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Technical Paper

The Development of Low Noise Engine on Hino New “H” Series

1990-02-01
900347
This paper introduces the details of a low noise design realized by fully utilizing the theoretical methods for the prediction of noise and vibration, applied to Hino's new “H07D” engine. In the development of this engine, the reduction of the vehicle interior noise was one of the highest priority aims. For this purpose, the influence of the engine noise on the vehicle noise was firstly investigated to identify the major noise sources. Then, making best use of noise prediction techniques (FEM, etc.), the noise radiation mechanisms were clarified and the components identified as major noise sources were re-designed. In these improvements, the theoretical techniques also predicted carefully the effect of design changes on the related components, including their installation in an engine as required. These procedures achieved a remarkable noise reduction of the engine by cost effective methods.
Technical Paper

Study on Exterior Idling Sound Quality Evaluation Method for Diesel Engine Trucks

1999-05-17
1999-01-1739
In diesel engine trucks, the sound quality improvement as well as the noise level reduction is demanded because of their annoying exterior noise. The semantic differential method was applied to evaluate the sound quality of trucks. In order to improve the analytical accuracy, subjects who can evaluate the characteristics of sound quality were statistically selected among all the subjects. Comfortability and powerfulness were extracted as the principal components by using the data of the selected subjects. It has been clarified that the comfortability strongly relates to high frequency element ratio, high frequency level, etc. The powerfulness strongly relates to the Zwicker loudness.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality of Audible Warning Devices

1993-05-01
931346
A large-size truck is equipped with a variety of audible warning devices. These warning devices are grouped into three categories by their usage, i.e., malfunction type, proximity type and attention type. The sound characteristics of warning sound that are investigated for each type are signal envelope, fundamental frequency and the number of harmonics. Many sounds are synthesized with nine fundamental frequencies, ten or fewer harmonics and two signal envelopes. With volume fixed, these sounds are evaluated using an unpleasantness rating scale, and the functional impression of these sound is also chosen. From the results, the range of fundamental frequencies, the number of harmonics and the shapes of signal envelopes for preferable sound quality are determined.
Technical Paper

Ride Comfort Evaluation of Horizontal Vibration in Tractor-Trailer Considering Human Body Motion of Driver

2013-04-08
2013-01-0992
In a tractor-trailer, ride comfort affected by horizontal human body motions, so called “wavy” and “shaky” feelings, is at issue. Insight about “wavy” and “shaky” feelings which is important for efficient vehicle development is not enough. Experiments using 6-axis motion generator and motion capture and inverse-analysis using multi-body human model indicated the characteristics of each feeling. Motion observation and transfer function indicated that while a bad subjective score of “wavy” feeling corresponds to same-phase roll motion of chest and pelvis up to 0.7Hz, “shaky” correlates to an antiphase of them around 2Hz. By multiple regression, dominant vibration components of the human body and the vehicle to subjective evaluation of the feelings above were identified. Explanatory variables for the “wavy” feeling are roll rate and lateral jerk and those for the “shaky” are lateral acceleration and longitudinal acceleration.
Technical Paper

Oxidative Deterioration Properties of FAME-Blended Diesel Fuel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0924
The correlation between newly approved EN 15751 and the internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) due to fuel oxidative deterioration has not been made clear. In the present research, the Rancimat method was slightly modified to research the relationship between fuel oxidative deterioration and the deterioration products generated from the fuel. After heating fuel at 120 to 150°C for a set period, insoluble deterioration products (IDID-like substances) were generated and their weights were measured. At the same time, the shifts of the conductivity in trap water were analyzed from a new perspective, and its relationship with the deterioration products was investigated. At 120°C and 130°C, conductivity rising rates after the inflection point (this set of data represents the rate of organic acid generation in the fuel, and we named “Oxidation rate”) exhibited a strong correlation with the quantity of deterioration products.
Technical Paper

Noise Reduction of Diesel Engine for Heavy Duty Vehicles

1989-02-01
890128
Noise reduction of diesel engines installed in heavy duty vehicles is one of the highest priorities from the viewpoints of meeting the regulations for urban traffic noise abatement and noise reduction in the cabin for lightening fatigue with comfortable long driving. It is necessary that noise reduction measures then be applied to those causes. Noise reduction measures for the diesel engine can be classified into five categories on the noise radiation block-diagram. These are, reduction of combustion and mechanical forces, deformation and vibration control of cylinder block, vibration control of fastened components, prevention of standing wave and close fitting shields. All noise reduction measures for the diesel engine researched for the purpose of practical use are fully described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Noise Generating Mechanism at Idling for a Four-cylinder In-line Diesel Engine

2003-05-05
2003-01-1720
The separation of combustion noise and mechanical noise from the total noise of a four-cylinder in-line diesel engine at idling was carried out with high accuracy by changing the fuel injection timing. The mechanical noise, which accounts for the major share at 93%, was then separated into noises from the typical mechanical causes, and the valve train was found to be the major noise source. From analysis of the noise generating mechanism for the valve train, it was clarified that the noise was caused mainly by the gear rattling owing to the variation in the camshaft drive torque.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Thermal Fatigue Evaluation Method for Cast Iron

