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Technical Paper

Wide-Range Air-Fuel Ratio Sensor, 1989

The detection range of an air-fuel ratio sensor is expanded in the rich A/F region. Using a simulation technique, the limiting cause of the detection range in the rich A/F region is identified as insufficient combustion rates of CO and H2 with O2 on the electrode, which prevent realization of a limited diffusion state which is necessary to detect the air-fuel ratio. Applying an improved diffusion layer to decrease the diffusion rates and an improved electrode to increase the combustion rates, it is demonstrated that the detection limit can be expanded to λ=0.6 while that of a conventional sensor is λ=0.8.
Technical Paper

Wide-Range Air-Fuel Ratio Sensor, 1986

The oxygen ion conductive solid electrolyte cell served as a device for measuring the combustibles content and the oxygen content of an exhaust gas. The cell is comprised of a tubular electrolyte, two opposed electrodes and a porous diffusion layer located on the outer electrode surface. The sensor is employed to measure both rich and lean air fuel ratio through the use of an electronic circuit pumping the oxygen ions to achieve a constant voltage between the electrodes. The wide range detecting capability makes it particularly attractive for air fuel ratio control applications associated with the internal combustion engine. The result of the performance tests are as follows, Detecting range (air excess ratio λ) : 0.8 - “∞ Step response time constant (63%) : 200ms Warm up time. - less than 80 sec at 20°C We found in the durability test concerned with the heat cycle and contamination that if initial aging treatment is applied the output variation ratio (. λ/λ) is limited with in : 5%.
Technical Paper

Weathering of Black Plastics for Automotive Exteriors

Ten mold-in-color black polymers were evaluated for exterior weathering in an attempt to improve the specifications for exterior mold-in-color plastics to meet five year durability for a 95th percentile sunbelt customer. Four different weathering methods were utilized including Arizona exposure, Florida exposure, and Xenon arc exposures per the GMNA and the GM Europe methods. Colorfastness, gloss retention and other material property changes due to weathering were measured and analyzed against two GM durability standards. For the appearance attributes, correlations between actual exposure and accelerated exposure were attempted. Test results before and after polishing were also analyzed. Finally, in addition to comparing the performance of the ten polymers, the four weathering methods are compared and discussed with recommendations for the preferred testing regimen.
Journal Article

Virtual Engine System Prototyping with High-Resolution FFT for Digital Knock Detection Using CPU Model-Based Hardware/Software Co-simulation

We have developed a full virtual engine system prototyping platform with 4-cylinder engine plant model, SH-2A CPU hardware model, and object code level software including OSEK OS. The virtual engine system prototyping platform can run simulation of an engine control system and digital knock detection system including 64-pt FFT computations that provide required high-resolution DSP capability for detection and control. To help the system design, debugging, and evaluation, the virtual system prototyping consists of behavior analyzer which can provide the visualization of useful CPU internal information for control algorithm tuning, RTOS optimization, and CPU architecture development. Thus the co-simulation enables time and cost saving at validation stage as validation can be performed at the design stage before production of actual components.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Implementation of a GM RWD Six-Speed Integrated-Friction-Launch Automatic Transmission

Friction Launch transmissions use a wet multi-plate clutch to replace the torque converter in an automatic transmission. By using one of the range clutches inside the transmission, the benefits of this integrated friction launch technology (IFL), such as reduction in mass, packaging, and cost, can be enhanced. The availability of new automatic transmissions with higher number of speeds and wider ratio spreads makes IFL technology more viable than ever before. The new GM Rear-Wheel-Drive (RWD) six-speed transmission has paved the way for a full implementation of integrated friction launch technology in a GM full size Sport-Utility Vehicle (SUV). This project focuses on both hardware and control issues with the friction launch clutch. The hardware issues include designing the clutch for launch energy, cooling, and durability.
Technical Paper

Transient Vibration Simulation of Motor Gearbox Assembly Driven by a PWM Inverter

Predicting the vibration of a motor gearbox assembly driven by a PWM inverter in the early stages of development is demanding because the assembly is one of the dominant noise sources of electric vehicles (EVs). In this paper, we propose a simulation model that can predict the transient vibration excited by gear meshing, reaction force from the mount, and electromagnetic forces including the carrier frequency component of the inverter up to 10 kHz. By utilizing the techniques of structural model reduction and state space modeling, the proposed model can predict the vibration of assembly in the operating condition with a system level EV simulator. A verification test was conducted to compare the simulation results with the running test results of the EV.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Racetrack / High Energy Driving on Brake Caliper Performance

It is well understood that conditions encountered during racetrack driving are amongst the most severe to which vehicle braking systems can be subjected. High braking pressure is combined with enormous energy input and high temperatures for multiple braking events. Brake fade, degradation of brake pedal feel, and brake lining taper/overall wear are common results of racetrack usage. This paper focuses on how racetrack and high energy driving-type conditioning affects the performance of the brake caliper - in particular, its ability to maintain an even pressure distribution at all of its interfaces (pad to rotor, piston to pad backing plate, and housing to pad backing plate).
Technical Paper

