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Technical Paper

The Development of High-Performance Viscous-Rubber Damper for Higher Boost Turbocharged and Charge-Cooled Diesel Engine

1991-02-01
910630
A newly developed viscous-rubber damper, which employed an innovative structure and a new heat resistant rubber, solved some tough problems. This paper dealt more closely with the features of the new viscous-rubber damper and the new calculation method for the viscous-rubber damper. This damper has been employed for Hino new K13C (K-II) higher boost turbocharged and air to air charge-cooled diesel engine, which has extreme severity on the torsional vibration.
Technical Paper

Oxidative Deterioration Properties of FAME-Blended Diesel Fuel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0924
The correlation between newly approved EN 15751 and the internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) due to fuel oxidative deterioration has not been made clear. In the present research, the Rancimat method was slightly modified to research the relationship between fuel oxidative deterioration and the deterioration products generated from the fuel. After heating fuel at 120 to 150°C for a set period, insoluble deterioration products (IDID-like substances) were generated and their weights were measured. At the same time, the shifts of the conductivity in trap water were analyzed from a new perspective, and its relationship with the deterioration products was investigated. At 120°C and 130°C, conductivity rising rates after the inflection point (this set of data represents the rate of organic acid generation in the fuel, and we named “Oxidation rate”) exhibited a strong correlation with the quantity of deterioration products.
Technical Paper

Low Emission Combustion influences Durability of Fuel Injection Pipe Line and Treatment of the Pipe

1987-09-01
871614
In order to reduce particulate and NOx emission from the direct injection diesel engine, most researchers have been expecting the utilization of higher injection pressure and injection rate for improvement of diesel combustion. In the case of pump-line-nozzle system, the injection pipe line is very important with regard to the high injection pressure. Namely, the pipe line must be able to resist not only high pressure but also cavitation erosion. In this paper, the effect of high injection pressure, injection rate and sharp cutting at the end of fuel injection are discussed along with cavitation phenomena on the injection pipe line. And durability tests on the pipe line system under high injection pressure using a test rig are also described. Regarding durability tests, several measures have been taken for the injection pipe. As a result, the authors have found that the best solution for the injection pipe is a composite pipe made with SUS and steel.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Thermal Fatigue Evaluation Method for Cast Iron

2013-04-08
2013-01-0393
We have developed a new test method in which temperature of cavity lip of a piston alone during engine rotation is reproduced, cavity lip strain is measured. As the results of strain measurement using the test method in a condition that simulates of conventional engines, a strain behavior was out-of-phase. And in a condition that simulates of high-load engines in future, strain behavior was clockwise-diamond cycle. It was found from the result of the test method developed that strain increased on the cavity lip. The fatigue life of the cavity lip was evaluated using the strain measured and isothermal fatigue curves which obtained by the strain controlled isothermal fatigue test. The result of engine durability test has revealed that the developed method was valid for thermal fatigue evaluation of the cavity lip.
Technical Paper

Impacts on Engine Oil Performance by the Use of Waste Cooking Oil as Diesel Fuel

2011-08-30
2011-01-2115
Technical impacts on engine oil performance by the use of waste cooking oil as bio-diesel fuel (BDF) are not well understood while the industry has made significant progress in studies on quality specifications and infrastructure. The authors, who consist of a consortium organized by Japan Lubricating Oil Society (JALOS), examined technical effects of waste cooking oil as BDF on engine oil performance such as wear and high temperature corrosion using vehicle fleets and bench tests to identify technical issues of engine oil meeting the use of BDF. The study brings fundamental information about technical impacts of BDF on engine oils.
Technical Paper

Formability of Deep Oil Sump for Heavy-Duty Truck Engines Using Vibration Damping Steel Sheets

1994-03-01
940944
Recently, as one of the effective measures for engine noise reduction, vibration damping steel sheets (VDSS) have been increasingly applied to engine oil sumps. This paper describes the formability of VDSS. Various factors closely related to drawability are considered. This study has been carried out in a production engineering process of manufacturing exceedingly deep, single blank sheet, oil sump for heavy-duty truck diesel engines. Some treatment of the surface of the VDSS was found to be a principal factor influencing deep drawability.
Technical Paper