2013-04-08
2013-01-0393
We have developed a new test method in which temperature of cavity lip of a piston alone during engine rotation is reproduced, cavity lip strain is measured. As the results of strain measurement using the test method in a condition that simulates of conventional engines, a strain behavior was out-of-phase. And in a condition that simulates of high-load engines in future, strain behavior was clockwise-diamond cycle. It was found from the result of the test method developed that strain increased on the cavity lip. The fatigue life of the cavity lip was evaluated using the strain measured and isothermal fatigue curves which obtained by the strain controlled isothermal fatigue test. The result of engine durability test has revealed that the developed method was valid for thermal fatigue evaluation of the cavity lip.
Technical Paper

Impacts on Engine Oil Performance by the Use of Waste Cooking Oil as Diesel Fuel

2011-08-30
2011-01-2115
Technical impacts on engine oil performance by the use of waste cooking oil as bio-diesel fuel (BDF) are not well understood while the industry has made significant progress in studies on quality specifications and infrastructure. The authors, who consist of a consortium organized by Japan Lubricating Oil Society (JALOS), examined technical effects of waste cooking oil as BDF on engine oil performance such as wear and high temperature corrosion using vehicle fleets and bench tests to identify technical issues of engine oil meeting the use of BDF. The study brings fundamental information about technical impacts of BDF on engine oils.
Technical Paper

Gear Tooth Contact Marking Measurement By Image Processing

1985-11-11
852274
Tooth contact marking of gears is an important quality characteristic that affects tooth strength and gear noise. Tooth contact marking measurement is generally done by painting the tooth surfaces of two meshed gears, rotating the gears and visually observing contact marks. Since it requires much working hours and experience to judge such a measurement, a method of measuring contact tooth markers by image processing has been developed. In this measurement method, the tooth surfaces of rotating gears are continuously observed by a TV camera, and the images are stored in an image memory device. Such quantities as the tooth surface size and tooth surface brightness level are set as initial settings, and the set values are compared with the observed images by a microcomputer to give the results of the measurement.
Technical Paper

Formability of Deep Oil Sump for Heavy-Duty Truck Engines Using Vibration Damping Steel Sheets

1994-03-01
940944
Recently, as one of the effective measures for engine noise reduction, vibration damping steel sheets (VDSS) have been increasingly applied to engine oil sumps. This paper describes the formability of VDSS. Various factors closely related to drawability are considered. This study has been carried out in a production engineering process of manufacturing exceedingly deep, single blank sheet, oil sump for heavy-duty truck diesel engines. Some treatment of the surface of the VDSS was found to be a principal factor influencing deep drawability.
Technical Paper

Experiments on the Coupling and Transmission Behavior of Crankshaft Torsional Bending and Longitudinal Vibrations in High Speed Engines

1983-11-07
830882
The coupling behavior of the torsional, bending, and longitudinal vibrations in the crankshaft is described. The incidental excitation forces under crankshaft torsional vibration due to reciprocating and rotating masses are derived theoretically. Experiments on the coupling behavior of the crankshaft vibrations and the excitation behavior in the engine structure were performed in a four-cylinder automotive engine; their results are discussed.
Technical Paper

Experimental Modal Analysis for Cylinder Block-Crankshaft Substructure Systems of Six-cylinder In-line Diesel Engines

2001-04-30
2001-01-1421
A newly developed OHC (Over-Head Camshaft) prototype of a six-cylinder in-line diesel engine (with bore size: 114mm, stroke size: 130mm) was studied, comparing with the previous version of OHV (Over-Head Valve) type engine (with bore size: 110mm, stroke size: 130mm). It was found that the new type of cylinder block (with 130.8 kg of mass) has significantly lower natural frequencies than those for the previous type of cylinder block (with 133.2 kg of mass). Furthermore, slightly more predominant engine noise and vibration were induced in the new engine. The vibration behavior and the excitation force transmission characteristics were investigated by EMA (Experimental Modal Analysis). We performed a series of impact tests for (1) free-free cylinder block, (2) free-free crankshaft substructure with torsional damper and flywheel attached, and (3) the case where (1) and (2) are assembled together.
Technical Paper

Effects of Alloying Elements on Wear Resistance of Automobile Cast Iron Materials

2014-04-01
2014-01-1011
Wear resistance is the important characteristics of cast iron materials for automobile components. Because the phenomenon of wear is a highly complicated mechanism involving many factors such as surface conditions, chemical reactions with lubricants, metals, and physics, it has not been fully explained. Therefore, it will be necessary to confirm and explain the wear mechanism to develop effective improvements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural change behavior and effects of alloying elements when the material top surface becomes worn, in order to improve the wear resistance of cylinder liners and other cast iron materials. For this purpose, several types of prototype materials were produced, and the relationship between components and wear resistance was investigated by using a laser microscope for quantitative observation of the degree of pearlite microstructure fineness.
Technical Paper