The Design Concept of the Duramax 6600 Diesel Engine

A new Diesel engine, called the Duramax 6600 (Fig.1), has been designed by Isuzu Motors (Isuzu) for an upcoming full-size General Motors (GM) pickup truck. It incorporates the latest Diesel technology in order to improve on the inherent strengths of a Diesel engine, such as fuel economy, torque and reliability, while also producing higher output, smoother driveability, and lower noise. The Duramax 6600 is an entirely new 90° V8 direct injection (DI) intercooled engine with a water-cooled turbocharger. Its fuel injection system employs a fully electronically controlled common rail system that has high-pressure injection capabilities. Isuzu had the design responsibility of the base engine, while GM Truck Group was responsible for designing the installation and packaging within the vehicle. Engine validation relied on Isuzu's proven validation process, in addition to GM Powertrain's expertise in engine validation.
Journal Article

Tensile Deformation and Fracture of TRIP590 Steel from Digital Image Correlation

Quasi-static tensile properties of TRIP590 steels from three different manufacturers were investigated using digital image correlation (DIC). The focus was on the post-uniform elongation behavior which can be very different for steels of the same grade owing to different manufacturing processes. Miniature tensile specimens, cut at 0°, 45°, and 90° relative to the rolling direction, were strained to failure in an instrumented tensile stage. True stress-true strain curves were computed from digital strain gages superimposed on digital images captured from one gage section surface during tensile deformation. Microstructural phases in undeformed and fracture specimens were identified with optical microscopy using the color tint etching process. Fracture surface analyses conducted with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to investigate microvoids and inclusions in all materials.
Technical Paper

Study on Mixture Formation and Ignition Process in Spark Ignition Engine Using Optical Combustion Sensor

Mixture formation and the ignition process in 4 cycle 4 cylinder spark ignition engines were investigated, using an optical combustion sensor that combines fiber optics with a conventional spark plug. The sensor consists of a 1-mm diameter quartz glass optical fiber cable inserted through the center of a spark plug. The tip of the fiber is machined into a convex shape to provide a 120-degree view of the combustion chamber interior. Light emitted by the spark discharge between spark electrodes and the combustion flames in the cylinder is transmitted by the optical cable to an opto-electric transducer. As a result, the ignition and combustion process which depends on the mixture formation can be easily monitored without installing transparent pistons and cylinders. This sensor can give more accurate information on mixture formation in the cylinders.
Technical Paper

Study of Friction Optimization Potential for Lubrication Circuits of Light-Duty Diesel Engines

Over the last two decades, engine research has been mainly focused on reducing fuel consumption in view of compliance with stringent homologation targets and customer expectations. As it is well known, the objective of overall engine efficiency optimization can be achieved only through the improvement of each element of the efficiency chain, of which mechanical constitutes one of the two key pillars (together with thermodynamics). In this framework, the friction reduction for each mechanical subsystems has been one of the most important topics of modern Diesel engine development. In particular, the present paper analyzes the lubrication circuit potential as contributor to the mechanical efficiency improvement, by investigating the synergistic impact of oil circuit design, oil viscosity characteristics (including new ultra-low formulations) and thermal management. For this purpose, a combination of theoretical and experimental tools were used.
Technical Paper

Structural and Cost Evaluation of Snap Fits used in Connections of Vehicle Door Trim Panel Components with FEA Assist

Among the most important finishing structures of a vehicle interior, the door trim panels reduce external noises, present ergonomic concepts generating comfort, improve appearance, and provide objects storage, knobs and buttons. The panels usually composed of several molded parts (trim, armrest, etc.) connected to each other also have structural function as support closing loads, protect occupants of door internal mechanisms, energy absorption in side impacts and resist misuse conditions. Therefore, these trims usually made of polymeric materials must to present good structural integrity, demanding appropriate connections between components to have good load distribution. The connections between parts can be made using bolts, interference fits (like self-locking), welding tubular plastic towers (heat stakes), or clips (such as snap fits) and last two are the most common due to be cheap and with good retention.
Technical Paper

Stability Analysis of Engine Revolution by a Chassis and Powertrain Dynamics Simulator

This paper discusses causes and the mechanism of surging, back and forth chassis oscillation which occurs in cars with electronically controlled multi-point gasoline injection systems. This occurs during sharp acceleration, engine braking deceleration, and low speed coasting, at rather low ratio gear positions. We conclude that the mechanism of surging is parametric coupled oscillation. This conclusion is based on experimental data analysts and parameter sensitivity analysis using a chassis and engine dynamics simulator. The elements of parametric coupled oscillation are: a forcing system composed of engine control systems, engine and power transmission systems; a resonance system composed of axle and frame-body translation systems; a feedback system composed of axle translation systems and wheel revolution systems.
Technical Paper

Spray Atomization Study on Multi-Hole Nozzle for Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

