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Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Internal Combustion Engine using OpenFOAM®

We developed the numerical simulation tool by using OpenFOAM® and in-house simulation codes for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine in order to carry out the precise investigation of the throughout process from the internal nozzle flow to the fuel/air mixture in engines. For the piston/valve motions, a mapping approach is employed and implemented in this study. In the meantime, the spray atomization including the liquid-columnbreakup region and the secondary-breakup region are simulated by combining the different numerical approaches applied to each region. By connecting the result of liquid-column-breakup simulation to the secondary-breakup simulation, the regions which have different physical phenomena with different length scales are seamlessly jointed; i.e., the velocity and position of droplets predicted by the liquid-column-breakup simulation is used in the secondary breakup simulation so that the initial velocity and position of droplets are transferred.
Technical Paper

Method for Determining Thermal Resistances in Coupled Simulator: For Electric Valve Timing Control System

We developed a thermal calculation 1D simulator for an electric valve timing control system (VTC). A VTC can optimize the open and close timing of the intake and exhaust valves depending on the driving situation. Since a conventional VTC is driven hydraulically, the challenges are response speed and operation limit at low temperature. Our company has been developing an electric VTC for quick response and expansion of operating conditions. Currently, it is necessary to optimize the motor and reduction gear design to balance quicker response with downsizing. Therefore, a coupled simulator that can calculate electricity, mechanics, control, and thermo characteristics is required. In 1D simulation, a thermal network method is commonly used for thermal calculation. However, an electric VTC is attached to the end of a camshaft; therefore, determining thermal resistances is difficult. We propose a method of determining thermal resistances, using both theoretical and experimental approaches.
Technical Paper

Highly Heat-Resistant Plastic Optical Fibers

Plastic optical fiber has been widely used in the field of short distance optical transmission. However heat resistance of commercial plastic fiber is so low that its applications are limited. Then, a plastic fiber of thermosetting acrylate resin core has been developed. This fiber shows 80%/m retention of light transmittance at 1m after 1,000 hours at 150°C. It resists heat deformation and withstands up to 200 °C for a short time period. Tests show this fiber has desirable mechanical characteristics, along with good environmental resistance. In addition, a fiber which has a silicon resin as a core material was developed which has even better heat resistance.
Technical Paper

Fractal Dimension Growth Model for SI Engine Combustion

Time-resolved continuous images of wrinkling flame front cross-sections were acquired by a laser-light sheet technique in an optically accessible spark ignition engine. The test engine was operated at various engine speeds and compression ratios. The fractal dimension of the curve, D2, was measured in a time series for each cycle. Analysis of the data shows that as the flame propagates the fractal dimension, D2, is close to unity a short time after spark ignition and then increases. Examination of the relationship between the growth rate of the fractal dimension, ΔD2/Δt, and D2 reveals that the higher D2 is, the lower ΔD2/Δt becomes. An Empirical equation for ΔD2/Δt was derived as a function of the ratio of the turbulence intensity to the laminar burning velocity and pressure. This model was tested in an SI engine combustion simulation, and results compared favorably with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Engine Application of a Battery Voltage-Driven DI Fuel Injection System

Every fuel injection system for DI gasoline engines has a DC-DC converter to provide high, stabile voltage for opening the injector valve more quickly. A current control circuit for holding the valve open is also needed, as well as a large-capacity capacitor for pilot injection. Since these components occupy considerable space, an injector drive unit separate from the ECU must be used. Thus, there has been a need for a fuel injection system that can inject a small volume of fuel without requiring high voltage. To meet that need, we have developed a dual coil injector and an opening coil current control system. An investigation was also made of all the factors related to the dynamic range of the injector, including static flow rate, fuel pressure, battery voltage and harness resistance. Both efforts have led to the adoption of a battery voltage-driven fuel injector.
Technical Paper

Compressible Turbulent Flow Analysis on Variable Nozzle Vane and Spacer in Turbocharger Turbine

In order to develop a high-performance turbocharger turbine, compressible turbulent flow analysis is applied to the complicated flow around the nozzle vanes and the spacers. The flow analysis indicates that a combination of a curved nozzle vane and a round spacer causes a low-velocity region at the inner side of the nozzle vane even when the turbine efficiency is highest. As a result of the loss analysis, a teardrop-shaped spacer, which suppresses the low-velocity region and flow separation, is developed, and shown to improve the turbine efficiency. The easiness of the nozzle vane control is also important as well as the high efficiency. The fluid force on the nozzle vane depends on the flow pattern; therefore, the torque about the pivot of the nozzle vane is also numerically calculated.