Development of an Intelligent Truck in ASV-2 Project in Japan

2001-10-01
2001-01-3404
The Advanced Safety Vehicle (ASV) project phase 2 was organized by the Japanese ministry of lands, infrastructures and transport in 1996 as a five year project. Hino Motors participated in the project and developed an intelligent truck “HINO ASV-2”. HINO ASV-2 was equipped with safety systems for accident prevention and accident avoidance, which were most effective in reducing accidents in freight transport. These intelligent systems aimed to reduce driving fatigue, minimize the chance of driver’s mistake, and prevent the occurrence of accidents. Human-machine interface, and front underrun protection device were also studied. Through the development of the ASV systems, the feasibility and basic functions of these systems were studied. Further development is necessary to implement the ASV systems in production vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Multigrade Engine Oil for Improved Wear Resistance in Heavy Vehicle Diesel Engines-PART II: Development of a 10W-30 Oil for Diesel Engine Use

1985-10-01
852135
The purpose of the investigation presented here was to develop a high quality SAE 10W-30 engine lubricating oil to meet the heavy duty operating conditions of trucks. The operation of their engines is predicted to become more severe in future because of the trend toward higher power output, nore severe regulation of exhaust emissions and noise as well as the increasing demand for better fuel economy. To meet these demands, an improvement of the wear resistance of engine lubricating oil was considered to be the most important aspect for the development of high performance diesel engines in the future. The engine test developed was able to evaluate various experimental oils by observing wear resistance of the valve train which is considered to be one of the most severe tri-bological conditions. The best oils were determined by optimum selection of the amount and type of detergent, ashless dispersant and zinc dithiophosphate.
Technical Paper

Development of Materials for Gear with Superior Impact Wear Resistance

2015-04-14
2015-01-0517
The friction pattern on the chamfers of sleeves and dog gears is a combination of peeling and adhesive wear caused by the formation and propagation of fine cracks. The effect of additional elements on wear were checked by making a test apparatus capable of performing evaluations on test pieces equivalent to those using actual parts. The results showed that the addition of B, Ti-Nb helped improve wear resistance. This is attributed to enhanced toughness and reduced peeling due to the formation of a texture. A 45% reduction in wear was achieved in actual parts tests on steel with added B, Ti-Nb.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Reduction of Engine Front Noise Induced by the Vibration of the Crankshaft System

1993-05-01
931336
This paper describes the investigation of the mechanisms of engine front noise generation and the corresponding countermeasures employed in the development of Hino's medium duty diesel engine. The engine front noise, which had a noise peak in the 630 Hz 1/3 octave band, was investigated by experiment and it was concluded that there were two mechanisms as follows: 1) Combustion pressure excites the crankshaft. Noise is generated by the crankshaft pulley which vibrates with the crankshaft system mode shapes. 2) The cavity between the torsional damper and the timing gear case resonates as a result of the vibration of the torsional damper. Noise caused by the acoustic resonance is emitted to the front of the engine. Using both experimental and analytical methods, crankshaft vibration and acoustic resonance were reduced, thus yielding a substantial noise reduction.
Technical Paper

Advanced Safety Technologies for Large Trucks

2007-08-05
2007-01-3589
Large truck accidents sometimes result in severe damages or give large disturbance of traffic and there are demands of improving vehicle safety characteristics. Main types of traffic accidents concerned are rear-end collision and single accident. As countermeasures for rear-end collisions, world-first collision mitigation brake for commercial vehicles; Pre-crash Safety System, was developed. If there is possibility of collision, warning to driver and brake control intervention is carried out in stepwise fashion and collision speed is decreased. To achieve higher effect in collision mitigation, it is necessary to activate warning or brake-force in earlier timing. Inter-vehicle or infrastructure-vehicle communication offer promising prospect. Tractor-trailer combinations show some instable behaviors. “Roll Stability Assist” and “Vehicle Stability Control” were developed to assist drivers to avoid the occurrence of these instable behaviors.
Technical Paper

A Study on Reducing Cooling loss in a Partially Insulated Piston for Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1276
To improve the thermal efficiency of an engine, it is particularly important to reduce the cooling loss from the combustion gas to the combustion chamber wall, which constitutes a major proportion of the total loss [1]. Previous studies addressing cooling loss reduction attempted to use ceramic in place of the conventional aluminum or iron alloys, but this led to a reduction in the volumetric efficiency and increased smoke emissions. This was caused by the ceramics having both a low thermal conductivity and high heat capacity, relative to aluminum and iron. These characteristics cause the piston wall temperature, which rises during combustion, to remain high during the intake stroke, thus increasing the intake temperature and reducing the volumetric efficiency. This increases the smoke emissions [2].
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