Effects of Alloying Elements on Wear Resistance of Automobile Cast Iron Materials

2014-04-01
2014-01-1011
Wear resistance is the important characteristics of cast iron materials for automobile components. Because the phenomenon of wear is a highly complicated mechanism involving many factors such as surface conditions, chemical reactions with lubricants, metals, and physics, it has not been fully explained. Therefore, it will be necessary to confirm and explain the wear mechanism to develop effective improvements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural change behavior and effects of alloying elements when the material top surface becomes worn, in order to improve the wear resistance of cylinder liners and other cast iron materials. For this purpose, several types of prototype materials were produced, and the relationship between components and wear resistance was investigated by using a laser microscope for quantitative observation of the degree of pearlite microstructure fineness.
Journal Article

Effect of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel on Fuel Supply System

2011-08-30
2011-01-1950
This paper investigates the effects of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel (FTD) (a completely a paraffinic fuel) on the fuel supply system in automotive applications. In particular, the effects of Gas to Liquid (GTL) (an FTD synthesized from natural gas) on the elastomer components has been investigated by laboratory scale tests and field trials. In the field trials, GTL was supplied to a commercial vehicle operator and the effect of real running conditions was observed. Also, the laboratory scale testing to simulate the actual condition of usage of a commercial vehicle was conducted under stringent conditions, and a correlation with the field trials was investigated. As a result, no negative effects related to GTL were found.
Technical Paper

Development of “Camion” Truck Winner at '97 Dakar Rally

1998-11-16
983065
In the '97 Dakar Rally, Hino FT model, 8,000cc engine truck, won 1st, 2nd and 3rd places by defeating upper class trucks having engine of 19,000cc. The average speed of the '97 Hino model was increased more than 15 km/h over the '96 model by improving the riding comfort and handling stability. Larger diameter tires, and softer parabolic leaf springs with long and inclined axle-locus for reducing road impact, gas charged dampers, suspension rods which control compliance-steer-motion and wind-up motion of unsprung masses were adopted for the '97 model.
Technical Paper

Development of an Intelligent Truck in ASV-2 Project in Japan

2001-10-01
2001-01-3404
The Advanced Safety Vehicle (ASV) project phase 2 was organized by the Japanese ministry of lands, infrastructures and transport in 1996 as a five year project. Hino Motors participated in the project and developed an intelligent truck “HINO ASV-2”. HINO ASV-2 was equipped with safety systems for accident prevention and accident avoidance, which were most effective in reducing accidents in freight transport. These intelligent systems aimed to reduce driving fatigue, minimize the chance of driver’s mistake, and prevent the occurrence of accidents. Human-machine interface, and front underrun protection device were also studied. Through the development of the ASV systems, the feasibility and basic functions of these systems were studied. Further development is necessary to implement the ASV systems in production vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Multigrade Engine Oil for Improved Wear Resistance in Heavy Vehicle Diesel Engines-PART II: Development of a 10W-30 Oil for Diesel Engine Use

1985-10-01
852135
The purpose of the investigation presented here was to develop a high quality SAE 10W-30 engine lubricating oil to meet the heavy duty operating conditions of trucks. The operation of their engines is predicted to become more severe in future because of the trend toward higher power output, nore severe regulation of exhaust emissions and noise as well as the increasing demand for better fuel economy. To meet these demands, an improvement of the wear resistance of engine lubricating oil was considered to be the most important aspect for the development of high performance diesel engines in the future. The engine test developed was able to evaluate various experimental oils by observing wear resistance of the valve train which is considered to be one of the most severe tri-bological conditions. The best oils were determined by optimum selection of the amount and type of detergent, ashless dispersant and zinc dithiophosphate.
Technical Paper

Development of Materials for Gear with Superior Impact Wear Resistance

2015-04-14
2015-01-0517
The friction pattern on the chamfers of sleeves and dog gears is a combination of peeling and adhesive wear caused by the formation and propagation of fine cracks. The effect of additional elements on wear were checked by making a test apparatus capable of performing evaluations on test pieces equivalent to those using actual parts. The results showed that the addition of B, Ti-Nb helped improve wear resistance. This is attributed to enhanced toughness and reduced peeling due to the formation of a texture. A 45% reduction in wear was achieved in actual parts tests on steel with added B, Ti-Nb.
Technical Paper

