) was investigated through 600hrs running test at maximum power point on a 6.9L diesel engine, which meets the Japanese long-term emission regulations enacted in 1998, using approximately 50ppm sulfur content fuel. Sulfated ash content of test oils were varied as 0.96, 1.31, and 1.70 mass%, respectively. During the running test, the exhaust pressure drop through CR-DPF was measured. And after the test, the ventilation resistance through CR-DPF was also evaluated before and after the baking process, which was applied to eliminate the effect of soot accumulated in CR-DPF. The results revealed that the less sulfated ash in oil gave rise to lower pressure drop across CR-DPF. According to microscope examination of the baked DPF, ash was mainly accumulated on the wall surface of CR-DPF, and that seemed to be related to the magnitude of pressure drop caused by ash.
Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Performance of Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

2008-10-06
2008-01-2494
Biodiesel Fuel (BDF) Research Work Group works on identifying technological issues on the use of high biodiesel blends (over 5 mass%) in conventional diesel vehicles under the Japan Auto-Oil Program started in 2007. The Work Group conducts an analytical study on the issues to develop measures to be taken by fuel products and vehicle manufacturers, and to produce new technological findings that could contribute to the study of its introduction in Japan, including establishment of a national fuel quality standard covering high biodiesel blends. For evaluation of the impacts of high biodiesel blends on performance of diesel particulate filter system, a wide variety of biodiesel blendstocks were prepared, ranging from some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to another type of BDF such as hydrotreated biodiesel (HBD). Evaluation was mainly conducted on blend levels of 20% and 50%, but also conducted on 10% blends and neat FAME in some tests.
Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Exhaust Emissions to Advanced Aftertreatment Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-1292
In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. In the impact on exhaust emissions, the impact of high biodiesel blends into diesel fuel on diesel emissions was evaluated. The wide variety of biodiesel blendstock, which included not only some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters(FAME) but also hydrofined biodiesel(HBD) and Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel(FTD), were selected to evaluate. The main blend level evaluated was 5, 10 and 20% and the higher blend level over 20% was also evaluated in some tests. The main advanced technologies for exhaust aftertreatment systems were diesel particulate filter(DPF), Urea selective catalytic reduction (Urea-SCR) and the combination of DPF and NOx storage reduction catalyst(NSR).
Technical Paper

Formability of Deep Oil Sump for Heavy-Duty Truck Engines Using Vibration Damping Steel Sheets

1994-03-01
940944
Recently, as one of the effective measures for engine noise reduction, vibration damping steel sheets (VDSS) have been increasingly applied to engine oil sumps. This paper describes the formability of VDSS. Various factors closely related to drawability are considered. This study has been carried out in a production engineering process of manufacturing exceedingly deep, single blank sheet, oil sump for heavy-duty truck diesel engines. Some treatment of the surface of the VDSS was found to be a principal factor influencing deep drawability.
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