We investigated the size of fuel spray droplets from nozzles for direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines. Our findings showed that the droplet size can be predicted by referencing the geometry of the nozzle. In a DIG engine, which is used as part of a system to reduce fuel consumption, the injector nozzle causes the fuel to spray directly into the combustion chamber. It is important that this fuel spray avoid adhesion to the chamber wall, so multi-hole injection nozzles are used to obtain spray shape adaptability. It is also important that spray droplets be finely atomized to achieve fast vaporization. We have developed a method to predict the atomization level of nozzles for fine atomization nozzle design. The multi-hole nozzle used in a typical DIG injector has a thin fuel passage upstream of the orifice hole. This thin passage affects the droplet size, and predicting the droplet size is quite difficult if using only the orifice diameter.
Technical Paper

Sound Analysis Method for Warble Noise in Electric Actuators

Multiple automotive applications exist for small electric motors that are activated by vehicle occupants for various functions such as window lifts and seat adjusters. For such a motor to be described as high quality, not only should the sound it produces be low in amplitude, but it also needs to be free from pulsations and variations that might occur during its (otherwise) steady-state operation. If a motor’s sound contains pulsations or variations between 2 and 8 cycles per second, the variation is described as warble. To establish performance targets for warble noise at both the vehicle and component level a way to measure and quantify the warble noise must be established. Building on existing sound quality metrics such as loudness and pitch variation, a method is established by which processed sound data is put through a secondary operation of Fourier analysis.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Diesel Engines Cold-Start

Diesel engine cold-start problems include long cranking periods, hesitation and white smoke emissions. A better understanding of these problems is essential to improve diesel engine cold-start. In this study computer simulation model is developed for the steady state and transient cold starting processes in a single-cylinder naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine. The model is verified experimentally and utilized to determine the key parameters that affect the cranking period and combustion instability after the engine starts. The behavior of the fuel spray before and after it impinges on the combustion chamber walls was analyzed in each cycle during the cold-start operation. The analysis indicated that the accumulated fuel in combustion chamber has a major impact on engine cold starting through increasing engine compression pressure and temperature and increasing fuel vapor concentration in the combustion chamber during the ignition delay period.
Technical Paper

Simulating Complex Automotive Assembly Tasks using the HUMOSIM Framework

Efficient methods for simulating operators performing part handling tasks in manufacturing plants are needed. The simulation of part handling motions is an important step towards the implementation of virtual manufacturing for the purpose of improving worker productivity and reducing injuries in the workplace. However, industrial assembly tasks are often complex and involve multiple interactions between workers and their environment. The purpose of this paper is to present a series of industrial simulations using the Human Motion Simulation Framework developed at the University of Michigan. Three automotive assembly operations spanning scenarios, such as small and large parts, tool use, walking, re-grasping, reaching inside a vehicle, etc. were selected.
Technical Paper

Simplified Approach for Formability Simulation of Automotive Body Structures

This paper presents a simplified approach for formability simulation of automotive body structural sections in the early design stage of vehicle development process. Plane strain approach is investigated for its applicability and accuracy by comparing the analytical results with the measured results of automotive body side panel. The plane strain approach was tried based on the fact that for a certain section location of a stamped panel, the minor strains are relatively small and negligible compared to the major strains. The state of plane strain can be induced mainly through symmetry and applied boundary conditions. This approach is both cost effective and time saving for analyzing sheet metal formability in early vehicle development stage, since only few sections of the entire panel need be analyzed.
Journal Article

Scuffing Test Rig for Piston Wrist Pin and Pin Bore

In practice, the piston wrist pin is either fixed to the connecting rod or floats between the connecting rod and the piston. The tribological behavior of fixed wrist pins have been studied by several researchers, however there have been few studies done on the floating wrist pin. A new bench rig has been designed and constructed to investigate the tribological behavior between floating pins and pin bore bearings. The experiments were run using both fixed pins and floating pins under the same working conditions. It was found that for fixed pins there was severe damage on the pin bore in a very short time (5 minutes) and material transfer occurs between the wrist pin and pin bore; however, for the floating pin, even after a long testing time (60 minutes) there was minimal surface damage on either the pin bore or wrist pin.
Technical Paper

Recycling Study of Post-Consumer Radiator End Caps

In June 1997, the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP) and the American Plastics Council (APC) asked MBA Polymers to conduct a study to determine the technical and economic feasibility of recovering metals and plastics from end-of-life radiator end caps (RECs). The VRP worked with the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI) to obtain samples of RECs from two metal recycling companies, SimsMetal America and Aaron Metals. MBA performed its standard Recyclability Assessment on the materials, which included a detailed density and material characterization study and an actual processing study using its pilot processing line. It was found that the polyamide from RECs could be recovered in reasonably high yield and purity using tight density separations. The recycling of the REC samples used for this study generated about 40% nonferrous metal, 19% mixed ferrous and nonferrous metal and about 20% polyamide flakes.