An Observation of Combustion Phenomenon on Heat Insulated Turbo-Charged and Inter-Cooled D.I. Diesel Engines

1986-09-01
861187
A current unmodified and modified engines with different amounts of thermal insulation have been used to generate data from which changes in bsfc, cooling loss, emissions, exhaust loss were determined. Since legislative requirement exists for allowable emission of NOx, fuel injection timing and other controllable factors were adjusted to maintain constant NOx emission except a test of influence on NOx emission according to the rate of heat insulation (adiabaticity). The effect of higher combustion temperature on the combustion phenomena is discussed.
Technical Paper

Advanced Boost-up in Hino EP100-II Turbocharged and Charge-Cooled Diesel Engine

1987-02-01
870298
Hino Motors, Ltd. has added to its line of charge-cooled engines for heavy duty trucks a higher power version which is called EP100-II. To meet the recent customers' demands for rapid transportation with better fuel economy, this engine was developed on the uprating program for the original EP100 which was introduced in 1981 as the first Japanese turbo-charged and air to air chrge-cooled engine. EP100-II has the same displacement as the original EP100, 8.8 liters, and is an in-line six cylinder engine with 228kW (310PS)/2,100rpm (JIS) output that provides the world's utmost level specific output of 25.8 kW (35.1PS)/ liter. Also this engine achieved a maximum BMEP of 16.8 bar/1,300 rpm and best BSFC of 199 gr/kWh at 1,500 rpm. This paper describes the advanced technology for increasing horsepower and improving fuel consumption such as the so-called multi harmonized inertia charging system, the electronically controlled waste gate valve of turbocharger.
Technical Paper

A Study on Reducing Cooling loss in a Partially Insulated Piston for Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1276
To improve the thermal efficiency of an engine, it is particularly important to reduce the cooling loss from the combustion gas to the combustion chamber wall, which constitutes a major proportion of the total loss [1]. Previous studies addressing cooling loss reduction attempted to use ceramic in place of the conventional aluminum or iron alloys, but this led to a reduction in the volumetric efficiency and increased smoke emissions. This was caused by the ceramics having both a low thermal conductivity and high heat capacity, relative to aluminum and iron. These characteristics cause the piston wall temperature, which rises during combustion, to remain high during the intake stroke, thus increasing the intake temperature and reducing the volumetric efficiency. This increases the smoke emissions [2].
Technical Paper

A Study on Cam Wear Mechanism with a Newly Developed Friction Measurement Apparatus

1998-10-19
982663
The requirements for emission control, lower fuel consumption and higher engine output have changed the engine valve train system to 4-valve/cylinder and higher cam lift designs, and these changes make the cam/tappet lubrication conditions more severe than before. Under such a working condition, there is a high possibility that cam/tappet surface damages such as scuffing, pitting and wear may occur. Among the damages, the wear of cam/tappet is the most difficult to predict since the wear mechanism still remains unclear. To understand the lubrication condition and therefore, the wear mechanism at the cam/tappet contact, friction was measured with a newly developed apparatus. Measurement results showed that the lubrication condition between cam and tappet is predominantly in the mixed and boundary lubrication conditions.
Journal Article

A Study of Reliability Evaluation of Main Bearings for Multicylinder Diesel Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0494
In recent years, although experiment technologies on real engines and simulation technologies has been improved rapidly, the tribology contributing factors have not been quantitatively well evaluated to reveal critical lubrication failure mechanisms. In this study the oil film thickness of the main bearings in multicylinder diesel engines was measured, and the data was analyzed using response surface methodology, which is a statistical analysis methods used to quantitatively derive the factors affecting oil film thickness and the extent of their contribution. We found that the factor with the strongest effect on minimum oil film thickness is oil pressure. Lastly, as a verification test, bearing wear on the main bearings was compared under various oil pressure conditions. Clear differences in bearing wear were identified.
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